Ottoman Empire
  • J. Scott Keltie
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Mohammed V., born November 3, 1844 (21 Shual 1260), son of Sultan Abdul Medjid; succeeded to the throne on the deposition of his elder brother, Sultan Abdul Hamid II., April 27, 1909.


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Statistical and other Books of Reference

1. Official Publications

  1. Salnamé. Official Almanac for the Turkish Empire. Constantinople.Google Scholar
  2. Report of the Health Office, published annually.Google Scholar
  3. Report of the Council of Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt. Annual.Google Scholar
  4. Constitution Ottomane promulguée le 7 Zilhidjé (11/23 décembre, 1876). Constantinople, 1891.Google Scholar
  5. Annual Report on the Ottoman Public Debt. London.Google Scholar
  6. Treaty between Great Britain, Germany, Austria, France, Italy, Russia, and Turkey, for the settlement of affairs in the East. Signed at Berlin, July 13, 1878. Fol. London, 1878.Google Scholar
  7. Diplomatic and Consular Reports from Turkey. Annual, London.Google Scholar
  8. Hertslet (Sir E.), Foreign Office List. Published annually. London.Google Scholar
  9. Ottoman Land Code. Tr. by F. Ongley, revised by H. E. Miller. London, 1892.Google Scholar
  10. Correspondence and Further Correspondence respecting the Introduction of Reforms in the Armenian Provinces of Asiatic Turkey. London, 1896–97.Google Scholar
  11. Correspondence respecting the condition of the population of Asiatic Turkey, 1888–89 C-5,723 fol. London, 1889.—Correspondence respecting the Affairs of South-Eastern Europe, 1903–07. London.Google Scholar
  12. Reports on the Trade, &c., of Trebizond, Tripoli, Palestine, Aleppo, Smyrna, Damascus, Jeddah, Beyrout, Baghdad, and Bussorah, in Foreign Office Reports, Annual Series. [Besides trade statistics these frequently contain information concerning population and political and social conditions.] London.Google Scholar

2. Non-Official Publications. Turkey in Europe

  1. Annual Report of the British Chamber of Commerce, Constantinople.Google Scholar
  2. Abbott (G. F.), Tale of a Tour in Macedonia London, 1903.Google Scholar
  3. Albrecht (W.), Grundriss des Osmanischen Staatsrechtes. Berlin, 1905.Google Scholar
  4. Baedeker’s Konstantinopel und Kleinasien. Leipzig, 1905.Google Scholar
  5. Bartlett (Sir E. A.), The Battlefields of Thessaly. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  6. Bérard (V.), La Macédoine.—La Politique du Sultan.—La Turquie et l’Hellénisme, Paris, 1897.—Le Sultan, l’Islam, et les Puissances. Paris, 1907.Google Scholar
  7. Bernard (M.), Turquie d’Europe et Turquie d’Asie. Paris, 1899.Google Scholar
  8. Booth (J.L.C.), Trouble in the Balkans. London, 1905.Google Scholar
  9. Brailsford (H. N.), Macedonia: Its Races and their Future. London, 1906.Google Scholar
  10. Brancoff (D, M.), La Macédoine et sa Population Chrétienne. Paris, 1905.Google Scholar
  11. Buxton (C. R.), Turkey in Revolution. London, 1909.Google Scholar
  12. Comyn-Platt (T.), The Turk in the Balkans. London, 1906.Google Scholar
  13. Greasy (Sir Edward Shepherd), History of the Ottoman Turks. [Founded on Von Hammer, but continued to 1876.] New ed. London, 1882.Google Scholar
  14. Curtis (W. E.), The Turk and his Lost Provinces. London, 1903.Google Scholar
  15. Cvijic (J.), Remarks on the Ethnology of the Macedonian Slavs. [Eng. Trans.] London. 1906.Google Scholar
  16. Davey (R.), The Sultan and his Subjects. 2nd ed. London, 1907.Google Scholar
  17. Dory (G.), Abdul Hamid Intime. Paris, 1901.Google Scholar
  18. Durham (Mrs.), The Burden of the Balkans. London, 1905.Google Scholar
  19. Dwight (H. O.), Constantinople and its Problems. London, 1901.Google Scholar
  20. Fazy (E.), Les Turcs d’Aujour d’hui. Paris, 1898.Google Scholar
  21. Fraser (J. F), Pictures from the Balkans. London, 1906.Google Scholar
  22. Freeman (Edward A.), The Ottoman Power in Europe: its Nature, its Growth, and its Decline. London, 1877. History and Conquests of the Saracens. 3rd ed. London, 1877.Google Scholar
  23. Halil Halid, The Diary of a Turk. London, 1903.Google Scholar
  24. Hammer-Purgstall (J. von), Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches, &c. 1st ed. 10 vols. Pesth, 1827–35. 2nd ed. (improved), 4 vols. Pesth, 1834–36.Google Scholar
  25. Hecquard (C.), La Turquie sous Abdul Hamid II. Paris, 1901.Google Scholar
  26. Herbert (F. W. von), By-Paths in the Balkans. London, 1906.Google Scholar
  27. Hertslet (Sir E.), Treaties and Tariffs between Great Britain and Turkey.Google Scholar
  28. Holland (Thomas Erskine), The European Concert in the Eastern Question, a Collection of Treaties, &c. Oxford, 1897.Google Scholar
  29. Hutton (W. H.), Constantinople: the Story of the Old Capital of the Empire. London, 1900.Google Scholar
  30. Journalde la Chambre de Commerce de Constantinople. Constantinople. Weekly.Google Scholar
  31. Kinglake (Alexander William), The Invasion of the Crimea. Edinburgh and London, 1863–75.Google Scholar
  32. Le Jean (Guillaume), Ethnographie de la Turquie d’Europe. [In French and German.]Google Scholar
  33. Lyde (L.W.) and Mockler-Ferryman (A. F.), A Military Geography of the Balkan Peninsula. London, 1905.Google Scholar
  34. Macmillan’s Guide to Greece, the Archipelago, Constantinople, the Coasts of Asia Minor, Crete, and Cyprus, &c. 4th ed. London, 1908.Google Scholar
  35. Medjellé, or Ottoman Civil Law, Nicosia, 1895.Google Scholar
  36. Meyers Reisebücher: Türkei, Rumänien, Serbien, Bulgarien. Gte Auflage. Leipzig and Wien, 1902.Google Scholar
  37. Midhat (Ali Haydar), Life of Midhat Pasha. London, 1903.Google Scholar
  38. Miller (W.), Travels and Politics in the Near East. London, 1898.Google Scholar
  39. Monroe (W. S.), Turkey and the Turks. Boston, Mass., 1907.Google Scholar
  40. Moore (F.), The Balkan Trail. London, 1906.Google Scholar
  41. Morawitz (C.), Les Finances de Turquie. Paris, 1902.Google Scholar
  42. Nicolaídès (C.), La Macédoine. Berlin, 1899.Google Scholar
  43. Philippson (A.), Thessalien und Epirus. Berlin, 1897.Google Scholar
  44. Poole (Stanley Lane-), The People of Turkey: Twenty Years’Residence among Bulgarians, Greeks, Albanians, Turks, and Armenians. By a Consul’s Daughter. vols. London, 1878.Google Scholar
  45. Poole (Stanley Lane-), Turkey. In Story of the Nations Series. London, 1889.Google Scholar
  46. Reelus (Elisée), Géographie Universelle. Vol. I. Paris, 1876.Google Scholar
  47. Salmoné (H. A.), The Fall and Resurrection of Turkey. London, 1896.Google Scholar
  48. Schopoff (A.), Les Réformes et la Protection des Chrétiens en Turquie, 1673–1904. Paris, 1904.Google Scholar
  49. Turkey in Europe. By Odysseus. London, 1900.Google Scholar
  50. Ubicini (A.), La Constitution ottomane du 7 zilhidjé 1293 (Decembre 23, 1876) expliquée et annotée. Paris, 1877.Google Scholar
  51. Verney (N.) et Dambmann (G.) Les Puissances étrangères dans le Levant, &e. Paris, 1900.Google Scholar
  52. Villari (L.) (Editor), The Balkan Question. London, 1905.Google Scholar
  53. Voënov (I. F.), La Question Macédonienne et les Réformes en Turquie. Paris, 1905.Google Scholar
  54. Wyon (R.), The Balkans from Within. London, 1904.Google Scholar
  55. Zinkeisen (J. W.), Geschichte des Osmanischen Reichs in Europa. 7 vols. Hamburg and Gotha, 1840–63.Google Scholar

Turkey in Asia

  1. Azoury (N.), Le Reveil de la Nation Arabe dans l’Asie Turque. Paris, 1905.Google Scholar
  2. Baedeker’s Palestine and Syria with the chief routes through Mesopotamia and Babylonia. 4th ed. Leipzig, 1906. [See also Turkey in Europe.]Google Scholar
  3. Bambus (W.), Palästina, Land und Leute. Leipzig, 1898.Google Scholar
  4. Bigham (C.), A Ride through Western Asia. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  5. Bishop (J. L.), Journeys in Kurdistan. 2 vols. London, 1891.Google Scholar
  6. Brünnow (R.E.), and Domaszewski (A. von), Die Provincia Arabia. S vols. 1904–05, in progress.Google Scholar
  7. Bryce (James), Trans-Caucasia and Ararat. 4th ed. London, 1896.Google Scholar
  8. Burton (Sir R. F.) and Drake (C. F. T.), Unexplored Syria. 2 vols. London, 1872.Google Scholar
  9. Burton (Sir R. F.), Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to El Medineh and Mecca. 2 vols. London, 1857.Google Scholar
  10. Chauvin (V.), Bibliographie des Ouvrages arabes ou relatifs aux Arabes (1810–85). Liège, 1892.Google Scholar
  11. Cook’s Tourist’s Handbook for Palestine and Syria. London, 1906.Google Scholar
  12. Cooke (A. W.), Palestine in Geography and History. 2 vols. London, 1901.Google Scholar
  13. Cowper (H. S), Through Turkish Arabia. London, 1894.—The Hill of the Graces. [In Tripoli.] London, 1897.Google Scholar
  14. Cuinet (Vital), La Turquie d’Asie. Géographie administrative, &e. 4vols. Paris, 1891–8.Google Scholar
  15. The index to the work. Paris, 1900.—Syrie, Liban, et Palestine. Paris, 1901.Google Scholar
  16. Curtiss (S. I.), Primitive Semitic Religion To-Day (Researches, &c, in Syria, Palestine and the Sinaitic Peninsula). London, 1902.Google Scholar
  17. Fitzner (R.), Aus Kleinasien und Syrien. Vol. I. Rostock, 1904.Google Scholar
  18. Goodrich-Freer (Miss A.), In a Syrian Saddle. London, 1905.Google Scholar
  19. Gregor (N. Ter), History of Armenia, London, 1897.Google Scholar
  20. Hadji Khan and Sparroy (W.), With the Pilgrims to Mecca. London, 1905.Google Scholar
  21. Harris (J. R. and H. B.), Letters from the Scenes of the Recent Massacres in Armenia. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  22. Hepworth (G. H.), Through Armenia on Horseback. London, 1898.Google Scholar
  23. Hirsch (L.), Reisen in Süd-Arabien, Mahra-Land, und Hadramüt. Leiden, 1897.Google Scholar
  24. Hodgetts (E. A. B.), Round about Armenia. London, 1896.Google Scholar
  25. Hogarth (D. G.), A Wandering Scholar in the Levant. 2nd ed. London, 1897.—The Penetration of Arabia. London, 1904.Google Scholar
  26. Isaverdentz (H.), Histoire de l’Arménie. Fol. Venice, 1888.Google Scholar
  27. Lees (G.R.), Village Life in Palestine. London, 1905.Google Scholar
  28. Lepsius (J.), Armenia and Europe: An Indictment. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  29. Libbey (W.), and Hoskins (F.E.), The Jovdan Valley and Petra. New York, 1906Google Scholar
  30. Lynch (H. F. B.), Armenia: Travels and Studies. 2 vols. London, 1901.Google Scholar
  31. Macdonald (A.), The Land of Ararat. London, 1893.Google Scholar
  32. Macmillan’s Guides: Guide to Palestine and Syria. 4th ed. London, 1908.—Greece, the Archipelago, Constantinople, the Coasts of Asia Minor, Crete, and Cyprus, &c. 4th ed. London, 1908.Google Scholar
  33. Minutelli (F.), La Tripolitania. Turin 1902.Google Scholar
  34. Murray’s Handbooks for Traveliers: Asia Minor. London, 1905.Google Scholar
  35. Musil (A.), Arabia Petraea. I. Moab. Wien, 1907.Google Scholar
  36. Oberhummer (R.) und Zimmerer (H.), Durch Syrien und Kleinasien. Leipzig, 1898.Google Scholar
  37. Oppenheim (M. von), Vom Mittelmeer zum persischen Golfe durch den Hauran, &c. 2 vols. Berlin, 1899–1900.Google Scholar
  38. Palgrave (W. G.), Personal Narrative of a year’s Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia, 1862–63. New ed. London, 1908.Google Scholar
  39. Percy (Earl), The Highlands of Asiatic Turkey. London, 1901Google Scholar
  40. Pertius (Comte de), Le Désert de Syrie. Paris, 1896.Google Scholar
  41. Ramsay (W. M.), The Cities and Bishopricks of Phrygia. 2 vols. Oxford, 1897.—Historical Geography of Asia Minor. London, 1890.—Impressions of Turkey during Twelve Years’ Wanderings. London, 1897.—Also, Every-day Life in Turkey, by Mrs. Ramsay. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  42. Reclus (Elisée),Nouvelle Géographie Universelle. Vols. IX and XL 8. Paris,1884 and 1886.Google Scholar
  43. Ronaldshay (Earl of), On the Outskirts of Empire in Asia. Edinburgh, 1904.Google Scholar
  44. Sachau (E.), Am Euphrat und Tigris, 1897–98. Berlin, 1900.Google Scholar
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  47. Sykes (M.), Through Five Turkish Provinces. London, 1900.—Dar-ul-Islam: Journey through Ten Asiatic Provinces of Turkey. London, 1904.Google Scholar
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  49. Tozer (H. F.), Turkish Armenia and Eastern Asia Minor. London, 1881.—The Islands of the Ægean. London, 1890.Google Scholar
  50. Warkworth (Lord), Notes from a Diary in Asiatic Turkey. London, 1898.Google Scholar
  51. Warner (C. D.), In the Levant. 2 vols. London, 1892.Google Scholar
  52. Zwemer (S. M.), Arabia, the Cradle of Islam. Edinburgh, 1900.Google Scholar


  1. Foreign Office Reports. Annual Series. London.Google Scholar
  2. Charmes, La Tunisie et la Tripolitaine. Paris, 1883.Google Scholar
  3. El-Hachaichi (Cheikh M. ben O.), Voyage an Pays des Senoussia à travers la Tripolitaine, &c. Paris, 1903.Google Scholar
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  7. Rohlfs (G.), Von Tripolis nach Alexandrien. 2 vols Bremen, 1871.—Reise vom Tripolis nach der Oase Küfra. Leipzig, 1881.Google Scholar
  8. Rossi (G. B.), Nei Paesi d’Islam in Barberia, in Egitto, &c. Roma, 1897.Google Scholar
  9. Schoenfield (E. D.), Aus den Staaten der Barbaresken. Berlin 1902.Google Scholar
  10. Thompson (G. E.), Life in Tripoli. Liverpool, 1894.Google Scholar

Books of Reference concerning Crete

  1. Statisque du Commerce Extérieur de l’le de Crete. Quarterly and Annual. Canea.Google Scholar
  2. Foreign Office Reports. Annual Series.Google Scholar
  3. Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Documents diplomatiques, Affaires de Crete, 1897–9, 1905Google Scholar
  4. Ballot (J.), Histoire de l’insurrection Crétoise. Paris, 1868.Google Scholar
  5. Bérard (V.), Les Affaires de Crète. Paris, 1900.Google Scholar
  6. Biekford-Smith (R. A. H.), Cretan Sketches. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  7. Bothmer (H), Kreta in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. Leipzig, 1899.Google Scholar
  8. Castonnet de Fosse, La Crète et l’Hellénisme. Paris, 1897.Google Scholar
  9. Chalkiopoulos (L.), Sitia, die Osthalbinsel Kretas. Berlin, 1903.Google Scholar
  10. Combes (P.), L’lle de Crète. Paris, 1897.Google Scholar
  11. Couturier (Henri), La Crète, sa situation au point de vue du droit international. Paris. 1900.Google Scholar
  12. Criaris (P. C.), History of Crete to the end of the Insurrection, 1866–9 (in Greek). Canea, 1902.Google Scholar
  13. Freese (J. H.), A Short Popular History of Crete. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  14. Jannaris (A. N.), Condition of Agriculture and Trade in Crete (in Greek). Canea, 1906.Google Scholar
  15. Kalitsunakis (J. E.), Kretisches Schulwesen (in Rein’s Eccyclopädesches Handbuch der Paedagogik. Vol. v.). Langensalz, 1906.Google Scholar
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  17. Mitchell (O.), The Greek, the Cretan, and the Turk. London, 1897.Google Scholar
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  20. Postlethwate (Ed.), A Tour in Crete. London, 1868.Google Scholar
  21. Raulin (V.), Description de l’ile de Crète. 2 vols. Paris, 1869.Google Scholar
  22. Spratt (T.A.B.), Travels and researches in Crete. 2 vols. London, 1867.Google Scholar
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Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. 1. Official Publications

  1. Administration. Correspondence respecting the Reorganisation of Egypt. London, 1883. Reports by Mr. Villiers Stuart respecting Reorganisation of Egypt. London, 1883 and 1895. Despatch from Lord Dufferin forwarding the Decree constituting the new Political Institutions of Egypt. London, 1883. Reports on the State of Egypt and the Progress of Administrative Reforms. London, 1885. Reports by Sir H. D. Wolff on the Administration of Egypt. London, 1837. Annual Reports by Lord Cromer on the Finances, Administration and Condition of Egypt, and the Progress of Reforms. London. Annual Report upon the Administration of the Public Works Department. Correspondence respecting the Turco-Egyptian frontier in the Sinai Peninsula. London, 1906.Google Scholar
  2. Agriculture. Despatch from Sir Evelyn Baring inclosing Report on the Condition of the Agricultural Population in Egypt. London, 1888. Report of Committee with Reference to Sale of Lands in the Sudan. 1904.Google Scholar
  3. Dictionnaire géographique de l’Egypte. Par Boinet Bey. Cairo, 1809.Google Scholar
  4. Finance. Correspondence respecting the State Domains of Egypt. London, 1883. Memorandum on the Land Tax of Egypt. Cairo, 1884. Report on the Financial Position of Egypt. Cairo, 1884. Reports on the Finances of Egypt, 1884–87. Cairo. Statement of the Revenue and Expenditure of Egypt, together with a List of the Egyptian Bonds and the Charges for their Services. London, 1885. Report on the Finances of Egypt London, 1888–95. L’administration financière 1884–87 et la modification du régime fiscal des tabacs en Egypte. 1887. Convention between the Governments of Great Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Italy, Russia, and Turkey, relative to the Finance of Egypt, signed at London, March 18, 1885. London, 1885. Correspondence respecting the Settlement of the Claims of the ex-Khedive Ismail and his Family. London, 1888.—La Propriété foncière en Egypte, by Yacoub Artin Pasha. Boulaq, 1884. [Translated into Arabic by Amoon, and into English by Van Dyck].—Compte General de l’Administration des Finances. Annual. Cairo. Report on the Finances, Administration, and Condition of the Sudan. 1906.Google Scholar
  5. Handbook of the Sudan. By Captain Count Gleichen. Compiled in the Intelligence Division of the War Office. London, 1898. Supplement, 1899.Google Scholar
  6. The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Edited by Lieut.-Colonel Count Gleichen, C. V.O., C.M.G., D.S.O. 2 vols. London, 1906.Google Scholar
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  8. Recensement général de l’Egypte. Tomes L, IL, III. Cairo, 1898.Google Scholar
  9. Public Works. Reports on the Administration of the Public Works Department. Annual. Geological reports on various districts.Google Scholar
  10. Report on the Nile and Country between Dongola, Suakin, Kassala, and Omdurman. 2nd ed. London, 1898. Correspondence respecting the valley of the Upper Nile. London, 1898. Report on the Sudan, by Sir W. Garstin. Egypt, No. 5 (1899). London. Report upon The Basin of the Upper Nile. By Sir W. Garstin. F.O. Bluebook, Egypt, No. 2. 1904.Google Scholar
  11. Statistical Department’s Publications:—Quarterly Return of Navigation in the Ports of Egypt and the Suez Canal.—Statistical Return of Navigation through the Suez Canal (Annual Summary).—Statistical Return of Navigation in the Ports of Egypt (Annual Summary).—Statistics of Professors and Students of Islam in Egypt in 1906.—Statistical Return of Pupils Attending Public and Private Schools in Egy pt (Arabic and English editions).—Comparative Statistics of Postal Traffic in Egypt for the Years 1880 to 1906.Google Scholar
  12. Sudan. Annual Report by British Consul General on Egypt and the Sudan.—Ordinances issued from 1899 to 1904 Relating to Administration, Justice, Taxation, Lands, Mining, Railways, Wild Animals, &c.—Sudan Gazette, monthly.—Sudan Almanac compiled in the Intelligence Department, Cairo.—Report on Egyptian Provinces of Sudan, Red Sea, and Equator, 1884.—Report on the Sudan (Lieut.-Col. Stewart), 1883 (Blue Book, Egypt, No. 11, 1883).—Intelligence Reports, Egypt, 1891–98.—History of the Sudan Campaign (Colville), 1889. 2 vols.—Eritrea (Major Barker), 1894 —Eritrea and Abyssinia (Col. Slade), 1896.—Ordinance for dealing with the Cattle Plague, 1901.—Report on Forests of Sudan by Mr. Muriel.—Traffic Regulations, Sudan Bailways, 1900.Google Scholar
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  14. Trade. Le Commerce Extérieur de l’Egypt. Annual. Alexandria.—Bulletin Mensuel du Commerce Exterieur de l’Egypte. Alexandria.Google Scholar
  15. War Office Library Catalogue. Wingate Bey, London, 1894.Google Scholar

2. Non-Official Publications

  1. Allord (H. S.) and Sword (W. D.), The Egyptian Sudan: Its Loss and Recovery. London, 1898.Google Scholar
  2. Aubin (E.), Les Anglais aux Indes et en Egypte. Paris, 1899.Google Scholar
  3. Baedeker’s Egypt. 6th ed. Leipzig, 1907.Google Scholar
  4. Barois (J.), Les Irrigations en Egypte. Paris, 1904.Google Scholar
  5. Blunt (W. S.), The Secret History of the English Occupation of Egypt.Google Scholar
  6. Boulger (D. C), Life of Gordon. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  7. Bowrguet (A.), La France et l’Angleterre en Egypte. Paris, 1897.Google Scholar
  8. Breasted (J. H.), A History of Egypt [to the Persian Conquest]. London, 1906.Google Scholar
  9. Bréhier (L.), L’Egypte de 1789 à 1900. Paris, 1901.Google Scholar
  10. Brown (B. H.), Fayûm and Lake Moeris. London, 1892.—History of the Barrage, Cairo, 1896.Google Scholar
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  12. Budge (E.A.W.), The Egyptian Sudan, its History and Monuments, 2 vols., London, 1907.Google Scholar
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  18. Colvin (Sir A.), The Making of Modern Egypt. London, 1906.Google Scholar
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  20. Cromer (Earl of), Modern Egypt. 2 vols. London, 1908.Google Scholar
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  22. Dieey (E.), The Story of the Khedivate. London, 1902. The Egypt of the Future. London, 1906.Google Scholar
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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1909

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Scott Keltie

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