Advertisement

Promoting Learner Engagement in a Large University-Level ESL Class in Pakistan

  • Bushra Ahmed Khurram
Chapter
Part of the International Perspectives on English Language Teaching book series (INPELT)

Abstract

This chapter discusses an attempt to increase learner engagement in a large ESL class through a classroom-based intervention study carried out at a public sector university in Pakistan. The chapter offers a brief background to the study, discusses the construct of learner engagement, particularly in the context of large classes, presents some of the strategies used during the study to increase learner engagement in a large ESL class and discusses the outcomes of the study. From a global perspective, the strategies shared in the chapter may have wider significance and contribute to the repertoire of strategies large class teachers use to engage learners in similar contexts elsewhere.

References

  1. Ajjan, M. (2012) Teaching and learning in large tertiary Syrian classes: An investigation into students’ and tutors’ perspectives. Unpublished PhD thesis, Centre for Applied Linguistics, University of Warwick, UK.Google Scholar
  2. Block, C., & Pressley, M. (Eds.). (2002). Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Block, C. C., & Pressley, M. (2007). Best practices in teaching comprehension. In L. B. Gambrell, L. M. Morrow, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (3rd ed., pp. 220–242). New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bughio, F. A. (2012). Improving English language teaching in large classes at university level in Pakistan. Unpublished Doctoral thesis, University of Sussex, UK.Google Scholar
  5. Caulfield, J. (2010). Applying graduate student perceptions of task engagement to enhance learning conditions. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 4(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark, M. C., Nguyen, H. T., Bray, C., & Levine, R. E. (2008). Team-based learning in an undergraduate nursing course. Journal of Nursing Education, 47(3), 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education. London: Routledge Falmer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coleman, H. (1989). How large are large classes? Lancaster-leeds language learning in large classes research project (Report no. 4). Available online: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED322759.pdf
  9. Cooper, J. L., & Robinson, P. (2000). The argument for making large classes seem small. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 81, 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dornyei, Z. (1994). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 273–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dornyei, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching, 31(3), 117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dornyei, Z. (2001). Motivation strategies in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Exeter, D. J., Ameratunga, S., Ratima, M., Morton, S., Dickson, M., Hsu, D., & Jackson, R. (2010). Student engagement in very large classes: The teachers’ perspective. Studies in Higher Education, 35(7), 761–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Felder, R. (1997). Beating the numbers game: Effective teaching in large classes. ASEE Annual Conference, Milwaukee.Google Scholar
  16. Finn, J. D., & Achilles, C. M. (1990). Answers and questions about class size: A statewide experiment. American Educational Research Journal, 27(3), 557–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grabe, W. (2009). Reading in a second language: Moving from theory to practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Guilloteaux, M. J., & Dornyei, Z. (2008). Motivating language learners: A classroom-oriented investigation of the effects of motivational strategies on student motivation. Tesol Quarterly, 42(1), 55–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haddad, C. (2006). Practical tips for teaching large classes: A teacher’s guide. Bangkok: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  20. Handelsman, M. M., Briggs, W. L., Sullivan, N., & Towler, A. (2005). A measure of college student course engagement. The Journal of Educational Research, 98(3), 184–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hayes, D. (1997). Helping teachers to cope with large classes. ELT Journal, 51(2), 106–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Heaslip, G., Donovan, P., & Cullen, J. G. (2014). Student response systems and learner engagement in large classes. Active Learning in Higher Education, 15(1), 11–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Herrenkohl, L. R., & Guerra, M. R. (1998). Participant structures, scientific discourse, and student engagement in fourth grade. Cognition and Instruction, 16(4), 431–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hess, N. (2001). Teaching large multi-level classes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuchah, K. (2013). Context-appropriate ELT pedagogy: An investigation in Cameroonian primary schools. Unpublished PhD thesis, Centre for Applied Linguistics, University of Warwick, UK.Google Scholar
  26. MacGregor, J., Cooper, J. L., Smith, K. A., & Robinson, P. (Eds.). (2000). Editors’ notes: Strategies for energising large classes, special issue. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 81, 1–4.Google Scholar
  27. Marshall, M. (2001). Discipline without stress punishment and rewards: How teachers and parents promote responsibility and learning. Los Alamitos, CA: Piper Press.Google Scholar
  28. Martinez-Torres, M. D. R., Toral, S. L., Barrero, F., & Gallardo, S. (2007). Improving learning performance in laboratory instruction by means of SMS messaging. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(4), 409–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McGroarty, E., Parker, J., Heidemann, M., Lim, H., Olson, M., Long, T., Merrill, J., Riffell, S., Smith, J., Batzli, J., & Kirschtel, D. (2004). Supplementing introductory biology with on-line curriculum. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 32(1), 20–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McNiff, J., & Whitehead, J. (2012). All you need to know about action research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  31. Mokhtari, K., & Sheorey, R. (2002). Measuring ESL students’ awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Development Education, 25(3), 2–10.Google Scholar
  32. National Institute of Education. (1984). Involvement in learning: Realizing the potential of American higher education. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  33. Ogle, D. (1986). K-W-L: A teaching method that develops active reading of expository text. The Reading Teacher, 39, 564–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ogle, D., & Blachowicz, C. (2002). Beyond literature circles: Helping students comprehend informational texts. In C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp. 259–274). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  35. Palinscar, A., & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1, 117–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Poirier, C. R., & Feldman, R. S. (2007). Promoting active learning using individual response technology in large introductory psychology classes. Teaching of Psychology, 34(3), 194–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pressley, M., & Fingeret, L. (2007). What we have learned since the National Reading Panel. In M. Pressley, A. Billman, K. Perry, K. Reffitt, & J. Reynolds (Eds.), Shaping literacy achievement (pp. 216–245). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  38. Pressley, M., & Gaskins, I. W. (2006). Metacognitively competent reading comprehension is constructively responsive reading: How can such reading be developed in students? Metacognition and Learning, 7(1), 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Renaud, S., Tannenbaum, E., & Stantial, P. (2007). Student-centered teaching in large classes with limited resources. English Teaching Forum, 3, 12–17.Google Scholar
  40. Sarwar, Z. (2001). Adapting individualization techniques for large classes. In D. Hall & A. Hewings (Eds.), Innovation in English language teaching: A reader. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Scornavacca, E., Huff, S., & Marshall, S. (2007, February). Developing a SMS-based classroom interaction system. In Proceedings of the Conference on Mobile Learning Technologies and Applications (pp. 47–54).Google Scholar
  42. Shamim, F. (1993). Teacher-learner behaviour and classroom processes in large ESL classes in Pakistan. Unpublished Doctoral thesis, School of Education, University of Leeds, UK.Google Scholar
  43. Shamim, F. (1996). In or out of the action zone: Location as a feature of interaction in large ESL classes in Pakistan. In K. M. Bailey & D. Nunan (Eds.), Voices from the language classroom (pp. 123–144). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Shamim, F., & Coleman, H. (In press). Large-sized classes. In J. I. Liontas (Eds.), The TESOL encyclopedia of English language teaching. Hoboken: Wiley and TESOL International.Google Scholar
  45. Shamim, F., & Kuchah, K. (2016). Teaching large classes in difficult circumstances. In G. Hall (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of English language teaching (pp. 527–541). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Shamim, F., Negash, N., Chuku, C., & Demewoz, N. (2007). Maximising learning in large classes: Issues and options. Addis Abbaba: The British Council.Google Scholar
  47. Sitthiworachart, J., & Joy, M. (2008). Computer support of effective peer assessment in an undergraduate programming class. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24(3), 217–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Smith, R. (Ed.). (2005). Teaching English as a foreign language, 1936–1961: Foundations of ELT (Vol. 6). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Solis, A. (2008). Teaching for cognitive engagement: Materializing the promise of sheltered instruction. Intercultural Development Research Association Newsletter, 35(4), 10–11.Google Scholar
  50. Svalberg, A. (2009). Engagement with language: Interrogating a construct. Language Awareness, 18(3–4), 242–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Teixeira-Dias, J. J., Pedrosa de Jesus, H., Neri de Souza, F., & Watts, M. (2005). Teaching for quality learning in chemistry. International Journal of Science Education, 27(9), 1123–1137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Trowler, V. (2010). Student engagement literature review. The Higher Education Academy, 11, 1–15.Google Scholar
  53. Watson-Todd, R. (2006). Why investigate large classes. KMUTT Journal of Language Education, 9. Special Issue: Large Classes, 1–12.Google Scholar
  54. West, M. (1960). Teaching English in difficult circumstances. London: Longmans, Green.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bushra Ahmed Khurram
    • 1
  1. 1.University of KarachiKarachiPakistan

Personalised recommendations