Advertisement

Community Arts, Employment and Poverty: Exploring the Roles of Musical Participation and Professionalisation in Health Equity

  • Klisala Harrison
Chapter

Abstract

Thousands of health studies correlate improved socioeconomic status with improved health; however, this author has published the first ethnomusicological studies about how musical arts engage social determinants of health, including socioeconomic status. This chapter identifies roles of musical participation and professionalisation in promoting health equity. Focusing on urban poor, and the promotion of professional employment in the arts, the chapter discusses possibilities of community arts participation and approaches for enhancing socioeconomic status. The main finding is that community arts approaches that pursue professionalisation on an ongoing basis are special when it comes to increasing socioeconomic status through the arts. Everyone who participates gains at least some socioeconomic status. If such professionalisation efforts are continued, the status increase can build continuously.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Many thanks to Savannah Walling of VMT for supporting the development of this chapter by sharing VMT research and publications as well as detailed and helpful writing suggestions. Thank-you to other community collaborators, especially Dalannah Gail Bowen, Terry Hunter, Priscillia May Tait and Kathryn Walker. Writing of this chapter was funded by the Academy of Finland.

References

  1. Adler, NE, Boyce, T, Chesney MA, Cohen, S, Folkman, S, Kahn RL & Syme SL 1994, ‘Socioeconomic status and health: The challenge of the gradient’, American Psychologist, vol.49, no. 1, pp. 15–24.Google Scholar
  2. Araújo, S 2008, ‘From neutrality to praxis: The shifting politics of ethnomusicology in the contemporary world’, Muzikološki Zbornik [Musicological Annual], vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 13–30.Google Scholar
  3. Berkman, LF & Kawachi, I (eds.) 2000, Social epidemiology, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Braveman, P & Gruskin, S 2003, ‘Defining equity in health’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 254–258.Google Scholar
  5. Carey, P & Sutton, S 2004, ‘Community development through participatory arts: Lessons Learned from a community arts and regeneration project in South Liverpool’, Community Development Journal, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 123–134.Google Scholar
  6. City of Vancouver 2005, Housing Plan for the Downtown Eastside, viewed 11 April 2013, http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/housing-plan-for-the-downtown-eastside-2005.pdf
  7. City of Vancouver 2013, Downtown Eastside: Local Area Profile 2013, viewed 4 April 2016, http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/profile-dtes-local-area-2013.pdf
  8. Commission on Social Determinants of Health 2008, Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the commission on Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  9. Dutton, DB & Levine, S 1989, ‘Overview, methodological critique, and reformulation’, in JP Bunker, DS Gomby & BH Kehrer (eds.), Pathways to health: The role of social factors, The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, CA, pp. 29–69.Google Scholar
  10. Farmer, P 2005, Pathologies of power: Health, human rights, and the new war on the poor, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  11. Harris, L 2006, ‘The magic circle’, alt.theatre, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 9–10, p. 15.Google Scholar
  12. Harris, L 2009, Community play revisited. Speech, viewed 4 November 2009, Heart of the City Festival, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  13. Harrison, K 2008, Heart of the city: Music of community change in Vancouver, Canada’s Downtown Eastside. Doctoral thesis, York University, Toronto.Google Scholar
  14. Harrison, K 2009, ‘“Singing my spirit of identity”: Aboriginal music for well-being in a Canadian inner city’, MUSICultures, vol. 36, pp. 1–21.Google Scholar
  15. Harrison, K 2013a, ‘Music, health, and socio-economic status: A perspective on urban poverty in Canada’, Yearbook for traditional music, vol. 45, pp. 58–73.Google Scholar
  16. Harrison, K 2013b, ‘The relationship of poverty to music’, Yearbook for traditional music, pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  17. Jellicoe, A 1987, Community plays: How to put them on, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  18. Kawachi, I & Kennedy, BP 2002, The health of nations: Why inequality is harmful to your health, New Press, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Loughran, M 2008, ‘“But what if they call the police?” Applied ethnomusicology and urban activism in the United States’, Muzikoloski zbornik, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 51–67.Google Scholar
  20. Marmot, M 2004, Status syndrome: How your social standing directly affects your health, Bloomsbury Publishing, London.Google Scholar
  21. Marmot, MG, Rose, G, Shipley M, & Hamilton, PJS, 1978, ‘Employment grade and coronary heart disease in British civil servants’, Journal of epidemiology and community health, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 244–249.Google Scholar
  22. Martikainen, P, Adda, J, Ferrie, JE, Smith GD, & Marmot, M 2003, ‘Effects of income and wealth on GHW depression and poor self rated health in white collar women and men in the Whitehall II study’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 718–723.Google Scholar
  23. Moser, KA, Fox AJ & Jones, DR 1984, ‘Unemployment and mortality in the OPCS longitudinal study’, Lancet, vol. 324, pp. 1324–1329.Google Scholar
  24. Porteous, W 2003, Interview by author. MiniDisc recording. 12 December.Google Scholar
  25. Ramos, S & Ochoa, AM 2009, ‘Music and human rights: The AfroReggae Cultural Group and the youth from the favelas as responses to violence in Brazil’, in A Weintraub & B Yung (eds.), Music and cultural rights, University of Illinois Press, Chicago and Urbana, pp. 219–240.Google Scholar
  26. Redelmeier, DA & Singh, SM 2001, ‘Survival in Academy Award-winning actors and actresses’, Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 134, no. 10, pp. 955–962.Google Scholar
  27. Smith, JG 2007, ‘Creating a “circle of song” within Canada’s poorest postal code/Créer un cercle de chansons au sein du code postal le plus pauvre du Canada’, Canadian Journal of Music Therapy, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 103–114.Google Scholar
  28. South, J 2006, ‘Community arts for health: An evaluation of a district programme’, Health Education, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 155–168.Google Scholar
  29. Statistics Canada 2011, Low Income Lines, 2009-2010, viewed 25 August 2016, http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75f0002m/75f0002m2011002-eng.pdf
  30. Statistics Canada 2015, ‘Low income cut-offs’, Low Income Linees 2010-2011, viewed 4 April 2016, http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75f0002m/2012002/lico-sfr-eng.htm
  31. Tait, P 2003, Interview by author. MiniDisc recording. 12 December.Google Scholar
  32. Tan, SB 2008, ‘Activism in Southeast Asian ethnomusicology: Empowering youths to revitalize traditions and bridge cultural barriers’, Muzikološki Zbornik, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 69–83.Google Scholar
  33. Thomson, M 2015, Vancouver homeless count 2015, M. Thomson Consulting, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  34. Vancouver Moving Theatre 2016, ‘Who we are’, Vancouver Moving Theatre, viewed 4 April 2016, http://vancouvermovingtheatre.com/who-we-are-3/
  35. Veblen, KK, Messenger, SJ, Silverman, M & Elliott, DJ (eds.) 2013, Community music today, Rowman & Littlefield Education, Lanham, MD.Google Scholar
  36. Walling, S 2012a, Interview with author. Digital recording. 5 June.Google Scholar
  37. Walling, S 2012b, ‘The tree of community art practice: Reflections on a resident art practice in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside’, alt.theatre, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 21–25.Google Scholar
  38. Walling, S, Hunter T & Greenaway, JE 2015, From the heart of a city: Community-engaged theatre and music productions from Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside, 2002-2013, Vancouver Moving Theatre, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  39. White, M 2009, Arts development in community health: A social tonic, Radcliffe Publishing, Oxford and New York.Google Scholar
  40. West, T & Ironson, G 2008, ‘Effects of music on human health and wellness: Physiological measurements and research design,’, in BD Koen, J Lloyd & G Barz (eds.), The Oxford handbook of medical ethnomusicology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 410–443.Google Scholar
  41. Wilkinson, R 2000, Mind the gap: Hierarchies, health and human evolution, Yale University Press, New Haven and London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klisala Harrison
    • 1
  1. 1.University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations