Advertisement

Consensual Nationalism: The Republican Era and the Rise of Republican Fever

  • Robert Weatherley
  • Qiang Zhang
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter illustrates how similar criticisms have been levelled against the party concerning the truth behind the China’s Republican era. Although the CCP has been more tolerant of media, academic and public discussion of this era with a view to broadening its consensual nationalism, this has once again backfired. In particular, exponents of Republic fever has expressed a preference for the greater educational, democratic and diplomatic achievements of the Republic and dismissed the CCP’s economic reforms as simply making up for the time lost under the calamitous Mao regime.

References

  1. BBC. (2015c, September 9). Zhongguo Xuezhe Mao Yushi Jiaru Kangzhan Lishi Lunzhan Yin Reyi [Chinese scholar Mao Yushi joins debate on war history sparking heated discussions]. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/simp/china/2015/09/150909_wwii_china_history_cpc_kmt.
  2. Bergere, M-C. (1989). The golden age of the Chinese bourgeoisie 1911–1937. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bergere, M.-C. (2000). Civil society and urban change in Republican China. In F. Wakeman & R. Edmonds (Eds.), Reappraising Republican China. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. BJRB. (2015, November 12). Lao Keben Zhe Shinian Renao Guo Chenji Guo [In the past decade, old textbooks experienced both boom and quiet]. Beijing Ribao [Beijing Daily]. Retrieved from http://bjrb.bjd.com.cn/html/2015-11/12/content_327120.htm.
  5. Chen, H. (2011, September 16). Mao Xiansheng Zhidao Wo Xie Lunwen [Mr Mao’s guidance in the writing of my thesis]. Minguo Chunqiu [Spring and Autumn Republic]. Retrieved from http://img.mg1912.com/news/2011/09/16/5d670bb93259eaf40132705bc933006d.html.
  6. Dikotter, F. (2008). The age of openness: China before Mao. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  7. FHW. (2010, February 3). Daxue Zhidao [Dao of university education]. Fenghuang Wang [Phoenix TV Website]. Retrieved from http://news.ifeng.com/history/special/daxuezhidao.
  8. Fu, G. (2009). Zhongguo Qiyejia de Bentu Chuantong zai Nali? [Where are the local traditions of Chinese entrepreneurs?]. Nanfang Renwu Zhoukan [Southern People Weekly]. Retrieved from http://news.sina.com.cn/c/sd/2009-04-16/092817621498.shtml.
  9. Fu, G. (2010, November 16). Xiaoxue Yuwen Keben: Yige Minzu de Wenming Dixian [Primary School Textbooks: The Civic Minimum Standard of a Nation]. Retrieved from http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_48fe46d90100mya7.html?tj=1.
  10. Global Times. (2014c, October 10). Double ten day fervor humiliates history. Global Times English Edition. Retrieved from http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/885475.shtml.
  11. GXD. (2011, November 21). Minguo Huaijiu Re Xuyao Shidu Liangwen [Republican nostalgia fever should be moderately cooled down]. Guoji Xianqu Daobao [International Herald Leader]. Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/herald/2011-11/21/c_131252850.htm.
  12. HQSB. (2012, October 11). Meihua Dangnian Guomindang Zhengquan shi Gongran Sahuang [It is a brazen act of lying to embellish the KMT regime of the past]. Huanqiu Shibao [Global Times]. Retrieved from http://opinion.huanqiu.com/opinion_china/2012-10/3177957.html.
  13. Hsu, T L-h. (1974). Government control of the press in modern China, 1900–1949. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hu, D. (2010, March 1). Women Reng Xuyao Xianzheng Qimeng [We still need constitutional enlightenment]. Zhongguo Gaige [China Reform]. Retrieved from http://magazine.caixin.com/2012-02-29/100361976.html.
  15. Hu, X. (2011, November 13). Jiang Jieshi shi Zhongguo Xiandai Diyi Weiren [Chiang Kai-shek was the greatest man in modern China]. Retrieved from http://blog.ifeng.com/article/14671895.html.
  16. Huang, Q. (1994, January 14). Deng Xiaoping Kaifang Kaifa Sixiang yu Shanghai Pudong Kaifa [Deng Xiaoping’s thought on opening-up and development and the development of Shanghai’s Pudong]. Renmin Ribao [People’s Daily], p. 5.Google Scholar
  17. JHSB. (2010, November 30). Minguo Lao Jiaocai 70 Nian Hou Turan Zouhong [Republican era old textbooks suddenly become popular after 70 years]. Jinghua Shibao [Beijing Times]. Retrieved from http://epaper.jinghua.cn/html/2010-11/30/content_607739.htm.
  18. JJGB. (2010, August 17). Yang Tianshi: Zhuiqiu Xinshi he Xinzhi [Yang Tianshi: Pursuing true history and new knowledge]. Jingji Guanchabao [Economic Observer]. Retrieved from http://www.eeo.com.cn/observer/grls/2010/08/16/178319_2.shtml.
  19. Kirby, W. (1997). The internationalization of China: Foreign relations at home and abroad in the Republican era. China Quarterly, 150, 375–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. LHB. (2016, June 1). Ta Ai Chuan Zhonghua Minguo Guoqi Zhuang, Liusi Qian bei Gong An Dai Chuyou [He likes wearing the Republic of China flag T-shirt, was taken on holiday by police before 4 June]. Lianhe Bao [United Daily News]. Retrieved from http://a.udn.com/focus/2016/06/01/21831/index.html.
  21. Li, S. (2005). Beiyang Junfa Shiqi Weihe Ye You Minzhu? [Why was there also democracy during the Beiyang warlord era?]. Yanhuang Chunqiu [Yanhuang Annals], 4. Retrieved from http://www.yhcqw.com/html/cqb/2008/416/0841612634HDAJE13763198GIICG1H6913.html.
  22. Li, H. (2013). Reinventing modern China: Imagination and authenticity in Chinese historical writing. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  23. Lu, H. (2002). Nostalgia for the future: The resurgence of an alienated culture in China. Pacific Affairs, 75(2), 169–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mackerras, C. (1984). Party consolidation and the attack of spiritual pollution. Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, 11, 175–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mao, Y. (2010, November 1). Zhongguo Renmin shi Shenme Shihou Zhan Qilai de? [When did the Chinese people stand up?]. Zhongguo Gaige Luntan [China Reform Website]. Retrieved from http://www.yhcqw.com/html/yjy/2011/88/1188112576HJA684673862KAD7E6AK64K.html.
  26. Mei, N. (2010, May 21). Qizhi Xianming de Fandui Lishi Xuwu Zhuyi: Xinhai Geming Bainian Huimou [Take a clear-cut stand against historical nihilism: Reviewing the 100 years since the 1911 revolution]. Hongqi Wengao [Red Flag Manuscript]. Retrieved from http://www.qstheory.cn/hqwg/2010/201010/201005/t20100521_30690.htm.
  27. NFDB. (2011, October 18). Minguo Lao Keben: Xiufu Women Ceng You de Zhipu he Youmei [Republican old textbooks: Restore the simplicity and elegance we once had]. Nanfang Dushibao [Southern Metropolis Daily]. Retrieved from http://gcontent.oeeee.com/9/d1/9d15081dc54bcd9d/Blog/c93/1ff07d.html.
  28. Qin, H. (2010). Zhongguo Lishi de Yanxu yu Duanlie [The continuity and fracture of Chinese history]. Chuanzhixing Xueshu Tongxun [Academic Newsletter of the Transition Institute] 8. Retrieved from http://blog.caijing.com.cn/expert_article-151381-12685-2.shtml.
  29. Qin, H. (2011, November 4). Minguo Lishi de Di Er Mianxiang: Luanshi zhong de Xiandaihua Bufa [Various aspects of republican history: Steps towards modernisation in a chaotic world]. Nanfang Zhoumo [Southern Weekend]. Retrieved from http://www.infzm.com/content/64459.
  30. Qin, H. (2012a, January 19). Minzu Zhuyi de Shijian: Zhongguo Zhan Qilai le de Licheng [The practice of nationalism: The process of China standing up]. Nanfang Zhoumo [Southern Weekend]. Retrieved from http://www.infzm.com/content/67757/1.
  31. Qin, H. (2012b, February 23). Ban Zhimindi Zhuangtai de Zhongjie: Zaitan Zhongguo Zhan Qilai le de Licheng [The end of semi-colonial status: More on the process of China standing up]. Nanfang Zhoumo [Southern Weekend]. Retrieved from http://www.infzm.com/content/71090.
  32. RFICS. (2012, November 2). Cao Haibo bei Zhongpan Banian, Dalu “Minxian Pai” Huyu Ma Yingjiu Guanzhu [Cao Haibo receives heavy eight year sentence, mainland ‘Republican constitutionalism faction’ Calls for Ma Yingjiu to pay attention]. Radio France International Chinese Service. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/c77nr3x.
  33. Saich, T. (1984). Party consolidation and spiritual pollution in the People’s Republic of China. Communist Affairs, 3(3), 283–289.Google Scholar
  34. Schell, O. (2004). China’s hidden democratic legacy. Foreign Affairs, 83(4), 116–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. SCMP. (2013, January 4). Policeman Wang Dengchao jailed for graft after calling for democracy. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1119383/policeman-wang-dengchao-jailed-graft-after-calling-democracy.
  36. Sun, Y. (2008). Zai Minguo [In the Republic]. Zhejiang: Zhejiang Renmin Chubanshe. Retrieved from http://cul.cn.yahoo.com/ypen/20101222/135469.html/.
  37. SZTB. (2012, September 24). “Minguo Re” Yao Fang Meihua Huo Shenhua Qingxiang [‘Republican fever’ Should not be embellished or sanctified]. Shenzhen Tequ Bao [Shenzhen Special Zone Daily]. Retrieved from http://sztqb.sznews.com/html/2012-09/24/content_2217436.htm.
  38. Tang, X. (2008, May 5). Toushi Minguo Zhishi Fenzi Shi Re [The essence of Republican era intellectual history fever]. Nanfengchuang Zazhi [Southern Window Magazine]. Retrieved from http://www.nfcmag.com/articles/769.
  39. Taylor, J. (2009). Discovering a Nationalist heritage in present-day Taiwan. China Heritage Quarterly, 17. Retrieved from http://www.chinaheritagequarterly.org/articles.php?searchterm=017_taiwan.inc&issue=017.
  40. Unger, J. (Ed.). (1993). Using the past to serve the present: Historiography and politics in contemporary China. New York: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  41. Wang, J. (1997). Zhongguo Feichu bu Pingdeng Tiaoyue de Lishi Kaocha [A review of the history of China’s abolition of the unequal treaties]. Lishi Yanjiu [Historical Research], 5. Retrieved from http://www.cssn.cn/news/446779.htm.
  42. Wang, C. (2008). Recent research on Republican Chinese history. Journal of Modern Chinese History, 2(1), 89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang, Z. (2012). Never forget national humiliation: Historical memory in Chinese politics and foreign relations. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Wang, L. (2015, February 25). Yige Jiazu Shuxie de Jiaoyu Shi [Educational history written by a Clan]. Zhongguo Qingnian Bao [China Youth Daily]. Retrieved from http://zqb.cyol.com/html/2015-02/25/nw.D110000zgqnb_20150225_1-12.htm.
  45. Wright, T. (1993). The spiritual heritage of Chinese capitalism: Recent trends in the historiography of Chinese enterprise management. In J. Unger (Ed.), Using the past to serve the present: Historiography and politics in contemporary China (pp. 205–238). New York: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  46. Wu, X. (2014, May 19). Minguo Shiqi Baoren Qunxiang Lueying [A glimpse of Republican era newspaper professionals]. Jin Chuanmei [Today’s Mass Media]. Retrieved from http://media.people.com.cn/n/2014/0519/c384775-25036281.html.
  47. XGL. (2008, April 29). Jiefeng Minguo [Unwrapping the Republic]. Xianfeng Guojia Lishi [Xianfeng National History]. Retrieved from http://news.sohu.com/20080429/n256586295_3.shtml.
  48. XHRB. (2013, March 26). Zuojia Yue Nan Tan Dashi Kuifa: Daoshi Cheng Laoban Nanyi Chengjiu Dashi [Author Yue Nan discusses the lack of great masters: Supervisors have become bosses, making it hard to develop great masters]. Xinhua Ribao [Xinhua Daily]. Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/book/2013-03/27/c_124507722.htm.
  49. Xie, Z. (2008, January 23). Ganhuai Minguo Daxue de Dixian [Thoughts on the minimum standard of Republican universities]. Xinjing Bao [Beijing News]. Retrieved from http://epaper.bjnews.com.cn/html/2008-01/23/content_148272.htm?div=-1.
  50. Xie, Y. (2010, September 30). Chen Danqing vs Xie Yong: Jintian Weishenme Tanlun Minguo? [Chen Danqing vs Xie Yong: Why discuss the Republic today?]. Fenghuang Wang [Phoenix TV Network]. Retrieved from http://book.ifeng.com/yeneizixun/special/lixiangguo2010/pinglun/detail_2010_09/30/2678282_0.shtml.
  51. Xin, L. (2009b, November 2). Jiemi Minguo Huangjin Shinian [Revealing the secrets of the golden decade during the republican era]. Retrieved from http://blog.ifeng.com/article/3390095.html.
  52. Xin, Li. (2011a). Zhonghua Minguo Shi [History of the Republic of China]. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju.Google Scholar
  53. Xin, L. (2011a, November 2). Minguo Shiqi de Xinwen Ziyou [Media freedom in the Republican era]. Retrieved from http://blog.163.com/xin_lijian/blog/static/4677157020130485745529/.
  54. Xin, L. (2011b, August 30). Liang’an Tongyi Jichu: 1946 Xianfa [The foundation of cross-strait reunification: The 1946 constitution]. Retrieved from http://blog.ifeng.com/article/13251191.html.
  55. XJB. (2011, January 22). Minguo Re: Xinhai Nian Li Weilu Yuedu [Republican fever: Fireside reading during the Xinhai year]. Xinjing Bao [Beijing News]. Retrieved from http://epaper.bjnews.com.cn/html/2011-01/22/content_194383.htm?div=-1.
  56. XKB. (2011, May 8). Lishi Jizai Zhong de Jiu Zhongguo: Feiji Dapao Dou Neng Zao [Old China according to historical records: Even aeroplanes and big cannons were being built]. Xinkuai Bao [New Express], B:02.Google Scholar
  57. Xu, Y. (2010b, March 31). Didui Shili Yulun Xinli Gongshi shi Chang Wu Xiaoyan Zhanzheng [Public opinion and the psychological offensives of the hostile forces are like a war without gun smoke]. Renmin Wang [People’s Network]. Retrieved from http://military.people.com.cn/GB/1076/52984/11265783.html.
  58. Xue, L. (2010, February 3). Minguo Jiaoyu Gei Women de Jiejan [What we can learn from Republican era education]. Fenghuang Wang [Phoenix TV Website]. Retrieved from http://news.ifeng.com/history/special/minguodaxue/201002/0203_9438_1536047.shtml.
  59. XZK. (2010, September 1). Niandai Ju: Zui Ju Yule Xiaoguo de Dianshiju Leixing [Period dramas: The most entertaining television genre]. Xin Zhoukan [New Weekly]. Retrieved from http://www.neweekly.com.cn/index/newsview.php?id=2853.
  60. XZK. (2012, June 1). Naxie Beiying, Rang Women Faxian Minzu de Zhengmian - Deng Kangyan he Ta de “Xiansheng Men” [Those receding figures, let us discover the positive image of the nation - Deng Kangyan and his ‘Xiansheng’]. Xin Zhoukan [New Weekly]. Retrieved from http://www.neweekly.com.cn/newsview.php?id=4243.
  61. Yan, C. (2011a, August 22). Minguo Zhihou Zhongguo Jiujing Diushi Duoshao Tudi? [How much land did China lose after the republic?]. Fenghuang Wang [Phoenix TV Network]. Retrieved from http://www.21ccom.net/articles/lsjd/lsjj/article_2011012729027.html.
  62. Yan, C. (2011b, April 8). Ma Yingjiu Cheng Lejian Dalu Gaibian dui Jiang Jieshi Pingjia [Ma Yingjiu says he is glad to see the mainland changing its assessment of Chiang Kai-shek]. Zhongguo Pinglun Xinwen Wang [China Review News]. Retrieved from http://www.chinareviewnews.com/doc/1016/5/3/8/101653801.html?coluid=46&kindid=0&docid=101653801&mdate=0408170131.
  63. Yan, C. (2011c, January 27). Zhongguo Ren Weishenme Yao Huainian Jiang Jieshi? [Why do Chinese people miss Chiang Kai-shek?]. Gongshi Wang [21.ccom.net]. Retrieved from http://www.21ccom.net/articles/lsjd/lsjj/article_2011012729027.html.
  64. Yan, Q. (2015, January 31). Chongfan Lishi Xianchang, Minguo Guohui de Xin Renzhi [Returning to the scene of history: A new understanding of the Republican parliament]. Xin Jing Bao [Beijing News]. Retrieved from http://epaper.bjnews.com.cn/html/2015-01/31/content_560140.htm.
  65. Yang, H. (2011, June 17). Kan Jian Dang Wei Ye de Yidian Ganxiang [Some Thoughts After Watching the Beginning of the Great Revival]. Retrieved from http://yanghengjunbk.blog.163.com/blog/static/45964193201151710048322/.
  66. Yang, K., Chen, D. et al. (2011, September 13). Minguo shi Lishi Haishi Xianshi? [Is the Republic history or reality?]. Retrieved from http://book.ifeng.com/yeneizixun/special/lixiangguo2010/pinglun/detail_2010_09/30/2678282_0.shtml.
  67. Yang, S. (1989). Jiang Jieshi Zhuan [A Biography of Chiang Kai-shek]. Beijing: Tuanjie Chubanshe.Google Scholar
  68. Yang, T. (2003). Guanyu Zhuozhu “Jiangshi Midang yu Jiang Jieshi Zhenxiang” de Yanzheng [Solemn statement about my book ‘Chiang’s secret files and the truth about Chiang Kai-shek’]. Huanghuagang [Huanghuagang Magazine], 4. Retrieved from http://www.huanghuagang.org/hhgMagazine/issue07/big5/22.htm.
  69. Ye, H. (2010, November 1). Qingchu Jingshen Wuran zhong de Yang Shubiao Shijian [The Yang Shubiao incident in the campaign against spiritual pollution]. Shuzhai [Shuzai Magazine]. Retrieved from http://epaper.gmw.cn/sz/html/2010-11/01/nw.D110000sz_20101101_5-04.htm?div=-1.
  70. Yuan, W. (2010b, November 1). Mao Yushi Deng: Huishou Xinhai Bainian [Mao Yushi et al: Reviewing the century since the 1911 revolution]. Zhongguo Gaige Luntan [China Reform Website]. Retrieved from http://www.chinareform.org.cn/explore/explore/201011/t20101101_49427.htm.
  71. YSZ. (2013, March 11). Pushuo Mili de Wang Dengchao An: Fantan Haishi Zhengzhi Pohai? [The confusing case of Wang Dengchao: Anti-corruption or political persecution?]. Yangguang Shiwu Zhoukan [iSun Affairs]. Retrieved from http://www.isunaffairs.com/?p=15175.
  72. YZZK. (2008, May 11). Jiang Xun, Xunhui Sun Zhongshan: Zhongguo Fanlan Lianmeng Xianxiang Beihou [Finding Sun Yat-sen: Behind the UOCN phenomenon]. Yazhou Zhoukan [Asia Weekly]. Retrieved from http://www.yzzk.com/cfm/Content_Archive.cfm?Channel=ac&Path=3522178462/18ae1a.cfm.
  73. YZZK. (2011, October 16). Zhongguo Dalu “Minguo Rechao” Beihou [Behind ‘Republican fever’ in mainland China]. Yazhou Zhoukan [Asia Weekly]. Retrieved from http://www.21ccom.net/articles/sxpl/pl/article_2011100746514.html.
  74. ZDB. (2012, October 11). ‘“Guofen”’ Qing Shuang Shi, Wo Guoqi Weibo Piaoyang’ [‘Republican fans’ Celebrate double ten, our national flag waves on Weibo]. Zhongshi Dianzi Bao [China Times]. Retrieved from http://news.chinatimes.com/mainland/11050506/112012101100164.html.
  75. Zhang, L. (2010, December 14). Minguo Sixiangjie de Lishi Gaodu [The historical height of the Republican era intellectual circle]. Renmin Wang [People’s Network]. Retrieved from http://history.people.com.cn/GB/205396/13481134.html.
  76. Zhang, L. (2011, January 1). Dakai Xinmen Zhonghua Minguo shi zai Dalu Jian Cheng Xianxue [Republican Chinese history gradually becomes a prominent subject in the mainland]. Zhongyang Tongxunshe [CNA Newsworld]. Retrieved from http://www.cna.com.tw/Topic/NewsWorld/7-1/201209120007-1.aspx.
  77. Zhang, L. (2011, May 16). Minguo Xuemai: Bainian Qinghua de Lingyi Daotong [The Republican legacy: Another intellectual origin of the one hundred year-old Qinghua university]. Nanfang Renwu Zhoukan [Southern People Weekly]. Retrieved from http://nf.nfdaily.cn/nfrwzk/content/2011-05/16/content_24145893.htm.
  78. Zhang, M. (2011, January 11). Minguo Shiqi de Meiti [The media in the Republican era]. Retrieved from http://zhangmingbk.blog.163.com/blog/static/111950652201101194439563.
  79. Zhang, C. (2014, October 29). Wei Jin Fenggu he Minguo Baoren [The Wei-Jin character and Republican era newspaper men]. Xinwen Aihao Zhe [Lover of Journalism]. Retrieved from http://media.people.com.cn/n/2014/1029/c390220-25932987.html.
  80. Zhou, W. (2008, January 20). Minguo Re Zhixia de Weiyan Dayi [The hidden meaning behind republican fever]. Nanfang Dushi Bao [Southern Metropolis Daily]. Retrieved from http://epaper.oeeee.com/C/html/2008-01/20/content_370686.htm.
  81. ZQB. (2007, October 24). Xuxu Shishi Minguo Re [Republican fever: Appearance or reality]. Zhongguo Qingnian Bao [China Youth Daily]. Retrieved from http://zqb.cyol.com/content/2007-10/24/content_1931011.htm.
  82. ZQB. (2012, September 12). Xunzhao Xiansheng [Finding ‘Xiansheng;]. Zhongguo Qingnian Bao [China Youth Daily]. Retrieved from http://zqb.cyol.com/html/2012-09/12/nw.D110000zgqnb_20120912_1-12.htm.
  83. ZXS. (2007, April 25). Guotaiban: Suowei Zhongguo Fanlan Lianmeng Zuzhi Bingwei Jing Hefa Dengji [State council Taiwan affairs office: The so-called Union of Chinese Nationalists Organisation is not legally registered]. China News Service. Retrieved from http://www.chinanews.com/tw/dlyw/news/2007/04-25/923552.shtml.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.University of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations