República del Perú
  • J. Scott Keltie
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The Republic of Peru, formerly the most important of the Spanish Viceroyalties in South America, issued its declaration of independence July 28, 1821; but it was not till after a war, protracted till 1824, that the country gained its actual freedom from Spanish rule. The Republic is politically divided into departments, and the departments into provinces. The present Constitution, proclaimed October 16, 1856, was revised November 25, 1860. The legislative power is vested in a Senate and a House of Representatives, the latter composed of deputies of the provinces, in the proportion of one for every 30,000 inhabitants or fraction exceeding 15,000 and the former of representatives in the proportion of four senators for each department which has more than eight provinces; three for each department which has less than eight provinces and more than four; two for each department which has less than five and more than one; one for a department having only one province; and one for the littoral province of Callao. Senators must have an income of 1,000 soles (100l.) a year, or belong to a scientific profession; and deputies 500 soles (50l.) a year, or belong to a scientific profession. Both senators and deputies are elected by a direct vote, and so are municipal councillors. Foreigners are eligible as municipal councillors. There are 48 senators and 108 deputies, and there are as many suplentes, or substitutes, as there are members in each chamber. Every two years one-third of the members of each chamber, as decided by lot, retire. Congress meets annually on July 28, and sits for 90 days only. It may be summoned again, but must not then sit for more than 45 days.


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Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning Peru

1. Official Publications

  1. Boletin del Ministerio de Fomento. Monthly, since January, 1903.Google Scholar
  2. Demarcacion politica del Perú. Edicion oficial de la direccion de estadistica. Fol. Lima, 1874.Google Scholar
  3. Paz Soldan (Mariano Felipe), Diccionario geográfico-estadistico del Perú: Contiene ademas la etimologia Aymara y Quechua de las principales poblaciones, lagos, rios, cerros &c. 8. Lima, 1879.Google Scholar
  4. Peru. No. 60 of the Bulletins of the Bureau of the American Republics. Washington. 1892.Google Scholar
  5. Annual Official Statement of the Minister of Finance. Lima.Google Scholar
  6. Registro Official de Fomento. Lima.Google Scholar
  7. Synopsis Geografica y Estadestica del Perú. Lima.Google Scholar
  8. Report by Sir C. Mansfield on the auriferous deposits of Peru. No. 167 of ‘Reports on Subjects of General and Commercial Importance.’ 1890.Google Scholar
  9. Reports on the Trade of Peru in Foreign Office Reports, Annual Series. London.Google Scholar
  10. Trade of Peru with Great Britain, in ‘Annual Statement of the Trade of the United Kingdom with Foreign Countries and British Possessions. Imp. 4 London.Google Scholar

2. Non-Official Publications

  1. Albertini (L. E.), Pérou en 1878. Paris, 1878.Google Scholar
  2. Boletin de la Sociedad Geografica de Lima. Half-yearly. Lima.Google Scholar
  3. Cisneros (C. B.), and Garcia (R. E.), El Peru en Europa. Lima, 1900.—Geografia Comercial de la América del Sur. 3 vols. Lima.—Guia del Callao, Lima y sus Alrededores. Lima, 1898.—Monografía del Departamento de la Liberdad. Lima, 1900.—Monografía geográfica, Estadistica del Departamento de Lima. [The same authors, together or separately, have published several other works on the commerce, products, and industries of Peru.]Google Scholar
  4. Clark (E. B.), Twelve Months in Peru. 8. London, 1891.Google Scholar
  5. Crommelin (May), Over the Andes from Chili to Peru. London, 1895.Google Scholar
  6. El Economista. Weekly. Lima.Google Scholar
  7. Evans (P. F.), From Peru to the Plate. 8. London 1889.Google Scholar
  8. Fuentes (Manuel A.), Lima, or Sketches of the Capital of Peru: Historical, Statistical, Administrative, Commercial, and Moral: 8. London, 1866.Google Scholar
  9. Grandidier (E.), Voyage dans l’Amérique du Sud, Pérou et Bolivie. 8. Paris, 1863.Google Scholar
  10. Haënke (T.), Descripcion del Peru. Lima, 1901.Google Scholar
  11. Higginson (E.), Mines and Mining in Peru. Lima, 1903.Google Scholar
  12. Hill (S. S.), Travels in Peru and Mexico. 2 vols. 8. London, 1860.Google Scholar
  13. Hutchinson (T. J.), Two Years in Peru. 2 vols. 8. London, 1874.Google Scholar
  14. Markham (C. R.), Travels in Peru and India. London, 1862.—Cuzco and Lima. London, 1858.—Peru. London, 1881.—The War between Peru and Chili, 1879–81. London, 1883.—History of Peru. Chicago.Google Scholar
  15. Martua (V. M.), The Question of the Pacific [on boundary disputes]. Philadelphia, 1901.Google Scholar
  16. Mendiburu (M. de). Diccionario Historico-Biografico del Peru. 8 vols. Callao, 1874–1890.Google Scholar
  17. Middendorf (E. W.), Peru: Beobachtungen und Studien über Das Land und Seine Bewohnern, während eines 25 Jahrigen Aufenthalts. Berlin, 1893.Google Scholar
  18. Ordinaire (Olivier), Du Pacifique à l’Atlantique par les Andes peruviennes et l’Amazone. 12. Paris, 1892.Google Scholar
  19. Paz Soldan (Mariano Felipe), Historia del Perú Independente. 3 vols.Google Scholar
  20. Plane (A.), A travers l’Amerique Equatoriale. Paris, 1903.Google Scholar
  21. Pradier-Fodéré (C.), Lima et ses environs. Paris, 1897.Google Scholar
  22. Prescott (W. H.), History of the Conquest of Peru. London.Google Scholar
  23. Raimondi (A.), El Peru: Estudios Mineralogicos, &c. 4 vols. 1890–1902. Lima.Google Scholar
  24. René-Moreno (G.), Ultimos Días Coloniales en el Alto Peru, 1807–1808. Santiago de Chile, 1896–98.Google Scholar
  25. Seebee (F.), Travelling Impressions and Notes on Peru. London, 1901.Google Scholar
  26. Squier (E. G.), Peru: Incidents of Travels and Exploration in the Land of the Incas. 8 London, 1877.Google Scholar
  27. Temple (Edmond), Travels in various Parts of Peru. 2 vols. London, 1830.Google Scholar
  28. Tschudi (Joh. Jakob von), Reisen durch Südamerika. 5 vols. 8. Leipzig, 1866–68.Google Scholar
  29. Ursel (Comte C. d’), Sud Amérique: Séjours et voyages au Brésil, en Bolivie, et au Pérou. 12. Paris, 1879.Google Scholar
  30. Wappaeus (Joh. Eduard), Die Republic Peru; in Stein’s ‘Handbuch der Geographie und Statistik.’ Part III. 8. Leipzig, 1864.Google Scholar
  31. Wiener (Charles), Pérou et Bolivie. Paris, 1880.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1904

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  • J. Scott Keltie

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