Urban Multilingualism and Educational Achievement: Identifying and Implementing Evidence-Based Strategies for School Improvement

  • Jim Cummins


In this chapter, I analyze patterns of school achievement among students of immigrant background and suggest evidence-based directions for increasing students’ educational success. Although each social context is unique, some generalizations regarding patterns of achievement and causes of underachievement can be made based on the research evidence. Identification of causal factors, in turn, enables us to highlight instructional interventions that respond to these causal factors.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jim Cummins
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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