Advertisement

Linguistic Innovation Among Glasgow Gaelic New Speakers

  • Claire Nance
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter discusses new speakers of Scottish Gaelic in Glasgow. In particular, I focus on adolescent speakers in Gaelic immersion education and discuss their linguistic behaviour within the wider context of the revitalisation of Gaelic. Three phonetic features are considered in detail: tone and intonation, vowels, and laterals. The speakers in this study produce these phonetic features in ways which differ from the traditional Highland and Island Gaelic communities, and are instead typically Glaswegian. I discuss the future development potential in this new way of speaking Gaelic.

Keywords

New speakers Scottish Gaelic Glasgow Phonetics 

References

  1. Boersma, P., & Weenik, D. (2014). Praat: Doing Phonetics by Computer [computer program]. Version 5.4.04. URL http://www.praat.org/
  2. Borgstrøm, C. (1940). The Dialects of the Outer Hebrides (Vol. 1). Olso: Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap.Google Scholar
  3. Carter, P., & Local, J. (2007). F2 Variation in Newcastle and Leeds English Liquid Systems. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37(2), 183–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheshire, J., Kerswill, P., Fox, S., & Torgersen, E. (2011). Contact, the Feature Pool and the Speech Community: The Emergence of Multicultural London English. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 15(2), 151–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cruttenden, A. (2007). Intonational Diglossia: A Case Study of Glasgow. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37(3), 257–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dorian, N. (1978). East Sutherland Gaelic: The Dialect of the Brora, Golspie, and Embo Fishing Communities. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.Google Scholar
  7. Dunmore, S. (2014). Bilingual Life After School? Language Use, Ideologies and Attitudes Among Gaelic-Medium Educated Adults. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  8. Gathercole, V. M., & Thomas, E. M. (2009). Bilingual First Language Development: Dominant Language Takeover, Threatened Minority Language Takeup. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12(2), 213–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gordon, E., Campbell, L., Hay, J., Maclagan, M., Sudbury, A., & Trudgill, P. (2004). New Zealand English: Its Origins and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Grabe, E., Nolan, F., & Farrar, K. (1998). IViE—A Comparative Transcription System for Intonational Variation in English. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (pp. 1259–1262).Google Scholar
  11. Gregersen, F., Beck Nielsen, S., & Thøgersen, J. (2009). Stepping into the Same River Twice on the Discourse Context Analysis in the LANCHART Project. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 41(1), 30–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Harada, T. (2006). The Acquisition of Single and Geminate Stops by English- Speaking Children in a Japanese Immersion Program. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28(4), 601–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Harrington, J. (2007). Evidence for a Relationship Between Synchronic Variability and Diachronic Change in the Queen’s Annual Christmas Broadcasts. In J. Cole & J. Hualde (Eds.), Laboratory Phonology IX (pp. 125–143). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  14. Harrington, J. (2010). Phonetic Analysis of Speech Corpora. Oxford: Wiley- Blackwell.Google Scholar
  15. Iosad, P. (2015). Pitch Accent’ and Prosodic Structure in Scottish Gaelic: Re-assessing the Role of Contact. In M. Hilpert, M. Duke, C. Mertzlufft, J. Östman, & M. Rießler (Eds.), Advances in Nordic Linguistics (pp. 28–54). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  16. Jones, M. C. (1998). Language Obsolescence and Revitalization: Linguistic Change in Two Sociolinguistically Contrasting Welsh Communities. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  17. Joseph, J. (2013). Alien Species: The Discursive Othering of Grey Squirrels, Glasgow Gaelic, Shetland Scots and the Gay Guys in the Shag Pad. Language and Intercultural Communication, 13(2), 182–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kerswill, P., & Williams, A. (2000). Creating a New Town Koine: Children and Language Change in Milton Keynes. Language in Society, 29(1), 65–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kerswill, P., & Williams, A. (2005). New Towns and Koineisation: Linguistic and Social Correlates. Linguistics, 43(5), 1023–1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. King, J., Watson, C., Keegan, P., & Maclagan, M. (2009). Changing Pronunciation in the Maori Language: Implications for Revitalization. In J. Rehner & L. Lockard (Eds.), Indigenous Language Revitalization: Encouragement, Guidance and Lessons Learned (pp. 85–96). Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University.Google Scholar
  21. Kotsinas, U. (1988). Immigrant Children’s Swedish—A New Variety? Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 9(1–2), 129–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ladd, D. R. (2008). Intonational Phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ladefoged, P., Ladefoged, J., Turk, A., Hind, K., & Skilton, S. J. (1998). Phonetic Structures of Scottish Gaelic. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28(1), 1–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lamb, W. (2011). Is There a Future for Regional Dialects in Scottish Gaelic? Oral paper presented at the FRLSU Colloquium.Google Scholar
  25. Lane, L. A. (2000). Trajectories of Linguistic Variation: Emergence of a Dialect. Language Variation and Change, 12(3), 267–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lobanov, B. (1971). Classification of Russian Vowels Spoken by Different Speakers. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 49(2B), 606–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. MacLeod, D. (2003). An Historical Overview. In M. Nicolson & M. MacIver (Eds.), Gaelic Medium Education (pp. 1–15). Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.Google Scholar
  28. Maguire, G. (1991). Our Own Language: An Irish Initiative. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  29. Mayo, C. (1996). Prosodic Transcription of Glasgow English: An Evaluation of GlaToBI (Master’s Thesis). Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  30. McLeod, W., & O’Rourke, B. (2015). “New Speakers” of Gaelic: Perceptions of Linguistic Authenticity and Appropriateness. Applied Linguistics Review, 6(2), 151–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McLeod, W., O’Rourke, B., & Dunmore, S. (2014). ‘New Speakers’ of Gaelic in Edinburgh and Glasgow. Soillse Research Report. http://www.soillse.ac.uk/en/publications/communities.
  32. Mesthrie, R. (2010). Socio-Phonetics and Social Change: Deracialisation of the GOOSE Vowel in South African English. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 14(1), 3–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Morris, J. (2013). Sociolinguistic Variation and Regional Minority Language Bilingualism: An Investigation of Welsh-English Bilinguals in North Wales. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  34. Mougeon, R., Rehner, K., & Nadasdi, T. (2004). The Learning of Spoken French Variation by Immersion Students from Toronto, Canada. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 8(3), 408–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nadasdi, T., Mougeon, R., & Rehner, K. (2005). Learning to Speak Everyday (Canadian) French. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 61(4), 543–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nance, C. (2011). High Back Vowels in Scottish Gaelic. In Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of the Phonetic Sciences (pp. 1446–1450).Google Scholar
  37. Nance, C. (2013). Phonetic Variation, Sound Change, and Identity in Scottish Gaelic. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Glasgow.Google Scholar
  38. Nance, C. (2014). Phonetic Variation in Scottish Gaelic Laterals. Journal of Phonetics, 47, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nance, C. (2015a). Intonational Variation and Change in Scottish Gaelic. Lingua, 160, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nance, C. (2015b). “New” Scottish Gaelic Speakers in Glasgow: A Phonetic Study of Language Revitalisation. Language in Society, 44(4), 553–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nance, C., McLeod, W., O’Rourke, B., & Dunmore, S. (2016). Identity, Accent Aim, and Motivation in Second Language Users: New Scottish Gaelic Speakers’ Use of Phonetic Variation. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 20(2), 164–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ó Curnáin, B. (2007). The Irish of Iorras Aithneach, County Galway. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.Google Scholar
  43. Ó Dochartaigh, C. (1997). Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.Google Scholar
  44. Ó Duibhir, P., & Garland, J. (2010). Gaeilge Labhartha na bPáistí i Scoileanna lán-Ghaeilge in Éirinn [The Spoken Irish of Pupils in Irish-Medium Schools in Northern Ireland]. Armagh: SCoTENS.Google Scholar
  45. Ó Giollagáin, C., Mac Donnacha, S., Ní Chualáin, F., Ní Shéaghda, A., & O’Brien, M. (2007). Comprehensive Linguistics Study of the Use of Irish in the Gaeltacht: Principal Findings and Recommendations. Dublin: Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs.Google Scholar
  46. O’Hanlon, F., McLeod, F., & Paterson, L. (2010). Gaelic-Medium Education in Scotland: Choice and Attainment at the Primary and Early Secondary School Stages. Inverness: Bòrd na Gàidhlig.Google Scholar
  47. O’Rourke, B., & Pujolar, J. (2015). New Speakers and Processes of New Speakerness Across Time and Space. Applied Linguistics Review, 6(2), 145–150.Google Scholar
  48. O’Rourke, B., & Ramallo, F. (2013). Competing Ideologies of Linguistic Authority Amongst New Speakers in Contemporary Galicia. Language in Society, 42(3), 287–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. O’Rourke, B., Pujolar, J., & Ramallo, F. (2015). New Speakers of Minority Languages: The Challenging Opportunity. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 231, 1–20.Google Scholar
  50. Oftedal, M. (1956). A Linguistic Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland. Vol III: The Gaelic of Leurbost, Isle of Lewis. Oslo: Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap.Google Scholar
  51. Ortega, A., Amorrortu, E., Goirigolzarri, J., Urla, J., & Uranga, B. (2014). New Basque Speakers: Linguistic Identity and Legitimacy. Digithum, 16, 47–58.Google Scholar
  52. Puigdevall, M. (2014). New Speakers of Minority Languages: Belonging and Legitimacy. Digithum, 16, 44–46.Google Scholar
  53. Quist, P. (2008). Sociolinguistic Approaches to Multiethnolect: Language Variety and Stylistic Practice. International Journal of Bilingualism, 12(1), 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rathcke, T., Stuart-Smith, J., Timmins, C., & José, B. (2012, October 26). Trying on a New BOOT: Acoustic Analyses of Real-Time Change in Scottish English. Poster presented at NWAV 41.Google Scholar
  55. Ravid, D. D. (1995). Language Change in Child and Adult Hebrew: A Psycholinguistic Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Shuken, C. (1980). An Instrumental Investigation of Some Scottish Gaelic Consonants. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  57. Siegel, J. (1985). Koines and Koineization. Language in Society, 14(3), 357–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stuart-Smith, J. (1999). Glasgow: Accent and Voice Quality. In P. Foulkes & G. Docherty (Eds.), Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles (pp. 203–223). London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  59. Ternes, E. (2006). The Phonemic Analysis of Scottish Gaelic. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.Google Scholar
  60. Traunmüller, H. (1990). Analytical Expressions for the Tonotopic Sensory Scale. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 88, 97–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Trudgill, P. (2004). New Dialect Formation: The Inevitability of Colonial Englishes. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Wells, J. (1982). Accents of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wiese, H. (2009). Grammatical Innovation in Multiethnic Urban Europe: New Linguistic Practices Among Adolescents. Lingua, 119, 782–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Withers, C. (1998). Urban Highlanders: Highland-Lowland Migration and Urban Gaelic Culture, 1700–1900. East Linton: Tuckwell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claire Nance
    • 1
  1. 1.Linguistics and English LanguageLancaster UniversityLancasterUK

Personalised recommendations