The United Front Policy of the Chinese Communists in Hong Kong during the Sino-Japanese War, 1937–1945

  • Cindy Yik-yi Chu


The 1997 handover issue began to trouble Hong Kong in the 1980s, during which time China became involved in the political debates in the territory. Beijing was anxious to keep itself informed about Hong Kong, and to make its views known to the people there. Throughout the decade, Deng Xiaoping announced China’s latest policies, while communications of the Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office of the State Council [HKMAO; Guowuyuan Gang Ao shiwu bangongshi] incited fear, raised hopes, and caused speculation. China also disseminated messages through local organizations in the territory. The Hong Kong Branch of the Xinhua News Agency [HK Xinhua; Xinhuashe Xianggang fenshe] functioned as a mouthpiece of Beijing, as did leftist newspapers, magazines, and companies. The CCP continued its united front work in Hong Kong, where its local branch was known as the Hong Kong and Macao Work Committee [HKMWC; Gang Ao gongzuo weiyuanhui].


Work Committee Japanese Occupation Xinhua News Agency Cultural Circle Local Businessman 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 2.
    Emily Lau, “The Rising Red Tide: Under the Surface China Is Establishing Its Own Structure,” Far Eastern Economic Review, August 1, 1985, p. 23.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    Chan Lau Kit-ching, From Nothing to Nothing: The Chinese Communist Movement and Hong Kong, 1921–1936 (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1999), p. 1.Google Scholar
  3. 6.
    Lyman P. Van Slyke, Enemies and Friends: The United Front in Chinese Communist History (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1967), p. 93.Google Scholar
  4. 9.
    Mao Tse-tung, “The Situation and Tasks in the Anti-Japanese War After the Fall of Shanghai and Taiyuan” (dated November 12, 1937)Google Scholar
  5. Mao Tse-tung, Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, vol. 2 (Peking [Beijing]: Foreign Language Press, 1965), pp. 69–70.Google Scholar
  6. 18.
    Mao Tse-tung, “On the Question of Political Power in the Anti-Japanese Base Areas” (dated March 6, 1940), in Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, vol. 2, p. 418.Google Scholar
  7. 21.
    Li Guoqiang and Zhang Peixin, Xianggang zai kang Ri qijian [Hong Kong’s anti-Japanese period] (Hong Kong: Xianggang wenshi chubanshe, 2005), pp. 32–36.Google Scholar
  8. 22.
    Liang Shangyuan, Zhonggong zai Xianggang [The Chinese Communists in Hong Kong] (Hong Kong: Wide Angle Press, 1989), pp. 1–3. This is a memoir of a former member of the Office of the Eighth Route Army in Hong Kong; pages 1–87 deal with the history of the Office in Hong Kong. See also Chan Lau Kit-ching, From Nothing to Nothing, p. 7.Google Scholar
  9. 30.
    Yuan Xiaolun, Yue Gang kangzhan wenhuashi lungao [A history of anti-Japanese war effort among cultural circles in Guangdong and Hong Kong] (Guangzhou: Guangdong renmin chubanshe, 2005), pp. 34–36.Google Scholar
  10. 33.
    Ng Lun Ngai-ha and Yee Yim Kwong, Zhongguo mingren zai Xianggang: 30, 40 niandai zai Gang huodongjishi [China’s celebrities in Hong Kong: A record of their activities in Hong Kong in the 1930s and 1940s] (Hong Kong: Hong Kong Educational Publishing, 1997), p. 22.Google Scholar
  11. 35.
    Kurt W. Radtke, China’s Relations with Japan 1945–83: The Role of Liao Chengzhi (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990), p. 64.Google Scholar
  12. 40.
    Liao Chengzhi, “Jiaqiang huaqiao xuanchuan gongzuo” [To strengthen the propaganda work with overseas Chinese; dated September 27, 1940], in Liao Chengzhi wenji [Collected works of Liao Chengzhi], vol. 1 (Hong Kong: Joint Publishing (HK), 1990), pp. 78–79.Google Scholar
  13. 56.
    Mao Dun, Wo zouguo de daolu [My path], vol. 3 (Hong Kong: Chung Hwa, 1981), pp. 228–29.Google Scholar
  14. 70.
    Li Jiayuan, Xianggang baoye zatan [Essays on the newspaper industry in Hong Kong] (Hong Kong: Joint Publishing, 1989), p. 155.Google Scholar
  15. 72.
    Philip Snow, The Fall of Hong Kong: Britain, China and the Japanese Occupation (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2003), pp. 49–50; Radtke, China’s Relations with Japan 1945–83, p. 71.Google Scholar
  16. 78.
    Xu Yueqing, ed., Yuan Dongjiang zongdui Gang Jiu duli dadui [The original independent force of Hong Kong and Kowloon of the East River Column] (Hong Kong: Gang Jiu dadui (jianshi) bianjizu, 1999), p. 13; Chan Lau Kit-ching, From Nothing to Nothing, p. 9.Google Scholar
  17. 79.
    Liu Zhipeng and Zhou Jiajian, Tunsheng renyu: Rizhi shiqi Xianggangren de jiti huiyi [Fell silent: the collective memory of Hong Kong people during the Japanese occupation] (Hong Kong: Chung Hwa Book, 2009), pp. 279–81;Google Scholar
  18. Zhang Huizhen and Kong Qiangsheng, Cong shiyiwan dao sanqian: lunxian shiqi Xianggang jiaoyu koushu lishi [From 110,000 to 3,000: an oral history on Hong Kong’s education under the Japanese occupation] (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 11–19, 25–36.Google Scholar
  19. 83.
    Zhang Han, “Lishi shang de Zhonggong Xianggang fenju” [The Hong Kong Central Branch Bureau in history], Wenshi zazhi [Journal of literature and history], no. 3 (1997):14–15.Google Scholar
  20. 86.
    Xie Yongguang, Xianggang kang Ri fengyunlu [A record of Hong Kong’s anti-Japanese activities] (Hong Kong: Cosmos Books, 1995), p. 13.Google Scholar
  21. 92.
    Steve Tsang, “Maximum Flexibility, Rigid Framework: China’s Policy Towards Hong Kong and Its Implications,” Journal of International Affairs 49, no. 2 (Winter 1996): 419.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Cindy Yik-yi Chu 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cindy Yik-yi Chu

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations