Use and Reproduction of Ma in Financial Cooperative Organizations in Japan: With a Focus on Ma in Japan and Financial Cooperatives

  • Tsutomu Hasegawa


Financial cooperative institutions in Japan, which are the main focus of this chapter, were introduced in Japan from Germany during the Meiji Period, but the model was not simply transplanted to Japan in its original form. It was modified and established in a form consistent with conditions of existence in Japan that would allow for its acceptance, and Ma constituted part of the conditions for its establishment. While the concept of a financial cooperative was introduced from overseas, Ma was one factor that set it apart from the model of its origins and allowed for its existence and development.


  1. Bastelaer, T. V., & Leathers, H. (2006). Trust in Lending: Social Capital and Joint Liability Seed Loans in South Zambia. World Development, 34(10), 1792.Google Scholar
  2. Bourdieu, P. (1979). La Disinction. Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit.Google Scholar
  3. Bourdieu, P. (1980). Le Capital Social: Note Provisiners. Actes de la recherché en Sciences Socials, 31, 2–3.Google Scholar
  4. Bourdieu, P., & Wacquant, L. J. D. (1992). An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  5. Cohen, D., & Prusak, L. (2001). In Good Company. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.Google Scholar
  6. Coleman, J. (1990). Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  7. Field, J. (2003). Social Capital. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  9. Granovetter, M. (1973). The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(3), 1369–1380.Google Scholar
  10. Guinnane, T. W. (2001). Cooperatives as Information Machines: German Rural Credit Cooperatives, 1883–1914. The Journal of Economic History, 61(2), 366–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hall, R. E., & Jones, C. I. (1999). Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output per Worker than Others? Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(1), 83–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hooghe, M., & Stolle, D. (Eds.). (2003). Generating Social Capital. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  13. Levi-Strauss, C. (1967). Structural Anthropology, Doubleday Anchor Books. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc.Google Scholar
  14. Mori, K. (1982). The History of Mujin Financing. Collected Works of Mori Kahei, Vol. 2, Hosei University Press (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  15. Najita, T. (2009). Ordinary Economies in Japan: A Historical Perspective, 1750–1950. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  16. Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Quality-of-Life Policy Bureau, Cabinet Office, Japan (ed.). (2003). Social Capital—In Pursuit of Rich Human Relationships and Virtuous Cycle in Civic Activities, National Printing Bureau (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  18. Relph, E. (1999). Place and Placelessness. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  19. Svendsen, G. L. H., & Svendsen, G. T. (2004). The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  20. Tuan, Y.-F. (1977). Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tsutomu Hasegawa
    • 1
  1. 1.College of CommerceNihon UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations