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The 1780s: Global Climate Anomalies, Floods, Droughts, and Famines

  • Vinita Damodaran
  • Rob Allan
  • Astrid E. J. Ogilvie
  • Gaston R. Demarée
  • Joëlle Gergis
  • Takehiko Mikami
  • Alan Mikhail
  • Sharon E. Nicholson
  • Stefan Norrgård
  • James Hamilton
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the 1780s to early 1790s, a particularly interesting period climatically, which also saw the development of the first systematic instrumental weather observations in many locations. These are complemented by extensive documentary evidence covering many parts of the globe including, for example, Iceland, Japan, India, and Australia, as well as numerous European locations. This combination of evidence enables us to analyse specific climate drivers during this period. Particular attention is given here to the role played by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) because extreme phases of the ENSO cycle frequently result in severe weather conditions around large parts of the world. This chapter examines the climatic and socioeconomic effects of the Laki volcanic fissure eruption that occurred in Iceland in 1783–84. Several case studies then detail subsequent climatic events in Europe, India, Australia, Japan, and Africa (including Egypt), as well as attendant societal impacts, including agricultural losses, disease, and famine.

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vinita Damodaran
    • 1
  • Rob Allan
    • 2
  • Astrid E. J. Ogilvie
    • 3
    • 4
  • Gaston R. Demarée
    • 5
  • Joëlle Gergis
    • 6
  • Takehiko Mikami
    • 7
  • Alan Mikhail
    • 8
  • Sharon E. Nicholson
    • 9
  • Stefan Norrgård
    • 10
  • James Hamilton
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SussexSussexUK
  2. 2.Met OfficeExeterUK
  3. 3.Stefansson Arctic InstituteAkureyriIceland
  4. 4.Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR)University of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  5. 5.Royal Meteorological Institute of BelgiumBrusselsBelgium
  6. 6.School of Earth SciencesUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  7. 7.Tokyo Metropolitan UniversityTokyoJapan
  8. 8.Department of HistoryYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  9. 9.Earth Oceanic and Atmospheric SciencesFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  10. 10.Åbo Akademi UniversityTurkuFinland

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