On October 31, 1918, a revolution broke out in Hungary with the object of establishing a Republic and making the country independent of Austria. On November 13 King Charles issued a letter of abdication, and on November 16, 1913, Hungary was proclaimed an independent Republic (Hungarian People’s Republic), of which Count Michael Karolyi became Provisional President. The two Houses of the Legialature were abolished, and their place taken by a Provisional National Assembly pledged to introduce laws providing for universal suffrage and the secret ballot, guaranteeing freedom of the press and of assembly, introducing the jury system in the administration of justice, and finally distributing the land among the peasantry.
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