Media Ethics and Journalism in Tanzania
Media ethics scholars have been debating the value of using normative versus culture-specific approaches for formulating and understanding media ethics. However, few studies have examined how the colonial history of a developing country influences its ability to enforce normative principles of media ethics. This chapter provides a review of various stages of media evolution in Tanzania and their role in shaping ethical guidelines for its journalists, and offers suggestions to refine ethical guidelines for media operating with limited resources and restricted press freedom. I argue that postcolonial countries such as Tanzania require a hybrid form of ethical framework, where universal values of providing unbiased reporting have to be balanced with the need for monetary help from news sources to complete the given reporting assignment.
- Berry, David. 2012. Journalism, Ethics and Society. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
- Brennan, James R., Andrew Burton, and Yusuf Lawi. 2007. Dar es Salaam: Histories from an Emerging African Metropolis. Dar es Salaam and Nairobi: Mkuki na Nyota and British Institute in Eastern Africa.Google Scholar
- Ess, Charles M. 2013. Global Media Ethics? Issues, Requirements, Challenges, Resolutions. In Global Media Ethics: Problems and Perspectives, ed. Stephen Ward, 253–271. Somerset: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Freedom House. 2015. Tanzania—Freedom in the World 2014. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2014/tanzania#.VXyx8DUsD2h. Accessed 13 June 2015.
- Grosswiler, Paul. 1997. Changing Perceptions of Press Freedom in Tanzania. In Press Freedom and Communication in Africa, ed. Festus Eribo and William Jong-Ebot, 101–119. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.Google Scholar
- Hunter, Emma. 2015. Political Thought and the Public Sphere in Tanzania. No. 133. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Kamuhanda, Sethi. 1989. The Role of the Mass Media in the Implementation of Tanzania’s Foreign Policy: Reality and Prospects. Africa Media Review 3 (3): 25–28.Google Scholar
- Kaungamno, Ezekiel E. 1978. Mass Media in Tanzania. Tanzania Library Services. Occasional Paper No. 2.Google Scholar
- Mare, Admire, and Robert Brand. 2010. Business Journalism Ethics in Africa: A Comparative Study of Newsrooms in South Africa, Kenya and Zimbabwe. African Communication Research 3 (3): 407–430.Google Scholar
- Media Council of Tanzania. 2015a. Code of Ethics for Professionals. http://www.mct.or.tz/index.php/tutorials/code-of-ethics-for-professionals. Accessed 13 June 2015.
- ———. 2015b. Annual Media Report. http://www.mct.or.tz/index.php/tutorials/code-of-ethics-for-professionals/63-publications/130-annual-reports. Accessed 13 June 2015.
- Mhando, Martin, Ngalimecha Ngahyoma, Samwilu Mwaffisi, and Farida Nyamachumbe. 2014. Effectiveness of Escalating Media Pluralism and Diversity in Promoting Social Accountability in Tanzania. Media Research Paper Commissioned by Media Council of Tanzania. http://www.mct.or.tz/index.php/tutorials/code-of-ethics-for-professionals/63-publications/132-media-research. Accessed 17 Mar 2017.
- Mpagaze, Denis, and Robert A. White. 2010. Tanzanian Journalists’ Ambivalent Perception of Their Ethics: A ‘Jekyll and Hyde’ Occupation. African Communication Research 3 (3): 543–574.Google Scholar
- Mwaffisi, Samwilu. 1991. Development Journalism: How Prepared Are Tanzanian Journalists? Africa Media Review 5 (2): 85–93.Google Scholar
- Reporters Without Borders. 2015. 2015 World Press Freedom Index—United Republic of Tanzania. http://index.rsf.org/#!/index-details/TZA. Accessed 13 June 2015.
- Skjerdal, Terje S. 2010. Research on Brown Envelope Journalism in the African Media. African Communication Research 3 (3): 367–406.Google Scholar
- Society of Professional Journalists. 2016. SPJ Code of Ethics. http://www.spj.org/ethicscode.asp. Accessed 24 Mar 2016.
- Sturmer, Martin. 1998. The Media History of Tanzania. Ndanda: Ndanda Mission Press.Google Scholar
- The Center for International Media Assistance. 2013. Applying Standards: Media Owners and Journalism Ethics. A Report to the Center for International Media Assistance, May 7. http://www.cima.ned.org/resource/applying-standards-media-owners-and-journalism-ethics/. Accessed 15 June 2015.
- The Citizen. 2015. Rights Activists Protest Passing of Statistics, Cyber Crimes Bills, April 3. http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/national/Rights-activists-protest-passing-of-statistics--cyber-crimes-/-/1840392/2674718/-/xopyvq/-/index.html. Accessed 13 June 2015.
- Uche, Luke U. 1991. Ideology, Theory and Professionalism in the African Mass Media. Africa Media Review 5 (1): 1–16.Google Scholar
- United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Human Development Report 2013. http://www.tz.undp.org/content/tanzania/en/home/countryinfo.html. Accessed 13 June 2015.
- United Republic of Tanzania. 2015. Government Portal: National Security Act (2007). http://www.egov.go.tz/egov_uploads/documents/NATIONAL_SECURITY_ACT_sw.pdf. Accessed 15 June 2015.
- ———. 2008. Global Journalism Ethics: Widening the Conceptual Base. Global Media Journal 1 (1): 137–149.Google Scholar
- ———. 2013. Global Media Ethics: Problems and Perspectives. Somerset, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Wasserman, Herman. 2010. Media Ethics and Human Dignity in the Postcolony. In Media Ethics Beyond Borders, ed. Stephen Ward and Herman Wasserman, 74–89. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Ziegler, Dhyana, and Molefi K. Asante. 1992. Thunder and Silence: The Mass Media in Africa. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.Google Scholar