Turkey and Tributary States

Ottoman Empire
  • J. Scott Keltie
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Abdul-Hamid II., born September 22, 1842 (15 Shaban 1245), the second son of Sultan Abdul Medjid; succeeded to the throne on the deposition of his elder brother, Sultan Murad V., August 31, 1876.


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Statistical and other Books of Reference

1. Official Publications. Turkey in Europe

  1. Salnamé 1311. Official Almanac for the Turkish Empire. 8. Constantinople, 1900.Google Scholar
  2. Report of the Health Office, published annually.Google Scholar
  3. Report of the Council of Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt. Annual.Google Scholar
  4. Callwell (Captain C. E.), Handbook of the Turkish Army. Prepared in the Intelligence Division of the War Office. London, 1892.Google Scholar
  5. Constitution Ottomane promulguée le 7 Zilhidjé (11/23 décembre, 1876). 8. Constantinople, 1891.Google Scholar
  6. Deutsches Handels-Archiv, for March, 1895. [Contains an account of the trade of Constantinople.] Berlin, 1895.Google Scholar
  7. Annual Report on the Ottoman Public Debt. London.Google Scholar
  8. Treaty between Great Britain, Germany, Austria, France, Italy, Russia, and Turkey, for the settlement of affairs in the East. Signed at Berlin, July 13, 1878. Fol. London, 1878.Google Scholar
  9. Diplomatic and Consular Reports from Turkey and Possessions for 1894. London, 1895.Google Scholar
  10. Hertslet (Sir E.), Foreign Office List. Published annually. London, 1891.Google Scholar
  11. Ottoman Land Code. Tr. by F. Ongley, revised by H. E. Miller. 8. London, 1892.Google Scholar
  12. Annual Statement of the Trade of the United Kingdom with Foreign Countries and British Possessions. Imp. 4. London.Google Scholar
  13. Correspondence and Further Correspondence respecting the Introduction of Reforms in the Armenian Provinces of Asiatic Turkey. London, 1896–97.Google Scholar

Turkey in Asia and Africa

  1. Correspondence respecting the condition of the population of Asiatic Turkey, 1888–89. C-5,723 fol. London, 1889.—Correspondence respecting the Affairs of South-Eastern Europe (Turkey, No. 1, 1903). London.Google Scholar
  2. Reports on the Trade, &c., of Trebizond, Tripoli, Palestine, Aleppo, Smyrna, Damascus, Jeddah, Beyrout, Baghdad, and Bussorah, in Foreign Office Reports, Annual Series. [Besides trade statistics these frequently contain information concerning population and political and social conditions.] London.Google Scholar

2. Non-Official Publications. Turkey in Europe

  1. Annual Report of the British Chamber of Commerce, Constantinople.Google Scholar
  2. Abbott (G. F.), Tale of a Tour in Macedonia. London, 1903.Google Scholar
  3. Amicis (E. de), Constantinople. [Translated from the Italian.] 8. New York, 1896.Google Scholar
  4. Bartlett (Sir E. A.), The Battlefields of Thessaly. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  5. Becher (G.), La Guerre Contemporaine dans les Balkans, et la Question d’Orlent, 1885. 1897. Paris, 1899.Google Scholar
  6. Bérard (V.), La Macedoine.—La Politique du Sultan.—La Turquie et l’Hellenisme Paris. 1897.Google Scholar
  7. Bernard (M.), Turquie d’Europe et Turquie d’Asie. Paris, 1899.Google Scholar
  8. Bidez (G.) et Parmentier (L.), Un Séjour à Patmos. [On the Greek Monks of the Archipelago]. Bruxelles, 1899.Google Scholar
  9. Bigkam (C.), With the Turkish Army in Thessaly. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  10. Clement (C. E.), Constantinople: The City of the Sultans. London, 1895.Google Scholar
  11. Confopoulos (D.), Guide to Constantinople. 2nd ed. London, 1899.Google Scholar
  12. Greasy (Sir Edward Shepherd), History of the Ottoman Turks. [Founded on Von Hammer, but continued to 1876.] New ed. 8. London. 1882.Google Scholar
  13. Curtis (W. E.), The Turk and his Lost Provinces. London, 1903.Google Scholar
  14. Davey (R.), The Sultan and his Subjects. 2 vols. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  15. Dory (G.), Abdul Hamid Intime. Paris, 1901.Google Scholar
  16. Dwight (H. O.), Constantinople and its Problems. London, 1901.Google Scholar
  17. Elliot (Frances), Diary of an Idle Woman in Constantinople. 8. London, 1893.Google Scholar
  18. Fazy (E.), Les Turcs d’Aujour d’hui. Paris, 1898.Google Scholar
  19. Freeman (Edward A.), The Ottoman Power in Europe: its Nature, its Growth, and its Decline. 8. London, 1877.Google Scholar
  20. Garnelt (Lucy), The Women of Turkey and their Folk-lore. London, 1890.Google Scholar
  21. Georgiadès (D.), La Turquie actuelle. 8. Paris, 1892.Google Scholar
  22. Grosvenor (E. A.), Constantinople. 2 vols. London, 1895.Google Scholar
  23. Guide Joanne, De Paris à Constantinople. Paris, 1896.Google Scholar
  24. Hafis Husseyn (Effendi), Hadikat-ul-dschevami. Dascription of the Mosques, High Schools, and Convents. 2 vols. 8. Constantinople, 1864–66.Google Scholar
  25. Halil Halid, The Diary of a Turk. London, 1903.Google Scholar
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  28. Hertslet (Sir E.), Treaties and Tariffs between Great Britain and Turkey.Google Scholar
  29. Holland (Thomas Erskine), The European Concert in the Eastern Question, a Collection of Treaties, &c. Oxford, 1897.Google Scholar
  30. Sutton (W. H.), Constantinople: the Story of the Old Capital of the Empire. London, 1900.Google Scholar
  31. Journal de la Chambre de Commerce de Constantinople. Constantinople. Weekly.Google Scholar
  32. Kinglake (Alexander William), The Invasion of the Crimea. 8. Edinburgh and London, 1863–75.Google Scholar
  33. Lamy (E.), La France du Levant. Paris, 1900.Google Scholar
  34. Launay (L. de), Chez les Grecs de Turquie. Paris, 1897.Google Scholar
  35. Laveleye (E. A.), The Balkan Peninsula. 2 vols. London, 1887.Google Scholar
  36. Le Jean (Guillaume), Ethnographie de la Turquie d’Europe. [In French and German.Google Scholar
  37. MacColl (Malcolm), The Sultan and the Powers. London, 1896.Google Scholar
  38. Medjellé, or Ottoman Civil Law. Nicosia, 1895.Google Scholar
  39. Midhat (Ali Haydar), Life of Midhat Pasha. London, 1903.Google Scholar
  40. Miller (W.), Travels and Politics in the Near East. London, 1898.Google Scholar
  41. Miliigen (A. van), Byzantine Constantinople; the Walls of the City and adjoining historical sites. London, 1899.Google Scholar
  42. Morawitz (C.), Les Finances de Turquie. Paris, 1902.Google Scholar
  43. Muller (Mrs. Max), Letters from Constantinople. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  44. Nicolaïdès (C.), La Macedoine. Berlin, 1899.Google Scholar
  45. Perris (G. H.), The Eastern Crisis in 1897 and British Policy in the Near East. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  46. Philippson (A.), Thessalien und Epirus. Berlin, 1897.Google Scholar
  47. Pisco (J.), Skanderbeg. Wien, 1897.Google Scholar
  48. Poole (Stanley Lane-), The People of Turkey: Twenty Years’ Residence among Bulgarians, Greeks, Albanians, Turks, and Armenians. By a Consul’s Daughter. 2 vols. 8. London, 1878.Google Scholar
  49. Poole (Stanley Lane-), Turkey. In Story of the Nations Series. London, 1889.Google Scholar
  50. Reclus (Elisée), Géographie Universelle. Vol. I. Paris, 1876.Google Scholar
  51. Salmoné (H. A.), The Fall and Resurrection of Turkey. London, 1896.Google Scholar
  52. Schopoff (A.), Les Réformes et la Protection des Chrétiens en Turquie, 1673–1904. Paris, 1904.Google Scholar
  53. Seignobos, Histoire politique de l’Europe Contemporaine. Paris, 1897. Eng. Trans. 2 vols., 1900.]Google Scholar
  54. Steevens (G. W.), With the Conquering Turk. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  55. Tarring (C. J.), British Consular Jurisdiction in the East. London, 1888.Google Scholar
  56. Tozer (H. F.), The Highlands of Turkey. London, 1869.Google Scholar
  57. Turkey in Europe. By Odysseus. London, 1900.Google Scholar
  58. Vambéry (A.), Das Turkenvolk. Leipzig, 1885.Google Scholar
  59. Verney (N.) et Dambmann (G.), Lse Puissances étrangères dans le Levant, &c. Paris, 1900.Google Scholar
  60. Villari (L.) (Editor), The Balkan Question. London, 1905.Google Scholar
  61. Wilson (Sir C. W.), Handbook (Murray’s) for Constantinople, Brusa, and the Troad. New ed. London, 1900.Google Scholar
  62. Wyon (R.), The Balkans from Within. London, 1904.Google Scholar
  63. Zinkeisen (J. W.), Geschichte des Osmanischen Reichs in Europa. 7 vols. 8. Gotha, 1840–63.Google Scholar

Turkey in Asia

  1. Baedeker’s Palestine and Syria. 2nd edition. 12. London, 1894.Google Scholar
  2. Ball (E. A. Reynolds), Jerusalem. (A guide book.) London, 1901.Google Scholar
  3. Bambus (W.), Palästina, Land und Leute. Leipzig, 1898.Google Scholar
  4. Bent (Theodore) Southern Arabia. London, 1900.Google Scholar
  5. Bogham (C.), A Ride through Western Asia. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  6. Bishop (J. L.), Journeys in Kurdistan. 2 vols. 8. London, 1891.Google Scholar
  7. Bliss (E. M.), Turkey and the Armenian Atrocities. London, 1896.Google Scholar
  8. Brinton (J.), Tour in Palestine and Syria. London, 1893.Google Scholar
  9. Bryce (James), Trans-Caucasia and Ararat. 4th ed. 8. London, 1896.Google Scholar
  10. Burton (Sir R. F.) and Drake (C. F. T.), Unexplored Syria. 2 vols. 8. London, 1872.Google Scholar
  11. Chauvin (V.), Bibliographie des Ouvrages arabes ou relatifs aux Arabes (1810–85). 8. Liège, 1892.Google Scholar
  12. Cook’s Tourist’s Handbook for Palestine and Syria. London, 1900.Google Scholar
  13. Cooke (A. W.), Palestine in Geography and History. 2 vols. London, 1901.Google Scholar
  14. Cowper (H. S.), Through Turkish Arabia. 8. London, 1894.—The Hill of the Graces. [In Tripoli.] London, 1897.Google Scholar
  15. Cuinet (Vital), La Turquie d’Asie. Géographie administrative, &c. 4 vols. Paris, 1891–8. The index to the work. Paris, 1900.—Syrie, Liban, et Palestine. Paris, 1901.Google Scholar
  16. Curtiss (S. I.), Primitive Semitic Religion To-Day (Researches, &c, in Syria, Palestine and the Sinaitic Peninsula). London, 1902.Google Scholar
  17. Davis (E.), Life in Asiatic Turkey. London, 1879.Google Scholar
  18. Deschamps (G.), Sur les Routes d’Asie. Paris, 1894.Google Scholar
  19. Fellows (Sir C.), Travels and Researches in Asia Minor and Syria. 8 London, 1839.Google Scholar
  20. Fitzner (R.), Aus Kleinasien und Syrien. Vol. I. Rostock, 1904.Google Scholar
  21. Freshfield (D.), Travels in the Central Caucasus, &c. London, 1869.Google Scholar
  22. Geary (Grattan), Asiatic Turkey. 2 vols. 8. London, 1878.Google Scholar
  23. Gregor (N. Ter), History of Armenia. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  24. Harris (J. R. and H. B.), Letters from the Scenes of the Recent Massacres in Armenia. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  25. Harris (W. B.), A Journey through Yemen. 8. London, 1893.Google Scholar
  26. Hepworth (G. H.), Through Armenia on Horseback. London, 1898.Google Scholar
  27. Hirsch (L.), Reisen in Süd-Arabien, Mahra-Land, und Hadramüt. Leiden, 1897.Google Scholar
  28. Hodgetts (E. A. B.), Round about Armenia. 8. London, 1896.Google Scholar
  29. Hogarth (D. G.), A Wandering Scholar in the Levant. 2nd ed. London, 1897.—The Penetration of Arabia. Loudon, 1904.Google Scholar
  30. Humann (C.), Reisen in Kleinen Asien und Nordsyrien. 8. Berlin, 1890.Google Scholar
  31. Isaverdentz (H.), Histoire de l’Armenie. Fol. Venice, 1888.Google Scholar
  32. Kaunenberg (K.), Kleinasiens Naturschätze. Berlin, 1897.Google Scholar
  33. Leake (W. M.), Journal of a Tour in Asia Minor. 8. London, 1824.Google Scholar
  34. Lepsius (J.), Armenia and Europe: An Indictment. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  35. Lynch (H. F. B.), Armenia: Travels and Studies. 2 vols. London, 1901.Google Scholar
  36. MacCoan (J. C.), Our New Protectorate. [Turkey in Asia.] 2 vols. 8. London, 1879.Google Scholar
  37. Macdonald (A.), The Land of Ararat. 8. London, 1893.Google Scholar
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  44. Paterson (J. G.), From Bombay through Babylonia [Missionary Travels.] Glasgow, 1896.Google Scholar
  45. Percy (Earl), The Highlands of Asiatic Turkey. London, 1901.Google Scholar
  46. Pertius (Comte de), Le Désert de Syrie. Paris, 1896.Google Scholar
  47. Peters (J. P.), Nippur: Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates. Vol. I. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  48. Ramsay (W. M.), The Cities and Bishopricks of Phrygia. 2 vols. Oxford, 1897.—Historical Geography of Asia Minor. London, 1890.—Impressions of Turkey during Twelve Years’ Wanderings. London, 1897.—Also, Every-day Life in Turkey, by Mrs. Ramsay. London, 1897.Google Scholar
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  50. Ronaldzhay (Earl of), On the Outskirts of Empire in Asia. Edinburgh, 1904.Google Scholar
  51. Sachau (E.), Am Euphrat and Tigris, 1897–98. Berlin, 1900.Google Scholar
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  54. Stanley (A. P.), Sinai and Palestine. London, 1856.Google Scholar
  55. Swemer (S. M.), Arabia, the Cradle of Islam. Edinburgh, 1900.Google Scholar
  56. Sykes (M.), Through Five Turkish Provinces. London 1900.—Dar-ul-Islam: Journey through Ten Asiatic Provinces of Turkey. London, 1901.Google Scholar
  57. Thomas (Margaret), Two Years in Palestine and Syria. London, 1899.Google Scholar
  58. Tozer (H. F.), Turkish Armenia and Eastern Asia Minor. 8. London, 1881.—The Islands of the Ægean. London, 1890.Google Scholar
  59. Warkworth (Lord), Notes from a Diary in Asiatic Turkey. London, 1898.Google Scholar
  60. Warner (C. D.), In the Levant. 2 vols. 8. London, 1892.Google Scholar
  61. Wilson (Sir C. W.), Handbook (Murray’s) for Travellers in Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, Persia, &c. London, 1895.Google Scholar


  1. Foreign Office Reports. Annual Series. London.Google Scholar
  2. Charmes, La Tunisie et la Tripolitaine. Paris, 1883.Google Scholar
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Books of Reference concerning Bulgaria

  1. Foreign Office Reports. Annual Series. 8. London.Google Scholar
  2. Handbook of the Armies of Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Rumania, and Servia. By Capt. W. E. Fairholme and Capt. Count Gleichen. London, 1895.Google Scholar
  3. Commerce de la Principauté de Bulgarie avec les Pays étrangers. Annual. Sofia.Google Scholar
  4. Mouvement de la Population de la Principauté de Bulgarie. Annual. Sofia.Google Scholar
  5. Statistique des Ecoles dans la Principauté de Bulgarie. Annual. Sofia.Google Scholar
  6. Bulgarien und der bulgarische Fürstenhof. Von einem Diplomaten. Berlin, 1896.Google Scholar
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  11. Dicey (E.), The Peasant State: An Account of Bulgaria in 1894. 8. London, 1894.Google Scholar
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  18. Lamouche (L.), La Bulgarie dans le passé et le présent. Paris, 1892.Google Scholar
  19. Léger (L.), La Save, le Danube, et le Balkan. Paris, 1884.Google Scholar
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  21. Minchin (J. G. C.), The Growth of Freedom in the Balkan Peninsula. 8. London, 1886.Google Scholar
  22. Regenspursky (C.), Die Kämpfe bei Slivnitza, 1885. Wien, 1895.Google Scholar
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Books of Reference concerning Crete

  1. Foreign Office Reports. Annual Series.Google Scholar
  2. Report by J. Bowring on Egypt and Candia. London, 1840.—Report by Consul Long-worth on the Causes of the Insurrection in 1858.—Reports, Correspondence, and further Correspondence respecting Crete, 1866–68, 1877–79, 1888–91, 1895–1901.Google Scholar
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  4. Bérard (V.), Les Affaires de Crète. Paris, 1900.Google Scholar
  5. Bickford-Smith (R. A. H.), Cretan Sketches. London, 1897.Google Scholar
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  8. Chalikiopoulos (L.), Sitia, die Osthalbinsel Kretas. Berlin, 1903.Google Scholar
  9. Combes (P.), L’Ile de Crète. Paris, 1897.Google Scholar
  10. Couturier (Henri), La Crète, sa situation au point de vue du droit international. Paris, 1900.Google Scholar
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  12. Dillon (E. J.), Crete and the Cretans. In Fortnightly Review for May, 1897.Google Scholar
  13. Freese (J. H.), A Short Popular History of Crete. London, 1897.Google Scholar
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  20. Pashley (R.), Travels in Crete. 2 vols. Cambridge and London, 1837.Google Scholar
  21. Perrot, L’île de Crète. Souvenirs de voyage. Paris, 1867.Google Scholar
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Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. 1. Official Publications

  1. Administration. Correspondence respecting the Reorganisation of Egypt. London, 1883. Reports by Mr. Villiers Stuart respecting Reorganisation of Egypt. London, 1883 and 1895. Despatch from Lord Dufferin forwarding the Decree constituting the new Political Institutions of Egypt. London, 1883. Reports on the State of Egypt and the Progress of Administrative Reforms. London, 1885. Reports by Sir H. D. Wolff on the Administration of Egypt. London, 1887. Annual Reports by Lord Cromer on the FinancesGoogle Scholar
  2. Administration and Condition of Egypt, and the Progress of Reforms. London. Annual Report upon the Administration of the Public Works Department.Google Scholar
  3. Agriculture. Despatch from Sir Evelyn Baring inclosing Report on the Condition of the Agricultural Population in Egypt. London, 1888. Notes on Egyptian Crops. Cairo, 1896. Manures and Soil Exhaustion in Egypt. Cairo, 1896. Report of Committee with Reference to Sale of Lands in the Sudan. 1904.Google Scholar
  4. Dictionnaire geographique de l’Egypte. Par Boinet Bey. Cairo, 1899.Google Scholar
  5. Finance. Correspondence respecting the State Domains of Egypt. London, 1883. Memorandum on the Land Tax of Egypt. Cairo, 1884. Report on the Financial Position of Egypt. Cairo, 1884. Reports on the Finances of Egypt, 1884–87. Cairo. Statement of the Revenue and Expenditure of Egypt, together with a List of the Egyptian Bonds and the Charges for their Services. London, 1885. Report on the Finances of Egypt. London, 1888–95. L’administration financière 1884–87 et la modification du régime fiscal des tabacs en Egypte. 1887. Convention between the Governments of Great Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Italy, Russia, and Turkey, relative to the Finance of Egypt, signed at London, March 18, 1885. London, 1885. Correspondence respecting the Settlement of the Claims of the ex-Khedive Ismaïl and his Family. London, 1888.—La Propriété foncière en Egypte, by Yacoub Artin Pasha. Boulaq, 1884. [Translated into Arabic by Amoon, and into English by Van Dyck].—Compte General de l’Administration des Finances. Annual. Cairo. Report on the Finances, Administration, and Condition of the Sudan. 1904.Google Scholar
  6. Handbook of the Sudan. By Captain Count Gleichen. Compiled in the Intelligence Division of the War Office. London, 1898. Supplement, 1899.Google Scholar
  7. The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1904. Edited by Lieut.-Colonel Count Gleichen, C. V.O., C.M.G., D.S.O. (In the press.)Google Scholar
  8. Instruction. L’Instruction publique en Egypte, by Yacoub Artin Pasha. Paris, 1889,—Considerations sur l’Instruction publique en Egypte, by the same. Cairo, 1894.Google Scholar
  9. Judicial. Correspondence respecting the Mixed Courts and Judicial Reforms. London, 1884.Google Scholar
  10. Monetary. La Réforme Monétaire en Egypte. Cairo, 1886. Note on the Currency of Egypt. Cairo, 1885. Note on the Proposed Monetary Law. By Sir E. Vincent. Cairo, 1885.Google Scholar
  11. Population. Rencensement Général de l’Egypte. Tomes I. and II. Cairo, 1885. Recensement général de l’Egypte. Tomes I., II., III. Cairo, 1898.Google Scholar
  12. Public Works. Reports on the Administration of the Public Works Department, 1898–1900, and 1901–1902.—Geological reports on various districts.Google Scholar
  13. Report on the Nile and Country between Dongola, Suakin, Kassala, and Omdurman. 2nd ed. London, 1898. Correspondence respecting the valley of the Upper Nile. London, 1898. Report on the Sudan, by Sir W. Garstin. Egypt, No. 5 (1899). London. Report upon The Basin of the Upper Nile. By Sir W. Garstin. F.O. Bluebook, Egypt, No. 2. 1904.Google Scholar
  14. Sudan. Annual Report by British Consul General on Egypt and the Sudan.—Ordinances issued from 1899 to 1904 Relating to Administration, Justice, Taxation, Lands, Mining, Railways, Wild Animals, &c.—Sudan Gazette, monthly.—Sudan Almanac compiled in the Intelligence Department, Cairo.—Report on Egyptian Provinces of Sudan, Red Sea, and Equator, 1884.—Report on the Sudan (Lieut.-Col. Stewart), 1883 (Blue Book, Egypt, No. 11, 1883).—Intelligence Reports, Egypt, 1891–98.—History of the Sudan Campaign (Colville), 1889. 2 vols.—Eritrea (Major Barker), 1894—Eritrea and Abyssinia (Col. Slade), 1896.—Ordinance for dealing with the Cattle Plague, 1901.—Report on Forests of Sudan by Mr. Muriel.—Traffic Regulations, Sudan Railways, 1900.—Hints to Travellers and Sportsmen in the Sudan. Annual.—Notes on Outfit. 1902.Google Scholar
  15. Suez Canal. Report by the British Directors on the provisional Agreement with M. de Lesseps. London, 1883. Correspondence respecting the proposed International Convention for securing the free Navigation of the Suez Canal. London, 1888. Le Canal de Suez, published every ten days. Paris. Returns of Shipping and Tonnage. Annual. London.Google Scholar
  16. Trade. Le Commerce Extérieur de l’Egypt. Annual. Alexandria.—Bulletin Mensuel du Commerce Exterieur de l’Egypte. Alexandria.Google Scholar
  17. War Office Library Catalogue. Wingate Bey. London, 1894.Google Scholar
  18. Statistical Returns. By J. L. Gorst, C.B. Annual. Cairo.Google Scholar

2. Non-Official Publications

  1. Alford (H. S.) and Sword (W. D.), The Egyptian Sudan: Its Loss and Recovery. London, 1898.Google Scholar
  2. Atteridge (A. H.), Towards Khartoum, the Soudan War of 1896. London, 1897.Google Scholar
  3. Aubin (E.), Les Anglais aux Indes et en Egypte. Paris, 1899.Google Scholar
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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1905

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Scott Keltie

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