Advertisement

Linking Family Trajectories and Personal Networks

  • Jacques-Antoine Gauthier
  • Gaëlle Aeby
  • Vasco Ramos
  • Vida Česnuitytè
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life book series (PSFL)

Abstract

The share of family and non-family ties in personal networks varies not only across the life course following major transitions and events but also according to the type of welfare state in which individual lives unfold. Using network and sequence analyses, this chapter investigates for two birth cohorts (1950–1955 and 1970–1975) how the composition of personal networks is influenced by past co-residence trajectories (from 1990 to 2010) in three European countries (Switzerland, Portugal, and Lithuania). The resulting co-residence trajectories capture a great variety of situations characterized by conjugal status as well as the presence and age of children. Network analyses reveal a focus on the nuclear family of procreation, although highlighting national differences regarding the inclusion of extended kin and non-kin.

Keywords

Personal networks Life trajectories Network analysis Sequence analysis International comparison Life course Comparative analysis Portugal Switzerland Lithuania 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors of the chapter wish to acknowledge sponsors that made it possible to carry out this investigation, the results of which are presented in the chapter. In Switzerland, the research was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation and the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES Overcoming Vulnerability: Life-Course Perspectives. In Portugal, the research was carried out within the national survey, “Family Trajectories and Social Networks”, coordinated by Professor K. Wall from the Institute of Social Sciences (ICS) from the University of Lisbon. In Lithuania, the research was carried out based on data collected within the research project, “Trajectories of Family Models and Personal Networks: Intergenerational Perspective”, coordinated by V. Kanopiené from Mykolas Romeris University (Lithuania) and funded by Research Council of Lithuania.

References

  1. Abbott, A. (2001). Time matters: On theory and method. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. Aeby, G., Gauthier, J.-A., Gouveia, R., Ramos, V., Wall, K., & Česnuitytė, V. (2017). The impact of coresidence trajectories on personal networks during transition to adulthood: A comparative perspective. In V. Česnuitytė, D. Lück, & E. D. Widmer (Eds.), Family continuity and change: Contemporary European perspectives (pp. 211–242). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aidukaite, J. (2006). The formation of social insurance institutions of the Baltic States in the post-socialist era. Journal of European Social Policy, 16(3), 259–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antonucci, T. C., Ajrouch, K. J., & Birditt, K. S. (2014). The convoy model: Explaining social relations from a multidisciplinary perspective. The Gerontologist, 54(1), 82–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arts, W. I. L., & Gelissen, J. (2002). Three worlds of welfare capitalism or more? A state-of-the-art report. Journal of European Social Policy, 12(2), 137–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker, H. S. (1966). Outsiders : studies in the sociology of deviance ([1st ed.]). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bernardi, L., Klärner, A., & von der Lippe, H. (2008). Job insecurity and the timing of parenthood: A comparison between Eastern and Western Germany. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 24(3), 287–313.Google Scholar
  8. Bidart, C., & Lavenu, D. (2005). Evolutions of personal networks and life events. Social Networks, 27(4), 359–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Billari, F. C., & Liefbroer, A. C. (2010). Towards a new pattern of transition to adulthood? Advances in Life Course Research, 15(2), 59–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Billari, F. C., Philipov, D., & Baizán, P. (2001). Leaving home in Europe: The experience of cohorts born around 1960. Population, Space and Place, 7(5), 339–356.Google Scholar
  11. Blatterer, H. (2007). Contemporary adulthood: Reconceptualizing an uncontested category. Current Sociology, 55(6), 771–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonvalet, C., & Ogg, J. (Eds.). (2007). Measuring family support in Europe. London: Southern Universities Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bourdieu, P. (1980). Le capital social. Actes de La Recherche en Sciences Sociales, 31, 2–3.Google Scholar
  14. Brückner, H., & Mayer, K. U. (2005). De-standardizationof the life course: What it might mean? And if it means anything, whether it actually took place? Advances in Life Course Research, 9, 27–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cherlin, A. J. (2010). The marriage-go-round: The state of marriage and the family in America today. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  16. Cicirelli, V. G. (1995). Sibling relationships across the life span. New York/London: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Déchaux, J.-H. (2007). La germanité adulte, une relation sous influence parentale. Plaidoyer pour une approche structurale. Available online https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00370364
  18. Degenne, A., & Lebeaux, M.-O. (2005). The dynamics of personal networks at the time of entry into adult life. Social Networks, 27(4), 337–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Delgado, A., & Wall, K. (2011). Famílias nos Censos 2011, Diversidade e Mudança. Lisbon: National Statistics Office and Social Sciences Press.Google Scholar
  20. Demey, D., Berrington, A., Evandrou, M., & Falkingham, J. (2013). Pathways into living alone in mid-life: Diversity and policy implications. Advances in Life Course Research, 18(3), 161–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Doherty, N. A., & Feeney, J. A. (2004). The composition of attachment networks throughout the adult years. Personal Relationships, 11(4), 469–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dronkers, J. (2015). Cohabitation, marriage, and union instability in Europe|family studies. Available online http://family-studies.org/cohabitation-marriage-and-union-instability-in-europe/
  23. Ducret, A. (2011). Le concept de “configuration” et ses implications empiriques: Elias avec et contre Weber. Sociologie. Available online https://sociologies.revues.org/3459?lang=en
  24. Elder, G. H., Kirkpatrick Johnson, M., & Crosnoe, R. (2003). The emergence and development of life course theory. In J. T. Mortimer & M. J. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 3–19). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elias, N. (1994). The civilizing process. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  26. Furstenberg, F. F. (2000). The sociology of adolescence and youth in the 1990s: A critical commentary. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62(4), 896–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Galland, O. (1991). Sociologie de la jeunesse: l’entrée dans la vie. Paris: Armand Colin.Google Scholar
  28. Galland, O. (2003). Adolescence, post-adolescence, youth: Revised interpretations. Revue Française de Sociologie, 44(5), 163–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ganon, P. (2005). Challenges in the Swiss vocational education and training system. Bwp@, 7, 1–8. Available online http://www.bwpat.de/7eu/gonon_ch_bwpat7.shtml
  30. Gauthier, J.-A. (2013). Optimal matching, a tool for comparing life-course sequences. In R. Levy & E. D. Widmer (Eds.), Gendered life courses between standardization and individualization: A European approach applied to Switzerland (pp. 37–49). Wien: LIT Verlag.Google Scholar
  31. Gauthier, J.-A., Widmer, E. D., Bucher, P., & Notredame, C. (2009). How much does it cost? Optimization of costs in sequence analysis of social science data. Sociological Methods & Research, 38(1), 197–231.Google Scholar
  32. Giddens, A. (1992). The transformation of intimacy: Sexuality, love and eroticism in modern societies. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  33. Gouveia, R., & Widmer, E. D. (2014). The salience of kinship in personal networks of three cohorts of Portuguese people. Families, Relationships and Societies, 3(3), 355–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hawkins, R. L., & Maurer, K. (2010). Bonding, bridging and linking: How social capital operated in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. British Journal of Social Work, 40(6), 1777–1793. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcp087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kalmijn, M. (2003). Shared friendship networks and the life course: An analysis of survey data on married and cohabiting couples. Social Networks, 25(3), 231–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kalmijn, M., & Broese van Groenou, M. (2005). Differential effects of divorce on social integration. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22(4), 455–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kanopienė, V. (1999). Combining family and professional roles: Gender differences. Revue Baltique, 13, 97–110. Special issue “Demographic development in the countries of transition.”Google Scholar
  38. Kohli, M. (2007). The institutionalization of the life course: Looking back to look ahead. Research in Human Development, 4(3–4), 253–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Krüger, H., & Levy, R. (2001). Linking life courses, work, and the family: Theorizing a not so visible nexus between women and men. The Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers canadiens de sociologie, 26(2), 145–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lapointe, F.-J., & Legendre, P. (1994). A classification of pure malt scotch whiskies. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C (Applied Statistics), 43(1), 237–257.Google Scholar
  41. Levy, R. (2013). Analysis of life courses – A theoretical sketch. In R. Levy & E. D. Widmer (Eds.), Gendered life courses between standardization and individualization: A European approach applied to Switzerland (pp. 13–36). Wien: LIT Verlag.Google Scholar
  42. Levy, R., & Widmer, E. D. (Eds.). (2013). Gendered life courses between standardization and individualization: A European approach applied to Switzerland. Wien: LIT Verlag.Google Scholar
  43. Maslauskaitė, A., & Baublytė, M. (2015). Gender and re-partnering after divorce in four central European and Baltic countries. Czech Sociological Review, 51(6), 1023–1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mayer, K. U. (2001). The paradox of global social change and national path dependencies: Life course patterns in advanced societies. In A. E. Woodward & M. Kohli (Eds.), Inclusions and exclusions in European societies (pp. 89–110). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. Meggiolaro, S., & Ongaro, F. (2008). Repartnering after marital dissolution: Does context play a role? Demographic Research, 19, 1913–1934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mills, C. W. (1959). The sociological imagination. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Mills, M., Rindfuss, R. R., McDonald, P., & Velde, E. (2011). Why do people postpone parenthood? Reasons and social policy incentives. Human Reproduction Update, 17(6), 848–860. https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmr026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Modell, J., Furstenberg, F. F., & Hershberg, T. (1976). Social change and transitions to adulthood in historical perspective. Journal of Family History, 1(1), 7–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Moreland, R. L., & Zajonc, R. B. (1982). Exposure effects in person perception: Familiarity, similarity, and attraction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18(5), 395–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Newcomb, T. M. (1960). Varieties of interpersonal attraction. In D. Cartwright & A. Zander (Eds.), Group dynamics: Research and theory (pp. 104–119). London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  51. Neyer, G., & Hoem, J. M. (2008). Education and permanent childlessness: Austria vs. Sweden. In J. Surkyn & P. Deboosere (Eds.), Demographic challenges for the 21st century: A state of the art in demography (pp. 91–114). Brussels: Asp/Vubpress/Upa.Google Scholar
  52. Olson, D. (1983). Families, what makes them work. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  53. Pahl, R., & Spencer, L. (2004). Personal communities: Not simply families of “fate” or “choice”. Current Sociology, 52(2), 199–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Quintini, G., Martin, J. P., & Martin, S. (2007). The changing nature of the school-to-work transition process in OECD countries (SSRN scholarly paper no. ID 1884070). Rochester: Social Science Research Network. Available online: http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1884070
  55. Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. (1940). On social structure. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 70(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ramos, V., Gouveia, R., & Wall, K. (2017). Coresidence as a mechanism of relational proximity: The impact of household trajectories on the diversification of personal networks. In V. Česnuitytė, D. Lück, & E. D. Widmer (Eds.), Family continuity and change: Contemporary European perspectives (pp. 187–210). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Smith, A., Wasoff, F., & Jamieson, L. (2005). Solo living across the adult lifecourse. CRFR Research Briefing, 20.Google Scholar
  58. Stankūnienė, V., & Maslauskaitė, A. (2008). Family transformation in the post-communist countries: Attitudes towards changes. In C. Höhn, D. Avramov, & I. E. Kotowska (Eds.), People, population change and policies. Lessons from the population policy acceptance study (Vol. 16, 1st ed., pp. 113–140). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Studer, M. (2013). Weighted Cluster library manual: A practical guide to creating typologies of trajectories in the social sciences with R. LIVES working papers, 24. Available online doi: 10.12682/lives.2296-1658.2013.24
  60. Terhell, E. L., Broese van Groenou, M. I., & van Tilburg, T. (2007). Network contact changes in early and later postseparation years. Social Networks, 29(1), 11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Testa, M. R. (2014). On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence. Advances in Life Course Research, 21, 28–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Thévenon, O. (2015). Aid policies for young people in Europe and the OECD countries. Families and Society WP Series, 34, 1–53.Google Scholar
  63. Valarino, I. (2014). The emergence of parental and paternity leaves in Switzerland: A challenge to gendered representations and practices of parenthood? Lausanne: Université de Lausanne, Faculté des sciences sociales et politiques.Google Scholar
  64. Van de Velde, C. (2008). Devenir adulte: sociologie comparée de la jeunesse en Europe. Paris: PUF.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wall, K., & Escobedo, A. (2009). Portugal and Spain: Two pathways in Southern Europe. In S. B. Kamerman & P. Moss (Eds.), The politics of parental leave policies: Children, parenting, gender and the labour market (pp. 207–226). Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  66. White, L. (2001). Sibling relationships over the life course: A panel analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63(2), 555–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Widmer, E. D., & Gauthier, J.-A. (2013). Cohabitational trajectories. In R. Levy & E. D. Widmer (Eds.), Gendered life courses between standardization and individualization: A European approach applied to Switzerland (pp. 53–69). Wien: LIT Verlag.Google Scholar
  68. Widmer, E. D., & Ritschard, G. (2009). The de-standardization of the life course: Are men and women equal? Advances in Life Course Research, 14(1), 28–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacques-Antoine Gauthier
    • 1
  • Gaëlle Aeby
    • 1
  • Vasco Ramos
    • 2
  • Vida Česnuitytè
    • 3
  1. 1.Life Course and Inequality Research CentreUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Institute of Social Sciences (ICS)University of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Sociological Research LaboratoryMykolas Romeris UniversityVilniusLithuania

Personalised recommendations