Malaysia: Middle-Equality Trap

  • Bridget Welsh
Part of the Gender and Politics book series (GAP)


Welsh’s chapter delves into the political achievements and obstacles that Malaysian women have made over the last six decades. Led primarily by the elitist Malay chauvinist United Malays National Organization or UMNO, working in a coalition known as the Barisan Nasional (BN or National Front) with other ethnic or region-based parties in a highly ethnicized polity, the chapter outlines the struggles women faced have both been facilitated and hampered by the political system’s structural conditions. Malaysia’s economy is caught in the “middle-income trap”—stuck in between low and high per capita incomes. The same can be said for women’s empowerment, as the accomplishments of the past have become overshadowed by the stagnation of the present.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bridget Welsh
    • 1
  1. 1.Political Science and International AffairsJohn Cabot UniversityRomeItaly

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