Balancing One’s Own Time Perspective from Aerial View: Metacognitive Processes in Temporal Framing

  • Maciej Stolarski
  • Joanna Witowska


Zimbardo and Boyd emphasized the “often unconscious” character of time perspective (TP). People are mostly unaware of the almost automatic processes of attention switching between past, present, and future. However, effective intentional TP switching, or striving to increase the “online awareness” of own TP, remains a core component of what is considered holistic or expended present time perspective. The latter forms the basis for formulating a truly balanced temporal orientation. In this chapter, we introduce the construct of temporal metacognition, with three empirically identified components: (1) metacognitive temporal control, (2) cognitive reconstruction of the past, and (3) goal-oriented metatemporal interconnectedness. We present some initial data obtained using our Temporal Meta-Cognition Scale (TMCS), demonstrating a fundamental role of temporal metacognitions in creating an adaptive TP profile.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maciej Stolarski
    • 1
  • Joanna Witowska
    • 1
  1. 1.University of WarsawWarszawaPoland

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