Advertisement

Switzerland: Direct Democracy and Women’s Political Participation

  • Anouk Lloren
Chapter
Part of the Gender and Politics book series (GAP)

Abstract

Lloren discusses the case of Switzerland, which was the last European country to grant women the right to vote at the federal level in 1971. Since then, women’s political participation has steadily increased, but is still not on par with men’s. This is particularly true with regard to electoral participation. The persisting gender gap in turnout coexists with differences in the policy preferences of female and male voters (i.e., women disproportionately support left-wing policies and political parties). Taken together, the gender gaps in turnout and policy preferences have important consequences for the development of women’s rights, especially in the context of direct democracy.

References

  1. Ballmer-Cao, T.H. 1988. Le conservatisme politique féminin en Suisse: mythe ou réalité? Genève: Georg Editeur.Google Scholar
  2. Ballmer-Cao, T.H. 2005. Switzerland. In Sharing Power. Women, Parliament, Democracy, ed. M. Tremblay and Y. Galligan, 159–170. Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  3. Beyeler, M., S. Bütikofer, and I. Stadelmann-Steffen. 2015. Ma Suisse et moi. Regards des jeunes sur les enjeux politiques et sociaux. Principaux résultats d’une enquête menée auprès des jeunes de 17 ans. Berne: Commission fédérale pour l’enfance et la jeunesse.Google Scholar
  4. Bütikofer, S., and I. Engeli. 2010. The Transformation of the Ideological Gender Gap in Switzerland. In Value Change in Switzerland, ed. S. Hug and H. Kriesi, 45–61. Plymouth: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  5. Burns, N., K.L. Schlozman, and S. Verba. 2001. The Private Roots of Public Action. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Commission fédérale des questions féminines. 2001. Femmes, pouvoir, histoire. Histoire De l’égalité en Suisse de 1848 à 2000. Available at http://www.Frauenkommission.Ch/Geschichte_Chronik_F.Htm. Accessed 8 Oct 2016.
  7. Engeli, I., T.H. Ballmer-Cao, and M. Giugni. 2006. Gender Gap and Turnout in the 2003 Federal Elections. Swiss Political Science Review 12 (4): 217–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Funk, P., and C. Gathmann. 2015. Gender Gaps in Policy Making: Evidence from Direct Democracy. Economic Policy 30 (81): 141–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gfs.bern - Forschung für Politik, Kommunikation und Gesellschaft. 2006. Die Entscheidungen von Frauen schützen Umwelt, Service Public und Benachteiligte. Bericht zur Vox-Trend-Berichterstattung für das Jahr 2006. Bern: Gfs.bern.Google Scholar
  10. Gilligan, C. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Giraud, O., and B. Lucas. 2009. Le renouveau des régimes de genre en Allemagne et en Suisse: bonjour néo-maternalisme? Cahiers du genre 46 (1): 17–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hardmeier, S. 1997. Frühe Frauenstimmrects-Bewegung in der Schweiz (1890–1930). Argumente, Strategien, Netzwerk und Gegenbewegung. Zürich: Chronos.Google Scholar
  13. Inglehart, R., and P. Norris. 2003. Rising Tide. Gender Equality and Cultural Change. Oxford: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Kriesi, H. 2005. Direct Democratic Choice: The Swiss Experience. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  15. Lloren, A. 2015a. Women’s Substantive Representation: Defending Feminist Interests or Women’s Electoral Preferences? Journal of Legislative Studies 21 (2): 144–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lloren, A. 2015b. Pour qui luttent les femmes? De la représentation des intérêts des femmes au Parlement suisse. Zürich: Seismo.Google Scholar
  17. Lloren, A., and J. Rosset. 2017. Gendered Policy Preferences? Candidates’ Views on Political Issues in a Comparative Perspective. Comparative European Politics 15 (6): 944–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lutz, G. 2012. Élections fédérales 2011. Participation et choix électoral. Lausanne: Selects-FORS.Google Scholar
  19. Martin, N. 2002. Les politiques sociales suisses en faveur des femmes: quelques explications du tournant des années 90. Revue Suisse de Science Politique 8 (3–4): 61–83.Google Scholar
  20. Nai, A., and A. Lloren. 2009. Intérêts spécifiques et formation de l’opinion politique des Suissesses (1999–2005). Swiss Political Science Review 15 (1): 99–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mesmer, B. 2007. Staatsbürgerinnen ohne Stimmrecht. Die Politik der schweizerischen Frauenverbände 1914–1971. Zürich: Chronos.Google Scholar
  22. Pateman, C. 1983. Feminism and Democracy. In Democratic Theory and Practice, ed. D. Graeme. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Sapiro, V. 1998. When Are Interests Interesting? The Problem of Political Representation of Women. In Feminism and Politics, ed. A. Phillips, pp. 161–192. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Senti, M., and G. Lutz. 2008. Wo die Schere sich öffnet: zur unterschiedlichen Wahlbeteiligung von Frauen und Männern. Frauenfragen/Questions au feminin/Problemi al Femminile 1: 1–6.Google Scholar
  25. Stämpfli, R. 1994. Direct Democracy and Women’s Suffrage: Antagonism in Switzerland. In Women and Politics Worldwide, ed. B.J. Nelson and N. Chowdhury, 691–704. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Stadelmann-Steffen, I. 2011. Dimensions of Family Policy and Female Labour Market Participation: Analyzing Group Specific Policy-Effects. Governance 24 (2): 331–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Stadelmann-Steffen, I., and C. Dermont. 2016. How Exclusive Is Assembly Democracy? Citizens’ Assembly and Ballot Participation Compared. Swiss Political Science Review 22 (1): 95–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stadelmann-Steffen, I., and C. Koller. 2014. What Type of Resources? Household Effects and Female Electoral Participation. Swiss Political Science Review 20 (4): 529–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sciarini, P., T.H. Ballmer-Cao, and R. Lachat. 2001. Genre, age et participation politique: les elections federales de 1995 dans le canton de Genève. Swiss Political Science Review 7 (3): 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vögeli, Y. 1997. Zwischen Hausrat und Rathaus. Auseinandersetzungen um die politische Gleichberechtigung der Frauen in der Schweiz 1945–1971. Zürich: Chronos.Google Scholar
  31. Wernli, B. 2006. Homo- et hétérogamie dans les attitudes et le comportement politique en Suisse. Swiss Political Science Review 12 (1): 33–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. World Economic Forum. 2016. The Global Gender Gap Report. http://reports.weforum.org/global-gendergap-report-2016/.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anouk Lloren
    • 1
  1. 1.Swiss National Science FoundationBernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations