Privatization in Israeli Integration Policy: When Zionism Meets Neoliberalism
This chapter demonstrates changes in state responsibility for the integration of Jewish immigrants from 1989 to 2017. It shows that the dynamic is not linear, and includes both an increase and a decrease in state responsibility. Specifically, during the 1990s the state decreased its responsibility for the funding and production of services for most immigrants, but at the same time it increased its responsibility for the funding and provision of services for the weaker immigrants. From the mid-2000s, as integration services for most immigrants continued to erode, the state increased the funding and guidance provided to the wealthy and skilled immigrants. Shpaizman argues that this nonlinear dynamic is explained by the combination of the Zionist idea of gathering the exiles and the neoliberal perception of immigration as means of economic growth.
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