Preventing Illicit Trafficking of Cultural Objects: A Supply Chain Perspective
Illicit trade in antiquities, fuelled by plundering, looting and theft, is an old business. Despite the emergence of the international legal framework to protect cultural heritage and prohibit illicit trade in some forms after World War II, pillaging and destruction in the wake of the twenty-first century have demonstrated that the humanity keeps losing its most precious treasures at a dangerous scale.
Starting from the analysis of the market, its main players and the value chains, this chapter provides an overview of the latest policy developments and an analysis of customs capabilities to counter illicit trafficking from a supply chain perspective.
KeywordsIllicit trafficking Cultural objects Customs Law enforcement
- Arsenault, C. (2014, April 4). La Tunisie rend à l’Algérie son masque de Gorgone volé (Tunisia returns stolen Gorgona mask to Algeria). RFI. Retrieved April 25, 2017, from http://www.rfi.fr/mfi/20140404-algerie-masque-gorgone-restitution-tunisie-2011-ben-ali.
- Bajjaly, J. F. (2008). Will Mesopotamia survive the war? The continuous destruction of Iraq’s archaeological sites. In P. G. Stone & J. Bajjaly (Eds.), The destruction of cultural heritage in Iraq. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer Ltd.Google Scholar
- Baldini, A. (2017). Cultural heritage: ‘Historic resolution’ proposed by France, Italy approved unanimously by UNSC. Retrieved March 3, 2017, from http://www.onuitalia.com/2017/03/24/cultural-heritage-historic-resolution-proposed-france-italy-approved-unanimously-unsc/.
- Bogdanos, M. (2005). Thieves of Baghdad. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing.Google Scholar
- Bogdanos, M. (2008). Thieves of Baghdad. In P. G. Stone & J. Bajjaly (Eds.), The destruction of cultural heritage in Iraq. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer Ltd.Google Scholar
- Brodie, N. (1998). Pity the poor middlemen. Culture Without Context, 3(Autumn), 7–9, England: Cambridge.Google Scholar
- Brodie, N. (2003). Lessons from trade in illicit antiquities. In S. Oldfield (Ed.), The trade in wildlife: Regulation for conservation (pp. 184–195). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Brodie, N. (2012). Uncovering the antiquities market. In R. Skeates, C. McDavid, & J. Carman (Eds.), The oxford handbook of public archaeology (pp. 230–252). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Brodie, N. (2014). The internet market in pre-Columbian antiquities. In J. Kila & M. Balcells (Eds.), Cultural property crime: An overview and analysis on contemporary perspectives and trends (pp. 237–262). Brill: Leiden.Google Scholar
- Boz, Z. (2013). Repatriation of cultural antiquities – Forming a legal and an archaeological procedure. 3rd International Conference of Experts on Return of Cultural Property. Athens, 23–26 October.Google Scholar
- Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. (2018). Bilateral agreements. Retrieved March 20, 2017, from https://eca.state.gov/cultural-heritage-center/cultural-property-protection/bilateral-agreements.
- Cantens, T., & Raballand, G. (2016). Fragile borders: Rethinking borders and insecurity in Northern Mali. Geneva: The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime.Google Scholar
- Charney, N. (2015). A history of transnational trafficking in stolen and looted art and antiquities. In G. Bruinsma (Ed.), Histories of transnational crime (pp. 103–146). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Department of Antiquities of Jordan. (2010). Jordanian National report on the implementation of the 1954 convention for the protection of Cultural Property in the event of Armed Conflict and its two (1954 and 1999) Protocols – Requests for the dispatch of national reports. Retrieved May 2, 2017, from http://www.unesco.org/culture/laws/hague/pdf/jordan_2010natrep_HC-P1-P2_en.pdf.
- Direction Générale des Douanes. (2016). Infos Douane, no. 2, (Directorate General of Customs (2016), Customs Information no. 2). Retrieved May 3, 2017, from http://www.douane.gov.dz/pdf/info_douane/N%C2%B0%201%202016%20Fr.pdf.
- Egypt Independent. (2016, December 26). Egypt retrieves 340 smuggled artifacts from Jordan. Retrieved May 3, 2017, from http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/egypt-retrieves-340-smuggled-artifacts-jordan.
- European Fine Arts Foundation (2017). TEFAF Art Market Report 2017. Helvoirt: TEFAF.Google Scholar
- Fidler, S. (2003, May 24). A black art: How the trade in stolen artifacts aids money laundering, organised crime and terrorism. Financial Times.Google Scholar
- Goldsworthy, A. (2009). The fall of the West: The death of the Roman superpower. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.Google Scholar
- Goutali, A. (2015, July 13). Salim Tiar, Directeur régional des douanes d’Illizi : « le parc du Tassili est entre des bonnes mains » (Salim Tiar, Director of Regional Customs at Illizi: ‘Tassili park is in good hands’). l’Expression. Retrieved May 6, 2017, from http://www.lexpressiondz.com/actualite/27597-%C2%ABle-parc-du-tassili-est-entre-de-bonnes-mains%C2%BB.html.
- Hardy, S. A. (2015). The conflict antiquities trade: A historical overview. In F. Desmarais (Ed.), Countering illicit traffic in cultural goods: The global challenge of protecting the world’s heritage. Paris: ICOM.Google Scholar
- Hardy, S. A. (2016). Illicit trafficking, provenance research and due diligence: The state of the art. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
- Hardy, S. A. (forthcoming). Heritage crime: Criminological perspectives. In V. Mitsilegas, S. Hufnagel, & A. Moiseienko (Eds.), Research handbook on transnational crime. London: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
- Ibn Khaldun. (1967). The Muqqadimah. An introduction to history (N. J. Dawood, ed.), translated from the Arabic by Franz Rosenthal. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Investigations and Customs Enforcement. (2008, September 15). ICE returns more than 1,000 artifacts to Iraq, press release. Retrieved May 5, 2017, from https://www.ice.gov/news/releases/ice-returns-more-1000-artifacts-iraq.
- Investigations and Customs Enforcement. (2017, April 19). ICE HIS and Boston Public Library return cultural artifacts to Italy. News Releases. Retrieved May 14, 2017, from https://www.ice.gov/news/releases/hsi-and-boston-public-library-return-cultural-artifacts-italy.
- Law on Customs of the Kingdom of Cambodia. (2007). Retrieved May 3, 2017, from http://www.customs.gov.kh/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Law-on-Customs.pdf.
- Journal Officiel de la République Française. (2016). Loi n° 2016-925 du 7 juillet 2016 relative à la liberté de la création, à l’architecture et au patrimoine (1) (Law n° 2016-925 of 7 July 2016 on the liberty of creation, on architecture and heritage). Retrieved June 16, 2017, from https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/loi/2016/7/7/MCCB1511777L/jo/texte.
- Mackenzie, S. (2005). Going, going, gone: Regulating the market in illicit antiquities. Leicester: Institute of Art and Law.Google Scholar
- Mackenzie, S. (2009). Identifying and preventing opportunities for organized crime in the international antiquities market. In S. Manacorda (Ed.), Organised crime in art and antiquities (pp. 41–61). International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme: Milan, Italy.Google Scholar
- Neuendorf, H. (2016, July 8), Germany ratifies controversial cultural heritage legislation. Artnet News. Retrieved June 19, 2017, from https://news.artnet.com/art-world/germany-ratifies-cultural-heritage-legislation-547412.
- Parapetti, R. (2008). The contribution of the Centro Scavi di Torino to the reconstruction of Iraqi Antiquities. In P. G. Stone & J. Bajjaly (Eds.), The destruction of cultural heritage in Iraq. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer Ltd.Google Scholar
- Représentation permanente de la France auprès de l’Union européenne. (2015). Lutte contre le trafic des biens culturels: une règlementation européenne est nécessaire (Permanent Mission of France to the European Union (2015). Fight against trafficking of cultural objects: European legislation is necessary). Retrieved June 16, 2017, from https://ue.delegfrance.org/les-ministres-de-la-culture-de-la.
- Scharpf, P. (Ed.). (2007). Nicene and post-Nicene fathers: Second series, Volume VI – Jerome: Letters and selected works. New York: Cossimo Classics.Google Scholar
- Seif, A. (2015). Illicit traffic in cultural property in Lebanon: A diachronic study. In F. Desmarais (Ed.), Countering illicit traffic in cultural goods: The global challenge of protecting the world’s heritage. Paris: ICOM.Google Scholar
- Simpson, S. J. (2015). Back to Kabul: Case studies of successful collaboration. In F. Desmarais (Ed.), Countering illicit traffic in cultural goods: The global challenge of protecting the world’s heritage. Paris: ICOM.Google Scholar
- Stone, P., & Bajjaly, J. (2008). The destruction of cultural heritage in Iraq. Woodbridge: Boydell.Google Scholar
- Swiss Federal Council (2003). Federal Act on the International Transfer of Cultural Property, 20 June 2003 (SR 444.1). Retrieved December 18, 2018, from https://www.bak.admin.ch/bak/en/home/cultural-heritage/transfer-of-cultural-property/legal-basis.html.
- Swiss Federal Office of Culture. (2016). Import, transit and export of cultural property. Retrieved March 20, 2018, from http://www-temp.bak.admin.ch/kulturerbe/04371/04377/index.html?lang=en.
- Trade Arabia. (2017, March 13). Sotheby’s Dubai marks official opening. Retrieved May 17, 2017, from http://www.tradearabia.com/news/LIFE_321892.html.
- Tribune de Genève. (2016). Des biens pillés en Syrie saisis aux Ports Francs. Retrieved December 19, 2016, from http://mobile2.tdg.ch/articles/5841f03fab5c376113000001.
- UN Security Council. (2015a). Resolution 2199, S/Res/2199. Retrieved April 18, 2017, from http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/2199%20%282015%29.
- UN Security Council. (2015b). Resolution 2253, S/Res/2253. Retrieved April 18, 2017, from http://www.un.org/fr/documents/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/2253(2015)&TYPE=&referer=http://www.un.org/fr/sc/documents/resolutions/2015.shtml&Lang=E.
- UN Security Council. (2017). Resolution 2347, S/Res/2347. Retrieved April 3, 2017, from http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/2347(2017).
- UNESCO. (2014). Evaluation of UNESCO’s standard-setting work of the culture sector. Part II – 1970 convention on the means of prohibiting and preventing the illicit import, export and transfer of ownership of cultural property. Final Report by Barbara Toggler, Margarita Abakova, Anna Rubin and Ana Filipa Vrdoljak. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
- UNESCO. (2017). Convention for the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict with regulations for the execution of the convention. The Hague, May 14, 1954. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from http://www.unesco.org/eri/la/convention.asp?KO=13637&language=E.
- UNIDROIT. (1995). UNIDROIT Convention on stolen or illegally exported cultural objects, Rome. Retrieved March 22, 2017, from http://www.unidroit.org/instruments/cultural-property/1995-convention.
- United Nations. (2015). Unanimously Adopting Resolution 2199 (2015), Security Council Condemns Trade with Al-Qaida Associated Groups, Threatens Further Targeted Sanctions. Retrieved August 2, 2016, from http://www.un.org/press/en/2015/sc11775.doc.htm.
- WCO. (2016a, July 15). WCO steps up efforts to deter illicit trafficking of cultural objects. Retrieved August 9, 2016, from http://www.wcoomd.org/en/media/newsroom/2016/july/wco-steps-up-efforts-to-deter-the-illicit-trafficking-of-cultural-objects.aspx.
- WCO. (2016b). Resolution of the Customs Co-operation Council on the role of Customs in preventing illicit trafficking of cultural objects, Brussels. Retrieved March 12, 2017, from http://www.wcoomd.org/-/media/wco/public/global/pdf/about-us/legal-instruments/resolutions/resolution_cultural-objects.pdf?la=en.
- WCO. (2017a). Trafficking of cultural property. Retrieved May 18, 2017, from http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/enforcement-and-compliance/activities-and-programmes/trafficking-of-cultural-objects.aspx.
- WCO. (2018). WCO publishes new tool to assist countries in the prevention of illicit trafficking of cultural heritage. Retrieved 12 December 2018, from http://www.wcoomd.org/en/media/newsroom/2018/november/wco-publishes-new-tool-in-the-prevention-of-illicit-trafficking-of-cultural-heritage.aspx.
- Xinhua. (2005, July 5). 200,000 tombs plundered in past decades. Retrieved May 20, 2017, from http://www.china.org.cn/english/China/134102.htm.
- Yates, D. (2015). Illicit cultural property from Latin America: Looting, trafficking, and sale. In F. Desmarais (Ed.), Countering illicit traffic in cultural goods: The global challenge of protecting the world’s heritage. Paris: ICOM.Google Scholar