Conclusion: Contestations Within, Rather Than About, Nationalism
The main contestations that we are witnessing today have been subsumed under the nationalist logic rather than confronting it outright. But even if the terms of debate are set within the ambit of nationalism, transnationalism, cosmopolitanism, and nationalist resurgence (mainly through right-wing populism) reside in different renditions of nationalism. The terms of contestation are however not confined to the form of nationalism, they also encompass the relationship between nationalism and the state. Transnational nationalism emerges as a de-territorialised form of nationalism, a distinct configuration of identity, community, territory, and an underpinning or underlying political structure; the EU and Canada’s embedded cosmopolitan features are reflected in a highly inclusive form of nationalism; and right-wing populist or “new” nationalism is an exclusivist, ethnic form of nationalism.