When Governor Sir Murray MacLehose visited Beijing in 1979, Deng Xiaoping told him privately that the Chinese government must recover its sovereignty over Hong Kong.1 This incident marked the beginning of the 1997 question, which Beijing regarded as “a question left over from history.” At the end of the Opium War with the signing of the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842, China ceded Hong Kong to Britain. After British and French troops occupied Beijing in 1859 and 1860, and destroyed the Summer Palace, the Qing government had no choice but to sign the Beijing Convention, which granted Britain the Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters Island. In 1898, following the French, who had demanded a ninety-nine year lease of Guangzhou Bay, the British asked for a similar lease of the New Territories, which included 235 islands and two bays, up to the year 1997.2 The Chinese Communists never recognized the above treaties that the Qing government signed with the British. The expiration of the lease of the New Territories on June 30, 1997, however, forced Beijing to finally settle the Hong Kong question.


Chinese Communist Party British Government Special Administrative Region Business Elite Unite Front 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ian Scott, Political Change and the Crisis of Legitimacy in HongKong (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989), p. 18;Google Scholar
  2. Mark Roberti, The Fall of Hong Kong: China’s Triumph and Britain’s Betrayal (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994), pp. 22–24.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    Kevin P. Lane, Sovereignty and the Status Quo: The Historical Roots of China’s Hong Kong Policy (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990), pp. 3–4.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Editorial, “Lun Zhong Ying guanxi yu Xianggang de qiantu” [Discuss Sino-British relations and the future of Hong Kong], Wen Wei Po [Wenhuibao], May 6, 1949, p. 2.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    James Tuck-Hong Tang, Britain’s Encounter with Revolutionary China, 1949–54 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992), p. 186.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. C. Jao, “Hong Kong’s Role in Financing China’s Modernization,” in China and Hong Kong: The Economic Nexus, ed. A. J. Youngson (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1983), p. 17.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Derek Davies, “China Earns from Hongkong,” Far Eastern Economic Review, June 20, 1963, pp. 689 & 691.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    James T. H. Tang and Frank Ching, “The MacLehose-Youde Years: Balancing the ‘Three-Legged Stool,’ 1971–86,” in Precarious Balance: Hong Kong Between China and Britain, 1842–1992, ed. Ming K. Chan (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994), pp. 153–54.Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    Alvin Y. So, Hong Kong’s Embattled Democracy: A Societal Analysis (Baltimore & London: John Hopkins University Press, 1999), p. 261.Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    Wai-kwok Wong, “Can Co-optation Win Over the Hong Kong People? China’s United Front Work in Hong Kong Since 1984,” Issues & Studies 33, no. 5 (May 1997): 102–37.Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    Christine Loh, Underground Front: The Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010).Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    Suzanne Pepper, Keeping Democracy at Bay: Hong Kong and the Challenge of Chinese Political Reform (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008), p. 254.Google Scholar
  13. 14.
    Chan Lau Kit-ching, From Nothing to Nothing: The Chinese Communist Movement and Hong Kong, 1921–1936 (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  14. 18.
    Robert Cottrell, The End of Hong Kong: The Secret Diplomacy of Imperial Retreat (Hong Kong: John Murray, 1993).Google Scholar
  15. 23.
    David Wen-wei Chang and Richard Y. Chuang, The Politics of Hong Kong’s Reversion to China (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998), p. 17.Google Scholar
  16. 24.
    Albert H. Yee, A People Misruled: Hong Kong and the Chinese Stepping Stone Syndrome (Hong Kong: API Press, 1989).Google Scholar
  17. 26.
    Frank Welsh, A History of Hong Kong (London: HarperCollins, 1994), p. 511.Google Scholar
  18. 28.
    John Flowerdew, The Final Years of British Hong Kong: The Discourse of Colonial Withdrawal (Houndmills: Macmillan, 1998), p. 219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 31.
    Gerald Segal, The Fate of Hong Kong: The Coming of 1997 and What Lies Beyond (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993), pp. 207–11.Google Scholar
  20. 32.
    Steve Tsang, Hong Kong: An Appointment with China (London: I. B. Tauris, 1997), p. 111.Google Scholar
  21. 35.
    Steve Tsang, “Realignment of Power: The Politics of Transition and Reform in Hong Kong” in Political Order and Power Transition in Hong Kong, ed. Li Pang-kwong (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1997), pp. 31–51.Google Scholar
  22. 36.
    Jamie Allen, Seeing Red: China’s Uncompromising Takeover of Hong Kong (Singapore: Butterworth-Heinemann Asia, 1997), pp. xvi-xviii.Google Scholar
  23. 38.
    Richard Evans, Deng Xiaoping and the Making of Modern China (London: Penguin Books, 1995), p. 311.Google Scholar
  24. 40.
    Michael Yahuda, Hong Kong: China’s Challenge (London: Routledge, 1996). 4L Yik-yi Chu, “Overt and Covert Functions of the Hong Kong Branch of theGoogle Scholar
  25. 43.
    Cindy Yik-yi Chu, “The Origins of the Chinese Communists’ Alliance with the Business Elite in Hong Kong: The 1997 Question and the Basic Law Committees, 1979–1985,” Modern Chinese History Society of Hong Kong Bulletin 9–10 (October 1999): 51–67;Google Scholar
  26. Yik-yi Chu, “The Failure of the United Front Policy: The Involvement of Business in the Drafting of Hong Kong’s Basic Law, 1985–1990,” Asian Perspective 24, no. 2 (2000): 173–98.Google Scholar
  27. 44.
    David Shambaugh, ed., Greater China: The Next Superpower? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).Google Scholar
  28. 45.
    Sonny Shiu-Hing Lo, The Dynamics of Beijing-Hong Kong Relations: A Model for Taiwan? (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2008), pp. 169–75.Google Scholar
  29. 47.
    Deng Xiaoping, “Jiefang sixiang, shishi qiushi, tuanjie yizhi xiangqiankan” [Liberate thinking, learn from the facts, unite together to look forward] (dated December 13, 1978), in Deng Xiaoping wenxuan 1975–1982 [Selected works of Deng Xiaoping 1975–1982] (Hong Kong: renmin chubanshe, 1983), pp. 130–43.Google Scholar
  30. 48.
    Zhongguo tongyi zhanxian quanshu [The complete book on China’s united front] (Beijing: Guoji wenhua, 1993), p. 681.Google Scholar
  31. 49.
    Deng Xiaoping, “Xinshiqi de tongyi zhanxian he renmin zhengxie de renwu” [The new era’s united front and the tasks of the people’s political conference] (dated June 15, 1979), in Deng Xiaoping wenxuan, p. 171.Google Scholar
  32. 52.
    Zhonggong Zhongyang Tongzhanbu Yanjiushi, ed., Tongyi zhanxian zhishi wenda [Questions and answers for the knowledge of united front] (Beijing: Zhongguo wenshi chubanshe, 1988), p. 56.Google Scholar
  33. 54.
    Deng Xiaoping, “Aiguo tongyi zhanxian qiancheng yuanda dayou kewei” [The prospects of the “patriotic united front” are great and rewarding] (dated November 24, 1982), in Deng Xiaoping lun tongyi zhanxian [Deng Xiaoping discusses the united front], ed. Zhonggong Zhongyang Tongyi Zhanxian Gongzuobu and Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi (Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 1991), p. 250.Google Scholar
  34. 55.
    Zhao Chunyi, Sun Youkui, and Bai Yuming, eds. Xinshiqi tongyi zhanxian lilun yu shijian [The theory and practice of the new era’s united front] (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe, 1986), pp. 11–15.Google Scholar
  35. 57.
    Yuan Lizhou, ed., Tongzhan zhishi yu zhengce [Facts and policies of the united front] (Harbin: Harbin gongye daxue chubanshe, 1985), pp. 44–45.Google Scholar
  36. 60.
    Beijing Shehui Zhuyi Xueyuan, ed., Zhongguo Gongchandang tongyi zhanxian shi [A history of the united front of the Chinese Communist Party] (Beijing: Zhongguo wenshi chubanshe, 1993), p. 329.Google Scholar
  37. 63.
    J. D. Armstrong, Revolutionary Diplomacy: Chinese Foreign Policy and the United Front Doctrine (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977), p. 33.Google Scholar
  38. 64.
    Lyman P. Van Slyke, Enemies and Friends: The United Front in Chinese Communist History (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1967), p. 2.Google Scholar
  39. 70.
    Mao Tse-tung, “The Situation and Tasks in the Anti-Japanese War After the Fall of Shanghai and Taiyuan” (dated November 12, 1937), in Mao Tse-tung, Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, vol. 2 (Peking [Beijing]: Foreign Language Press, 1965), pp. 69–70.Google Scholar
  40. 71.
    Shum Kui-Kwong, The Chinese Communists’ Road to Power: The Anti-Japanese National United Front, 1935–1945 (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1988).Google Scholar
  41. 72.
    Suzanne Pepper, Civil War in China: The Political Struggle, 1945–1949 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978).Google Scholar
  42. 73.
    Peter Van Ness, Revolution and Chinese Foreign Policy: Peking’s Support for Wars of National Liberation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970).Google Scholar
  43. 76.
    Lin Piao, “Long Live the Victory of People’s War! In Commemoration of the 20th Anniversary of Victory in the Chinese People’s War of Resistance against Japan,” Peking Review 8, no. 36 (September 3, 1965): 24.Google Scholar
  44. 81.
    Beijing Shehui Zhuyi Xueyuan Bangongshi, ed., Gandan xiangzhao rongru yugong: shehui zhuyi chuji jieduan tongyi zhanxian yu duodang hezuo [Mutual understanding, mutual support: the united front and multiparty collaboration in the early stage of Socialism] (Beijing: Shishi chubanshe, 1989), pp. 121–25Google Scholar
  45. Qin Yefeng, Bai Yuwu, and Feng Lianju, Guogong hezuo de guoqu yu weilai [The past and future of the Guomindang-CCP collaboration] (Harbin: Heilongjiang jiaoyu chubanshe, 1991), pp. 396–97.Google Scholar
  46. 85.
    Deng Xiaoping, “Zhongguo dalu he Taiwan heping tongyi de shexiang” [Thoughts about the peaceful unification between mainland China and Taiwan] (dated June 26, 1983), in Deng Xiaoping lun tongyi zhanxian, ed. Zhonggong Zhongyang Tongyi Zhanxian Gongzuobu and Zhonggong Zhongyang Wenxian Yanjiushi, pp. 251–53.Google Scholar
  47. 90.
    Mao Tse-tung, “On the People’s Democratic Dictatorship” (dated June 30, 1949)Google Scholar
  48. Mao Tse-tung, Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, vol. 4 (Peking [Beijing]: Foreign Language Press, 1975), p. 417.Google Scholar
  49. 91.
    Jin Yaoru, “Chongwen Zhou Enlai zongli Xianggang zhengce: kan jinri Gang-Ao gongzuo zhi ‘zuo’—wo de huiyilu zhi er” [To look at the “leftism” of today’s Hong Kong and Macao work: remembering Premier Zhou Enlai’s Hong Kong policy, the second part of my memoirs], Dangdai yuekan [Contemporary monthly], June 15, 1992, pp. 33–34.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Cindy Yik-yi Chu 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cindy Yik-yi Chu

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations