Advertisement

China: 2000 Years of Climate Reconstruction from Historical Documents

  • Quansheng Ge
  • Zhixin Hao
  • Jingyun Zheng
  • Yang Liu
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews the historical climatology of China, with emphasis on records from the Ming (1368–1644 ce) and Qing (1644–1911 ce) periods. China’s historical climatology draws on documentary sources, including classical literature and chronicles, local gazettes, and central imperial archives. These contain both objective records of natural proxies and qualitative weather descriptions. Utilizing these sources, Chinese historical climatologists have generated regional and local temperature and precipitation series, as well as reconstructions of extreme events and their societal impacts.

References

  1. Academy of Meteorological Science of China Central Meteorological Administration. Yearly Charts of Dryness/Wetness in China for the Last 500 Years. Beijing: Cartographic Publishing House, 1981.Google Scholar
  2. Beijing Astronomical Observatory CAS. Unified Catalogue of Local Gazettes in China (Zhongguo di fang zhi lian he mu lu). Beijing, 1985.Google Scholar
  3. Ge, Q.S. “Coherence of Climatic Reconstruction from Historical Documents in China by Different Studies.” International Journal of Climatology 28 (2008): 1007–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ge, Q.S. et al. “Winter Half-Year Temperature Reconstruction for the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yellow River and Yangtze River, China, during the Past 2000 Years.” The Holocene 13 (2003): 933–40.Google Scholar
  5. Ge, Q.S. et al. “Reconstruction of Historical Climate in China, High-Resolution Precipitation Data from Qing Dynasty Archives.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86 (2005): 671–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ge, Q.S. et al. “Meiyu in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River since 1736.” Chinese Science Bulletin 53 (2008): 107–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ge, Q.S. et al. “Temperature Variation through 2000 Years in China: An Uncertainty Analysis of Reconstruction and Regional Difference.” Geophysical Research Letters 37 (2010): L03703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ge, Q.S. et al. “The Rainy Season in the Northwestern Part of the East Asian Summer Monsoon in the 18th and 19th Centuries.” Quaternary Science Reviews 229 (2011): 16–23.Google Scholar
  9. Ge, Q.S. et al. “Temperature Changes Over the Past 2000 Yr in China and Comparison with the Northern Hemisphere.” Climate of the Past 9 (2013): 1153–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ge, Q.S. et al. “Learning from the Historical Impacts of Climatic Change in China.” Advances in Earth Science 29 (2014): 23–29.Google Scholar
  11. Gong, Gaofa, and Sultan Hameed. “The Variation of Moisture Conditions in China during the Last 2000 Years.” International Journal of Climatology 11 (1991): 271–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gong, G.F. et al. “The Variation of Phenodate in Beijing District.” Chinese Science Bulletin 29 (1984): 1650–52.Google Scholar
  13. Hao, Z.X. et al. “Variations of Extreme Drought/Flood Events over Eastern China during the Past 2000 Years.” Climatic and Environmental Research 2010 (2010): 388–94.Google Scholar
  14. Hao, Z.X. et al. “Winter Temperature Variations over the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River since 1736 AD.” Climate of the Past 8 (2012): 1023–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hao, Z.X. et al. “Spatial Patterns of Precipitation Anomalies in Eastern China during Centennial Cold and Warm Periods of the Past 2000 Years.” International Journal of Climatology 36 (2016): 467–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shen, X.Y., and J.Q. Chen. “Grain Production and Climatic Variation in Taihu Lake Basin.” Chinese Geographical Science 3 (1993): 173–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shen, C. et al. “A Pacific Decadal Oscillation Record since 1470 AD Reconstructed from Proxy Data of Summer Rainfall over Eastern China.” Geophysical Research Letters 33 (2006).Google Scholar
  18. Shen, C. et al. “Characteristics of Anomalous Precipitation Events over Eastern China during the Past Five Centuries.” Climate Dynamics 31 (2008): 463–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wang, S., and D. Gong. “Climate in China during the Four Special Periods in Holocene.” Progress in Natural Science 10 (2000): 379–86.Google Scholar
  20. Wang, R.S., and S.W. Wang. “Reconstruction of Winter Temperature in Eastern China during the Past 500 Years Using Historical Documents.” Acta Meteorologica Sinica 48 (1990): 379–86.Google Scholar
  21. Wang, S.L. et al. “Climate in China during the Little Ice Age.” Quaternary Sciences 1 (1998): 54–64.Google Scholar
  22. Zhang, D.E. “Winter Temperature Changes during the Last 500 Years in South China.” Chinese Science Bulletin 25 (1980): 497–500.Google Scholar
  23. Zhang, P.Y. Climate Change in China during Historical Times. Jinan: Shandong Science & Technology Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  24. Zhang, P.Y. et al. “Evidence for Anomalous Cold Weather in China 1815–1817.” In The Year Without a Summer?: World Climate in 1816, edited by C.R. Harington, 428–36. Ottawa: Canadian Museum of Nature, 1992.Google Scholar
  25. Zheng, J.Y., and S.Z. Zheng. “An Analysis on Cold/Warm and Dry/Wet in Shandong Province during Historical Times.” Acta Geographica Sinica 48 (1993): 348–57.Google Scholar
  26. Zheng, J.Y. et al. “Centennial Changes of Drought/Flood Spatial Pattern in Eastern China for the Last 2000 Years.” Progress in Natural Science 11 (2001): 280–87.Google Scholar
  27. Zheng, J. et al. “Variation of Precipitation for the Last 300 Years over the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yellow River.” Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences 48 (2005): 2182–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zheng, J. et al. “Precipitation Variability and Extreme Events in Eastern China during the Past 1500 Years.” Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 17 (2006): 579–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zheng, Jingyun et al. “Extreme Cold Winter Events in Southern China during AD 1650–2000.” Boreas 41 (2012): 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhu, Ko-Chen. “A Preliminary Study on the Climatic Fluctuations during the Last 5000 Years in China.” Scientia Sinica 16 (1973): 226–56.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Quansheng Ge
    • 1
  • Zhixin Hao
    • 1
  • Jingyun Zheng
    • 1
  • Yang Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations