Advertisement

Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship

  • Mitt Nowshade Kabir
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Democracy, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship for Growth book series (DIG)

Abstract

To understand what is knowledge-based social entrepreneurship, we need to delve into the concepts of the entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs. The chapter provides definitions of entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship, and knowledge-based social entrepreneurship. It clarifies who is an entrepreneur and how social entrepreneurs differ from conventional entrepreneurs. The chapter looks into various traits that make a person an entrepreneur. It explains what a social enterprise is and its possible legal structures. Here, we also explained why entrepreneurship process can provide a bird’s eye view of the entrepreneurship from a holistic perspective and discussed its various vital elements and primary focuses on issues such as entrepreneurial opportunity.

References

  1. Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S. W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 17–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In Action control (pp. 11–39). Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldrich, H. E., & Cliff, J. E. (2003). The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship: Toward a family embeddedness perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(5), 573–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aldrich, H. E., Zimmer, C., Sexton, D., & Smilor, R. (1986). The art and science of entrepreneurship (pp. 3–23). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  5. Alvarez, S. A., & Barney, J. B. (2007). Discovery and creation: Alternative theories of entrepreneurial action. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1–2), 11–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(2), 357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in context: Update to the social psychology of creativity. New York: Hachette.Google Scholar
  8. Ardichvili, A., & Cardozo, R. N. (2000). A model of the entrepreneurial opportunity recognition process. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 8(2), 103–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ardichvili, A., Cardozo, R., & Ray, S. (2003). A theory of entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(1), 105–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bagozzi, R. P., Baumgartner, J., & Yi, Y. (1989). An investigation into the role of intentions as mediators of the attitude-behavior relationship. Journal of Economic Psychology, 10(1), 35–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baker, T., Miner, A. S., & Eesley, D. T. (2003). Improvising firms: Bricolage, account giving and improvisational competencies in the founding process. Research Policy, 32(2), 255–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Balboni, B., Kocollari, U., & Pais, I. (2014). How can social enterprises develop successful crowdfunding campaigns? An empirical analysis on Italian context (SSRN Working Paper).Google Scholar
  13. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bandura, A., & Wood, R. (1989). Effect of perceived controllability and performance standards on self-regulation of complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(5), 805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Banerjee, A., Duflo, E., Glennerster, R., & Kinnan, C. (2015). The miracle of microfinance? Evidence from a randomized evaluation. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 7(1), 22–53.Google Scholar
  16. Baron, R. A. (2006). Opportunity recognition as pattern recognition: How entrepreneurs “connect the dots” to identify new business opportunities. Academy of Management Perspectives, 20(1), 104–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Begley, T. M., & Boyd, D. P. (1987). Psychological characteristics associated with performance in entrepreneurial firms and smaller businesses. Journal of Business Venturing, 2(1), 79–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bessant, J., & Tidd, J. (2007). Innovation and entrepreneurship. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Beukman, T. L. (2005). The effect of selected variables on leadership behaviour within the framework of a transformational organisation paradigm (Doctoral dissertation). University of Pretoria.Google Scholar
  20. Bilton, C., & Puttnam, L. D. (2007). Management and creativity: From creative industries to creative management. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  21. Bochner, S. (1965). Defining intolerance of ambiguity. The Psychological Record, 15(3), 393–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bonini, S., & Emerson, J. (2005). Maximizing blended value—Building beyond the blended value map to sustainable investing, philanthropy and organizations. Retrieved from http://community-wealth.org.
  23. Bordieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  24. Brass, D. J. (1992). Power in organizations: A social network perspective. Research in Politics and Society, 4(1), 295–323.Google Scholar
  25. Brockhaus, R. H. (1982). The psychology of the entrepreneur. In C. Kent, D. Sexton, & K. Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship (pp. 39–57). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  26. Brockhaus, R. H., & Horwitz, P. S. (1986). The psychology of the entrepreneur. In D. L. Sexton & R. W. Smilor (Eds.), The art and science of entrepreneurship (pp. 25–48). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  27. Brouard, F., & Larivet, S. (2010). Essay of clarifications and definitions of the related concepts of social enterprise, social entrepreneur and social entrepreneurship. In Handbook of research on social entrepreneurship (pp. 29–56). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  28. Burt, R. S. (1992). Structural holes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Bygrave, W. D., & Hofer, C. W. (1992). Theorizing about entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(2), 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Caird, S. P. (1993). What do psychological tests suggest about entrepreneurs? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 8(6), 11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cantillon, R. (1755). Essay on the nature of general commerce (Henry Higgs, Trans.). London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  32. Caprara, G. V., & Cervone, D. (2000). Personality: Determinants, dynamics, and potentials. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Carson, S. H., Peterson, J. B., & Higgins, D. M. (2003). Decreased latent inhibition is associated with increased creative achievement in high-functioning individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(3), 499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Casson, M. (1982). The entrepreneur: An economic theory. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  35. Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 128–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Colombo, M. G., & Grilli, L. (2005). Founders’ human capital and the growth of new technology-based firms: A competence-based view. Research Policy, 34(6), 795–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1995). Domains and facets: Hierarchical personality assessment using the revised NEO personality inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 64(1), 21–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cromie, S. (2000). Assessing entrepreneurial inclinations: Some approaches and empirical evidence. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9(1), 7–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cromie, S., & O’Donaghue, J. (1992). Assessing entrepreneurial inclinations. International Small Business Journal, 10(2), 66–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dacin, P. A., Dacin, M. T., & Matear, M. (2010). Social entrepreneurship: Why we don’t need a new theory and how we move forward from here. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(3), 37–57.Google Scholar
  41. Davidsson, P., & Honig, B. (2003). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(3), 301–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Davidsson, P., Achtenhagen, L., & Naldi, L. (2010). Small firm growth. Foundations and Trends® in Entrepreneurship, 6(2), 69–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science, 35(8), 982–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Deloitte Consulting LLP. (2018). Global human capital trends 2018: The rise of the social enterprise.Google Scholar
  45. Douglas, E. J., & Shepherd, D. A. (2000). Entrepreneurship as a utility maximizing response. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(3), 231–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Drucker, P. F. (1985). Innovation and entrepreneurship. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Duncan, R. B. (1972). Characteristics of organizational environments and perceived environmental uncertainty. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(3), 313–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Eckhardt, J. T., & Shane, S. A. (2003). Opportunities and entrepreneurship. Journal of Management, 29(3), 333–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Elkington, J. (2013). Enter the triple bottom line. In The triple bottom line (pp. 23–38). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Emerson, J. (2003). The blended value proposition: Integrating social and financial returns. California Management Review, 45(4), 35–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  52. Flannery, M. (2007). Kiva and the birth of person-to-person microfinance. Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization, 2(1–2), 31–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Frenkel-Brunswick, E. (1949). Intolerance of ambiguity as emotional and perceptual variable. Journal of Personality, 18, 108–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Frenkel-Brunswick, E. (1951). Personality theory and perception. In R. Blake & E. Ramsey (Eds.), Perception: An approach to personality. New York: Ronald.Google Scholar
  55. Furnham, A., & Gunter, B. (1993). Corporate culture: Definition, diagnosis and change. International Review of Organizational Psychology, 8, 233–261.Google Scholar
  56. Furnham, A., & Ribchester, T. (1995). Tolerance of ambiguity: A review of the concept, its measurement and applications. Current Psychology, 14(3), 179–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gaglio, C. M., & Katz, J. A. (2001). The psychological basis of opportunity identification: Entrepreneurial alertness. Small Business Economics, 16(2), 95–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Garg, A., Curtis, J., & Halper, H. (2003). Quantifying the financial impact of information security breaches. Information Management and Computer Security, 11(2), 74–83.Google Scholar
  59. Gartner, W. B. (1985). A conceptual framework for describing the phenomenon of new venture creation. Academy of Management Review, 10(4), 696–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gartner, W. B. (1988). “Who is an entrepreneur?” Is the wrong question. American Journal of Small Business, 12(4), 11–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gartner, W. B. (1989). Some suggestions for research on entrepreneurial traits and characteristics. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(1), 27–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gatewood, E. J., Shaver, K. G., & Gartner, W. B. (1995). A longitudinal study of cognitive factors influencing start-up behaviors and success at venture creation. Journal of Business Venturing, 10(5), 371–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gilson, L. L., & Madjar, N. (2011). Radical and incremental creativity: Antecedents and processes. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 5(1), 21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative “description of personality”: The big-five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(6), 1216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Granovetter, M. (1992). Economic institutions as social constructions: A framework for analysis. Acta Sociologica, 35(1), 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hansen, E. L. (1995). Entrepreneurial networks and new organization growth. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 19(4), 7–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hayter, C. S. (2013). Harnessing university entrepreneurship for economic growth factors of success among university spin-offs. Economic Development Quarterly, 27(1), 18–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hébert, R. F., & Link, A. N. (1988). The entrepreneur: Mainstream views and radical critiques (p. 178). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  69. Hendry, C., Arthur, M., & Jones, A. (1995). Adaptation and resource management in the small-medium firm. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 4(2), 165–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (Eds.). (2000). Motivational science: Social and personality perspectives. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  71. Hillman, A. J., & Keim, G. D. (2001). Shareholder value, stakeholder management, and social issues: What’s the bottom line? Strategic Management Journal, 22(2), 125–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hisrich, R. D. (1990). Entrepreneurship/intrapreneurship. American Psychologist, 45(2), 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hoang, H., & Antoncic, B. (2003). Network-based research in entrepreneurship: A critical review. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(2), 165–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: Do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, 9(1), 42–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jack, S. L., & Anderson, A. R. (2002). The effects of embeddedness on the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(5), 467–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Johnson, B. R. (1990). Toward a multidimensional model of entrepreneurship: The case of achievement motivation and the entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(3), 39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kabir, N., & Carayannis, E. (2013, January). Big data, tacit knowledge and organizational competitiveness. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning: ICICKM (p. 220).Google Scholar
  78. Katz, J., & Gartner, W. B. (1988). Properties of emerging organizations. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 429–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kirzner, I. M. (1973). Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  80. Kirzner, I. M. (1979). Perception, opportunity, and profit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  81. Koh, H. C. (1996). Testing hypotheses of entrepreneurial characteristics: A study of Hong Kong MBA students. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 11, 12–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Krueger, N. F., Jr., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5–6), 411–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kuratko, D. F., & Hodgetts, R. M. (1995). Entrepreneurship: A contemporary approach. Orlando, FL: Cengage Learning/Thomson.Google Scholar
  84. Kuratko, D. F., Ireland, R. D., & Hornsby, J. S. (2001). Improving firm performance through entrepreneurial actions: Acordia’s corporate entrepreneurship strategy. Academy of Management Perspectives, 15(4), 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lefcourt, H. M. (1976). Locus of control and the response to aversive events. Canadian Psychological Review/Psychologie Canadienne, 17(3), 202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Liao, J., Welsch, H., & Tan, W. L. (2005). Venture gestation paths of nascent entrepreneurs: Exploring the temporal patterns. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 16(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Low, M. B., & MacMillan, I. C. (1988). Entrepreneurship: Past research and future challenges. Journal of Management, 14(2), 139–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Macko, A., & Tyszka, T. (2009). Entrepreneurship and risk taking. Applied Psychology, 58(3), 469–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McClelland, D. C. (1967). Achieving society (Vol. 92051). New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  90. McGrath, R. G., & MacMillan, I. C. (2000). The entrepreneurial mindset: Strategies for continuously creating opportunity in an age of uncertainty (Vol. 284). Boston: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  91. McMullen, J. S., & Dimov, D. (2013). Time and the entrepreneurial journey: The problems and promise of studying entrepreneurship as a process. Journal of Management Studies, 50(8), 1481–1512.Google Scholar
  92. McMullen, J. S., & Shepherd, D. A. (2006). Entrepreneurial action and the role of uncertainty in the theory of the entrepreneur. Academy of Management Review, 31(1), 132–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Metaal, N. (1992, June). Personal autonomy-a historical, psychological-study. International Journal of Psychology, 27(3–4), 249–249. East Sussex: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  94. Meyskens, M., & Bird, L. (2015). Crowdfunding and value creation. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 5(2), 155–166.Google Scholar
  95. Milliken, F. J. (1987). Three types of perceived uncertainty about the environment: State, effect, and response uncertainty. Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 133–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Morris, W. (2005). A survey of organizational creativity. www.leading-learning.co.nz.
  97. Mullin, R. (1996). Management: Knowledge management: A cultural evolution. Journal of Business Strategy, 17(5), 56–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Odagiri, H., & Gotō, A. (1996). Technology and industrial development in Japan: Building capabilities by learning, innovation, and public policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Ogbor, J. O. (2000). Mythicizing and reification in entrepreneurial discourse: Ideology-critique of entrepreneurial studies. Journal of Management Studies, 37(5), 605–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ojala, A. (2016). Business models and opportunity creation: How IT entrepreneurs create and develop business models under uncertainty. Information Systems Journal, 26(5), 451–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Park, H. S. (2000). Relationships among attitudes and subjective norms: Testing the theory of reasoned action across cultures. Communication Studies, 51(2), 162–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Perry, C. (1990). After further sightings of the Heffalump. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 5(2), 22–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Raja, U., Johns, G., & Ntalianis, F. (2004). The impact of personality on psychological contracts. Academy of Management Journal, 47(3), 350–367.Google Scholar
  104. Rauch, A., & Frese, M. (2007). Let’s put the person back into entrepreneurship research: A meta-analysis on the relationship between business owners’ personality traits, business creation, and success. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16(4), 353–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Reis, T. K., & Clohesy, S. J. (1999). Unleashing new resources and entrepreneurship for the common good: A scan, synthesis, and scenario for action. Battle Creek: WK Kellogg Foundations.Google Scholar
  106. Renzulli, L. A., Aldrich, H., & Moody, J. (2000). Family matters: Gender, networks, and entrepreneurial outcomes. Social Forces, 79(2), 523–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Reynolds, P., & Miller, B. (1992). New firm gestation: Conception, birth, and implications for research. Journal of Business Venturing, 7(5), 405–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Reynolds, P., Storey, D. J., & Westhead, P. (1994). Cross-national comparisons of the variation in new firm formation rates. Regional Studies, 28(4), 443–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Robinson, P. B., Stimpson, D. V., Huefner, J. C., & Hunt, H. K. (1991). An attitude approach to the prediction of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 15(4), 13–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rotter, J. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80(1), Whole No. 609.Google Scholar
  111. Sarason, Y., Dean, T., & Dillard, J. F. (2006). Entrepreneurship as the nexus of individual and opportunity: A structuration view. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(3), 286–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Say, J. B. (1803). 1964. A treatise on political economy (pp. 330–331). New York, NY: Augustus M. Kelley.Google Scholar
  113. Shalley, C. E., Zhou, J., & Oldham, G. R. (2004). The effects of personal and contextual characteristics on creativity: Where should we go from here? Journal of Management, 30(6), 933–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Shane, S. (2000). Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organization Science, 11(4), 448–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shane, S. A. (2003). A general theory of entrepreneurship: The individual-opportunity nexus. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  116. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.Google Scholar
  117. Slotte-Kock, S., & Coviello, N. (2010). Entrepreneurship research on network processes: A review and ways forward. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(1), 31–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Smith, K. G., & DeGregorio, D. (2001). The role of entrepreneurial action in the market process. Unpublished manuscript, University of Maryland.Google Scholar
  119. Smith, K. A., & DeGregorio, D. D. (2002). In press. Bisociation, discovery, and entrepreneurial action. In Strategic entrepreneurship: Creating an integrated mindset. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  120. Stam, W., Arzlanian, S., & Elfring, T. (2013). Social capital of entrepreneurs and small firm performance: A meta-analysis of contextual and methodological moderators. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(1), 152–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stanley Budner, N. Y. (1962). Intolerance of ambiguity as a personality variable. Journal of Personality, 30(1), 29–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sternberg, R. J., & O’hara, L. A. (1999). Creativity and intelligence. In Handbook of creativity (Vol. 13, p. 251). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  123. Stevenson, H. H., Roberts, M. J., & Grousbeck, H. I. (1985). New business ventures and the entrepreneur. Homewood, IL: Irwin.Google Scholar
  124. Stewart, W. H., Jr., & Roth, P. L. (2001). Risk propensity differences between entrepreneurs and managers: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tan, W. L., Williams, J., & Tan, T. M. (2005). Defining the ‘social’ in ‘social entrepreneurship’: Altruism and entrepreneurship. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(3), 353–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tracey, P., & Jarvis, O. (2007). Toward a theory of social venture franchising. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(5), 667–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ucbasaran, D., Westhead, P., & Wright, M. (2001). The focus of entrepreneurial research: Contextual and process issues. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(4), 57–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Uzzi, B., & Lancaster, R. (2003). Relational embeddedness and learning: The case of bank loan managers and their clients. Management Science, 49(4), 383–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Van de Ven, A. H. (1993). The development of an infrastructure for entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(3), 211–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Van Gelderen, M., Jansen, P., & Jonges, S. (2003). The multiple sources of autonomy as a startup motive. SCALES-Paper N200315.Google Scholar
  131. Velamuri, S. R., & Venkataraman, S. (2005). Why stakeholder and stockholder theories are not necessarily contradictory: A Knightian insight. Journal of Business Ethics, 61(3), 249–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Venkataraman, S. (1997). The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research. Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth, 3(1), 119–138.Google Scholar
  133. Venkataraman, S., Sarasvathy, S. D., Dew, N., & Forster, W. R. (2012). Reflections on the 2010 AMR decade award: Whither the promise? Moving forward with entrepreneurship as a science of the artificial. Academy of Management Review, 37(1), 21–33.Google Scholar
  134. Vereshchagina, G., & Hopenhayn, H. A. (2009). Risk taking by entrepreneurs. American Economic Review, 99(5), 1808–1830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Waddock, S. A., & Post, J. E. (1991). Social entrepreneurs and catalytic change. Public Administration Review, 51(5), 393–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Yates, J. F., & Stone, E. R. (1992). The risk construct. In J. F. Yates (Ed.), Risk-taking behavior. Wiley series in human performance and cognition (pp. 1–25). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
  137. Young, J. (1988). Risk of crime and fear of crime: A realist critique of survey-based assumptions. In M. Maguire & J. Pointing (Eds.), Victims of crime: a new deal? (pp. 164–76). Open University Press: Milton Keynes.Google Scholar
  138. Young, J. G. (1985). What is creativity? The Journal of Creative Behavior, 19(2), 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Yunus, M. (1998). Banker to the poor. India: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  140. Yunus, M. (2010). Building social business: The new kind of capitalism that serves humanity’s most pressing needs. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  141. Zhao, H., & Seibert, S. E. (2006). The Big Five personality dimensions and entrepreneurial status: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitt Nowshade Kabir
    • 1
  1. 1.North YorkCanada

Personalised recommendations