World Englishes

  • Peter De CostaEmail author
  • Jeffrey Maloney
  • Dustin Crowther


This chapter provides an overview of methodologies key to World Englishes inquiry, an empirical field focused on the linguistic and sociocultural dimensions of Global English usage. Despite a continuously growing scholarly interest, few volumes have provided information on methods of empirical investigation. We first outline three major streams of World Englishes inquiry: Kachruvian-inspired world Englishes (WE), English as an international language (EIL), and English as a lingua franca (ELF). We then discuss the primary elicitation tools employed within and across the three separate streams. Methods reviewed include corpus linguistics, ethnography, survey usage, and acoustic/phonological analyses. Sample studies are drawn upon to demonstrate how WE, EIL, and ELF researchers have utilized various methods to address research questions specific to their respective streams of research. We close with a brief discussion on potential future directions for WE, EIL, and ELF inquiry.


English as an international language English as a lingua franca Three-circle model World Englishes 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter De Costa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jeffrey Maloney
    • 2
  • Dustin Crowther
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Linguistics and LanguagesMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Department of Languages and LiteratureNortheastern State UniversityTahlequahUSA
  3. 3.Department of EnglishOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA

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