Advertisement

Evidence from the Archives of Societies: Early Instrumental Observations

  • Dario Camuffo
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter defines early instrumental observations and explains their significance for climate reconstruction. It also addresses their problems and explains how best to work with them. The chapter sections discuss the development and shortcomings of early instruments—thermometers, barometers, and rain gauges—the relevant measurement practices, and the history of early instrumental observation networks.

References

  1. Bergström, Hans, and Anders Moberg. “Daily Air Temperature and Pressure Series for Uppsala (1722–1998).” Climatic Change 53 (2002): 213–52.Google Scholar
  2. Böhm, Reinhard et al. “The Early Instrumental Warm-Bias: A Solution for Long Central European Temperature Series, 1760–2007.” Climatic Change 101 (2010): 41–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borchi, Emilio, and Renzo Macii. Termometri & Termoscopi. Florence: Osservatorio Ximeniano, 1997.Google Scholar
  4. Borchi, Emilio et al. Il Barometro. Florence: Osservatorio Ximeniano, 1990.Google Scholar
  5. Borel, M.P. “Comprendre l’enquete de la Société Royale de Medécine (1774–1793): Sources, problèmes et méthodologie.” Histoire des Sciences Médicales 39 (2005): 35–44.Google Scholar
  6. Brázdil, Rudolf. Temperature and Precipitation Fluctuations in the Czech Lands during the Instrumental Period. Brno: Masaryk University, 2012.Google Scholar
  7. Brázdil, Rudolf et al. “Historical Climatology in Europe – The State of the Art.” Climatic Change 70 (2005): 363–430.Google Scholar
  8. Brázdil, Rudolf et al. “Weather Patterns in Eastern Slovakia 1717–1730, Based on Records from the Breslau Meteorological Network.” International Journal of Climatology 28 (2008): 1639–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brumme, Barbel. “Methoden zur Bearbeitung historischer Mess- und Beobachtungsdaten (Berlin und Mitteldeutschland 1683 bis 1770).” Archives for Meteorology, Geophysics, and Bioclimatology Series B29 (1981): 191–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Camuffo, Dario, and Antonio della Valle. “A Summer Temperature Bias in Early Alcohol Thermometers.” Climatic Change 138 (2016): 633–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Camuffo, Dario, and Antonio della Valle. “The Newton Linseed Oil Thermometer: An Evaluation of Its Departure from Linearity.” Weather 72 (2017): 84–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Camuffo, Dario, and Chiara Bertolin. “The Earliest Temperature Observations in the World: The Medici Network (1654–1670).” Climatic Change 111 (2012): 335–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Camuffo, Dario, and Phil Jones, eds. Improved Understanding of Past Climatic Variability from Early Daily European Instrumental Sources. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2002.Google Scholar
  14. Camuffo, Dario et al. “Corrections of Systematic Errors, Data Homogenisation and Climatic Analysis of the Padova Pressure Series (1725–1999).” Climatic Change 78 (2006): 493–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Camuffo, Dario et al. “500-Year Temperature Reconstruction in the Mediterranean Basin by Means of Documentary Data and Instrumental Observations.” Climatic Change 101 (2010): 169–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Camuffo, Dario et al. “The Stancari Air Thermometer and the 1715–1737 Record in Bologna, Italy.” Climatic Change 139 (2016): 623–36.Google Scholar
  17. Camuffo, Dario et al. “Temperature Observations in Bologna, Italy, from 1715 to 1815: A Comparison with Other Contemporary Series and an Overview of Three Centuries of Changing Climate.” Climatic Change 142 (2017): 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cassidy, David. “Meteorology in Mannheim: The Palatine Meteorological Society, 1780–1795.” Sudhoffs Archive 69 (1985): 8–25.Google Scholar
  19. Chinnici, Ileana et al. Duecento Anni di Meteorologia all’Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo. Palermo: Osservatorio astronomico di Palermo G.S. Vaiana, 2000.Google Scholar
  20. Colacino, M., and R. Purini. “A Study on the Precipitation in Rome from 1782 to 1978.” Theoretical and Applied Climatology 37 (1986): 90–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Colacino, M., and A. Rovelli. “The Yearly Averaged Air Temperature in Rome from 1782 to 1975.” Tellus 35A (2010): 389–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cotte, L. Traité de météorologie. Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1774.Google Scholar
  23. Csernus-Molnár, Ildikó, and Andrea Kiss. “Század Végi Magyarországi Műszeres Mérések Feldolgozási és Vizsgálati Lehetőségei (Research and Study Possibilities of Late 18th-Century Instrumental Weather Measurement Series in Hungary).” In Környezeti Események a Honfoglalástól Napjainkig Történeti És Természettudományi Források Tükrében, edited by M. Kázmér, 203–14. Környezettörténet 2. Budapest: Hantken K, 2011.Google Scholar
  24. Csernus-Molnár, Ildikó et al. “18th-Century Daily Measurements and Weather Observations in the Se-Carpathian Basin: A Preliminary Analysis of the Timişoara Series (1780–1803).” Journal of Environmental Geography 7 (1–2) (2014): 1–9.Google Scholar
  25. Frisinger, H.H. The History of Meteorology to 1800. Boston, MA: American Meteorological Society, 1977.Google Scholar
  26. Gallego, David et al. “A New Meteorological Record for Cádiz (Spain) 1806–1852: Implications for Climatic Reconstructions.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 112 (2007): 108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ganot, Adolphe. Traité de physique expérimentale et appliquée, et de météorologie. Paris: s.p., 1854.Google Scholar
  28. Goodison, Nicholas. English Barometers, 1680–1860. New York: Crown Publishers, 1968.Google Scholar
  29. Groisman, Pavel et al. “Reducing Biases in Estimates of Precipitation over the United States.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 101 (1996): 7185–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kingston, J. “Observing and Measuring the Weather.” In Climates of the British Isles: Present, Past, and Future, edited by Mike Hulme and Elaine Barrow, 137–52. London: Routledge, 1997.Google Scholar
  31. Koopmans, S. et al. “Modelling the Influence of Urbanization on the 20th Century Temperature Record of Weather Station De Bilt (The Netherlands).”International Journal of Climatology 35 (2015): 1732–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Landsberg, H.E. “Historic Weather Data and Early Meteorological Observations.” In Paleoclimate Analysis and Modeling, edited by A.D. Hecht, 27–70. New York: Wiley, 1985.Google Scholar
  33. Magalotti, L. Saggi di Naturali Esperienze Fatte nell’Accademia del Cimento. Firenze, 1667.Google Scholar
  34. Manley, Gordon. “Central England Temperatures: Monthly Means 1659 to 1973.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 100 (1974): 389–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Middleton, W.E.K. The History of the Barometer. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  36. Middleton, W.E.K. A History of the Thermometer and Its Use in Meteorology. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  37. Negretti, E., and J.W. Zambra. A Treatise on Meteorological Instruments: Explanatory of Their Scientific Principles, Method of Construction, and Practical Utility. London: Negretti and Zambra Establishments, 1864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Parker, D.E. et al. “A New Daily Central England Temperature Series, 1772–1991.” International Journal of Climatology 12 (1992): 317–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pfister, Christian. “Meteorologisches Beobachtungsnetz und Klimaverlauf.” In Berns goldene Zeit: Das 18. Jahrhundert neu entdeckt, edited by A. Holenstein, H.C. Affolter, and V.B. Zeiten, 63–65. Bern: Stämpfli, 2008.Google Scholar
  40. Przybylak, R. et al. The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview. Berlin: Springer, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rodríguez, R. et al. “Long Pressure Series for Barcelona (Spain). Daily Reconstruction and Monthly Homogenization.” International Journal of Climatology 21 (2001): 1693–704.Google Scholar
  42. Rousseau, D. “Climatologie – Les températures mensuelles en région parisienne de 1676 à 2008.” La Météorologie 44 (2009).Google Scholar
  43. Rousseau, D. “Les moyennes mensuelles de températures à Paris de 1658 à 1675: d’Ismaïl Boulliau à Louis Morin.” La Météorologie 81 (2013).Google Scholar
  44. Scott, H.R. Instructions in the Use of Meteorological Instruments. London: Printed for H.M.S.O., 1875.Google Scholar
  45. Strangeways, I. “A History of Rain Gauges.” Weather 65 (2010): 133–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Taborda, João Paulo et al. O Clima no Sul de Portugal no Século XVIII Reconstituição a Partir de Fontes Descritivas e Instrumentais. Lisbon: Centro de Estudos Geográficos, 2004.Google Scholar
  47. World Meteorological Organization (WMO). WMO at a Glance: Working Together for Monitoring, Understanding, Predicting: Weather, Climate, Water: For Your Safety and Well-Being. Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization, 2006.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dario Camuffo
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council (CNR)PaduaItaly

Personalised recommendations