Advertisement

Privatization of Education in Israel

  • Tammy Harel Ben Shahar
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter analyses the processes of privatization dominating the Israeli education system. The chapter distinguishes three main categories of privatization in education: privatization of funding, which involves the growing share of private resources infiltrating state schools through parental payments and donations; privatization of provision, including the establishment of private schools and the transfer of pedagogical and management roles in state schools to private entities; and finally the commercialization of education, namely the introduction of market-oriented practices and norms such as competition and choice into public education. The chapter highlights another process that further dilutes the distinction between public and private education in Israel by restricting non-state schools, limiting their ability to select their students and gain financial advantage compared to state schools.

References

  1. Almog-Barkat, Granit, and Dan Inbar. 2010. Whose Kid? Opening Catchment Areas in Jerusalem. In Privatization and Commercialization in State Education in Israel, ed. Orit Ichilov, 111–144. Tel Aviv: Ramot (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  2. Ball, Stephen J. 2007. Education Plc: Understanding Private Sector Participation in Public Sector Education. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ben-Bassat, Avi, and Momi Dahan. 2008. The Crisis in the Local Authorities: Representation Versus Efficiency. Caesaria: The Israel Democracy Institute, 16th Forum (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  4. Boyd, William. 2003. Public Education’s Crisis of Performance and Legitimacy. In American Educational Governance on Trial: Change and Challenges––The 102th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 1–19. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  5. Buckley, Jack, and Mark Schneider. 2002. Charter Schools: Hope or Hype? Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Dagan-Buzaglo, Noga. 2010. Aspects of Privatization in the Education System. Jerusalem: Adva (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  7. Dahan, Yossi. 2013. Law in the Service of Privatization: Parental Autonomy and Equal Opportunity. Mishpatim 43: 1003–1065 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  8. Dahan, Yossi, and Yossi Yona. 1999. The Education System in Transition: From Governmental Collectivism to Civic Individualism: School Choice as a Test Case. In Fiftieth Anniversary of the Education System in Israel, ed. Elad Peled, 163–179. Jerusalem: Ministry of Education (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  9. Datal, Lior. 2014. The Ministry of Education Inc: How Hundreds of Private Entities Receive 11 billion NIS. The Marker, October 5 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  10. Datal, Lior. 2017. Ministry of Education Decides: Banks Will Teach Our Children Financial Education. The Marker, May 14 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  11. Davidov, Guy. 2010. Workers Through Subcontractors at Schools. In Privatization and Commercialization of State Education in Israel, ed. Orit Ichilov, 145–174. Tel Aviv: Ramot (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  12. Dorner, Dalia. 2009. The Public Committee Report on the Special Education System (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  13. Gibton, Dan. 2003. Autonomy, Anomie, Integration and Anarchy: Legislation and Litigation as Instruments in Education Reform and Policy Implication in Israel. In Turns and Returns in Israeli Education: Policy Guidelines for the 2000s, ed. Yuval Dror, David Nevo, and Rina Shapira, 407–454. Tel Aviv: Ramot (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  14. Gibton, Dan. 2005. Education According to the Law: Legal Aspects and Legal Implications. In Toward Educational Revolution? Van Leer Educational Conference on Dovrat Report, ed. Dan Inbar, 104–129. Tel Aviv: Van Leer and The United Kibbutz Publishing (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  15. Gibton, Dan. 2010. To Live Up To Your Ideals or To Educate According to Them? Law’s Role in Promoting Fairness in Educational Reform: An Analysis of Three Cases. In Is the Law Important, ed. Daphna Hacker and Neta Ziv, 355–416. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv Law School Press (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  16. Gibton, Dan. 2013. Law, Education, Politics, Fairness: England’s Extreme Legislation for Education Reform. London: University of London, Institute of Education Press.Google Scholar
  17. Harel Ben Shahar, Tammy. 2009. Educational Autonomy, Core Curricula, and Public Funding of Education––The 2008 Culturally-Unique Schools Act. Law and Government 12: 281–331 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  18. Harel Ben Shahar, Tammy. 2012. The Regulation of Selective Schools: Hevruta as a Test Case. The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute. http://www.vanleer.org.il/sites/files/product-pdf/niir_emda_bti_spr_prtiim.pdf. Accessed 25 Oct 2017 (in Hebrew).
  19. Harel Ben Shahar, Tammy. 2017. Leveling Down in Education. Tel Aviv Law Review 40: 117–172 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  20. Heiman, Flor, and Rina Shapirah. 2003. Parental Choice of Autonomous Schools as a Strategy for Reconstructing School Systems––The Case of Tel Aviv Yafo and Its Lessons. In Turns and Returns in Israeli Education: Policy Guidelines for the 2000s, ed. Yuval Dror, David Nevo, and Rina Shapira, 77–102. Tel Aviv: Ramot (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  21. Heller, Chava, Noam Zussman, Adnan Mansour, Merav Pasternak, Dmitri Romanov, and Ofer Rimon. 2007. The Private Investment in Elementary Education. Jerusalem: Central Bureau for Statistics.Google Scholar
  22. Hess, Frederick M. 2002. Making Sense of the ‘Public’ in Public Education. Washington DC: Policy Report, Progressive Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  23. Hoss, Esti. 2011. Parents Entrepreneurship to Establish Schools. Thesis, Hebrew University. http://public-policy.huji.ac.il/.upload/Orange%20Serie/Esti_Hos_Orange.pdf. Accessed 25 Oct 2017 (in Hebrew).
  24. Ichilov, Orit. 2010. The Establishment of Public Education in Israel and the Retreat from It. In Privatization and Commercialization of Israel’s Public Education, ed. Orit Ichilov, 21–50. Tel Aviv: Ramot (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  25. Ichilov, Orit, and Andre Mazawi. 1997. Choice in Education and Its Social Meaning in the Arab Society in Jaffa. Megamot 38: 421–432 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  26. Lubienski, Christopher A., and Peter C. Weitzel (eds.). 2010. The Charter School Experiment: Expectations, Evidence and Implications. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
  27. Meron, Assa. 2015. Trends and Processes of Privatization in the Social Services in Israel. In Privatization Policy in Israel, State Responsibility and the Borderline Between Private and Public, ed. Itzhak Galnoor, Amir Paz-Fuchs, and Nomika Zion. Jerusalem: Van Leer Institute (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  28. Michaeli, Nir. 2008. The Invisible and Powerful Hand: Pedagogical Perspectives on the Privatization of Education. Mifne 58: 27–32 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  29. Michaeli, Nir. 2012. Privatization of the Education System. In Privatization Policy in Israel, State Responsibility and the Borderline between Private and Public, ed. Itzhak Galnoor, Amir Paz-Fuchs and Nomika Zion, 183–237. Jerusalem: Van Leer Institute (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  30. Ministry of Education Circular. 2007. The 2007 Prohibition of Commercial Activity in Schools Act (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  31. Ministry of Education Circular 3.1-4. 2011. Controlled Choice in Elementary School (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  32. Ministry of Education. 2015. Controlled Choice Program––Evaluation of the 2014 School Year (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  33. Ministry of Education Circular 2.2-88. 2015a. Procedure for Granting Educational Support at Home for Sick Children Through the Ministry’s Supplier (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  34. Ministry of Education Circular 3.7-84. 2015b. The Prohibition of Advertising in Schools and the Conditions for Exceptional Permission (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  35. Ministry of Education Circular 9.12-1. 2015c. Incorporating External Programs in the Education System (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  36. Ministry of Education. 2015d. Central Findings of Budget Transparency 2014. meyda.education.gov.il/files/MinhalCalcala/shkifut44.pdf. Accessed 25 Oct 2017 (in Hebrew).
  37. Ministry of Education Circular 3.6-12. 2016a. Student Use of Devices for Learning (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  38. Ministry of Education Circular 12/(a) 3.11-18. 2016b. Parents’ Payments: Payments and Tuition in Non-state Schools, and Payments for Matriculation Units, Additional Curricula and Religious Curricula, and Payments in Experimental and Specialized Schools (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  39. Ministry of Education. 2017. Common Pedagogical Regulation for Recognition of Waldorf Schools and Democratic Schools as Specialized Schools (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  40. Murphey, Joseph, and Catherine Dunn-Shiffman. 2002. Understanding and Assessing the Charter School Movement. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  41. Osborne, David, and Gaebler Ted. 1992. Reinventing Government How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  42. Perry-Hazan, Lotem. 2013. The Right to Education: Its Changing Faces in a Constitutional Revolution Era. Law and Business 16: 151–233 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  43. Scott, Janelle, and Catherine DiMartino. 2009. Public Education Under New Management: A Typology of Educational Privatization Applied to New York City’s Restructuring. Peabody Journal of Education 84: 432–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. State Comptroller. 2011. Parents’ Payments in the Education System (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  45. Stein, Asaf. 2010. Learning from the Business, Educating the Market: The Ministry of Education Policy Toward Involvement of Business Enterprises in Schools. In Privatization and Commercialization in State Education in Israel, ed. Orit Ichilov, 265–293. Tel Aviv: Ramot (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  46. Svirski, Shlomo, and Noga Dagan-Buzaglo. 2009. Segregation, Inequality and Weakening Control: The State of Education in Israel. Jerusalem: Adva (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  47. Tzadok, Ami, and Omer Schwartz. 2009. Parents’ Payments in the Education System: Estimated Expenses and Social Implications. Jerusalem: Knesset Research and Information Center (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  48. Vorgan, Yuval. 2011. Privately Funded Unique Tracks in the Education System. Jerusalem: Knesset Research and Information Center (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  49. Weinheber, Bat-Chen, Rinat Ben Nun, and Eitan Schiffman. 2008. Survey of Involvement of NGOs and Business Philanthropy in the Education System. Beit Berl: Beit Berl Publishing and Ministry of Education (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  50. Weissblei, Eti. 2012. Recognized Elementary Schools in the Years 2000–2012. Jerusalem: Knesset Research and Information Center (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  51. Weissblei, Eti. 2015. Education for Children with Special Needs in Israel: Information and Central Issues. Jerusalem: Knesset Research and Information Center (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  52. Winigger, Asaf. 2016. Parent Payments in the Education System. Jerusalem: Knesset Research and Information Center (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  53. Wolf, Patrick J., and Stephen Macedo (eds.). 2004. Educating Citizens: International Perspectives on Civic Values and School Choice. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  54. Yonah, Yossi, and Yossi Dahan. 2005. The Dovrat Report and the Neoliberal Revolution in Education. Theory and Criticism 27: 11–38 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  55. Yonah, Yossi, and Yossi Dahan. 2006. The Dovrat Report, Equal Opportunity, and the Reality in Israel. Theory and Criticism 28: 101–125 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tammy Harel Ben Shahar
    • 1
  1. 1.University of HaifaHaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations