Democratization: The Role of Elites

  • Philippe C. Schmitter


After having recalled the essential features of real-existing democracies (REDs), the chapter discusses different modes of democratization and the role of political elites in these processes. The special nature of transitional situations and the greater freedom of action they allow for elites are highlighted. The relationships between political elites and other actors (such as the military, religious and ethnic groups, and the bourgeoisie) are then explored showing also how they have changed over time.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philippe C. Schmitter
    • 1
  1. 1.European University InstituteFlorenceItaly

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