Advertisement

IsiNdebele

  • Langa Khumalo
Chapter

Abstract

IsiNdebele is a scantily resourced language of the Bantu group spoken in Zimbabwe. The etymology of the name of the language is steeped in both myth and certain historical language contact situations. It is in this sense that while the history of the Ndebele people is argued to a short one, the language has a long and illustrious history that is traceable to isiZulu spoken in the present-day KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. It is acknowledged that the emergence of isiNdebele as a written form came through the agency of the Christian missionaries, who remarkably chose to orthographically represent isiNdebele differently and independently from isiZulu, which had earlier been committed to writing. The linguistic proximity between the two languages has inadvertently affected the literary growth of isiNdebele in particular, which has seen an overreliance on critical isiZulu literature in the Zimbabwean education system. Consequentially, it was only at the beginning of the millennium that we saw a significant development in the growth of the isiNdebele language in terms of the creation of an isiNdebele corpus, the publication of a first monolingual dictionary Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele (2001), which was quickly followed by a dictionary of musical terms Isichazamazwi Sezomculo (2006), and two grammar books.

Keywords

IsiNdebele IsiZulu Bantu Orthography Grammar National language Literature 

References

  1. Bowern, C., & Lotridge, V. (Eds.). (2002). Ndebele. Munich: LINCOM Europa.Google Scholar
  2. Chimhundu, H., et al. (1998). Report on the formulation of a national language policy. Harare. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  3. Cobbing, J. (1976). The Ndebele under the Khumalos 1820–1896. Unpublished PhD thesis, Lancaster University, Lancaster.Google Scholar
  4. Doke, C. M. (1931). A report on the unification of the Shona dialects. [Carried out under the auspices of the Government of Southern Rhodesia and the Carnegie Corporation]. Hertford: Stephen Austin and Sons Limited.Google Scholar
  5. Doke, C. M. (1954). The Southern African Bantu. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Elliott, W. A. (1897). Dictionary of the Tebele and Shuna languages. London Missionary Society: Cape Town.Google Scholar
  7. Fortune, G. (Undated). 75 years of writing in Shona. Unpublished, Department of African Languages and Literature, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.Google Scholar
  8. Guthrie, M. (1970). Collected papers on Bantu linguistics. Westmead: Gregg International.Google Scholar
  9. Guthrie, M. (1967–71). Comparative Bantu. 4 vols. Farnborough: Gregg International.Google Scholar
  10. Hachipola, S. J. (1998). A survey of the minority languages of Zimbabwe. UZP: Harare.Google Scholar
  11. Hadebe, S. (1994). Word division and spelling in Ndebele. Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.Google Scholar
  12. Hadebe, S. (2002). The standardization of the Ndebele language through dictionary-making. Oslo: Allex Project.Google Scholar
  13. Hadebe, S., et al. (2001). Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele. Harare: College Press.Google Scholar
  14. Khumalo, L. (2003). A general introduction to Ndebele grammar. Cape Town: CASAS.Google Scholar
  15. Mlambo, M. (2009). A survey of the language situation in Zimbabwe. English Today, 25(2), 18–24. CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mudenge, S. I. (1974). The role of foreign trade in the Rozvi Empire: A reappraisal. The Journal of African History, 15(3), 371–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ncube, T. M. (2011). Igazi Labafo. United Kingdom: Sheffield Malaba Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  18. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. J. (2003). The post-colonial state and Matabeleland: Regional perceptions of civil-military relations, 1980–2002. In R. Williams, G. Cawthra, & D. Abrahams (Eds.), Ourselves to know: Civil-military relations and defence transformations in Southern Africa. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
  19. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. J. (2004). The dynamics of democracy and human rights among the Ndebele of Zimbabwe. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.Google Scholar
  20. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. J. (2008). Nation building in Zimbabwe and the challenges of Ndebele particularism. African Journal of Conflict Resolution, 8(3), 27–56.Google Scholar
  21. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. J. (2009). The Ndebele Nation: Reflections on hegemony, memory and historiography. Amsterdam: SAVUSA/Rozenberg Press/UNISA Press.Google Scholar
  22. Ndondo, L. (1971). Qaphela Ingane. Gweru: Mambo Press.Google Scholar
  23. Ngara, E. (1977). Bilingualism in relation to language planning and language teaching. A study of the mutual impact of Shona and English. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of London, Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  24. Nkomo, D., & Moyo, N. (2006). Isichazamazwi sezomculo. Gweru: Mambo Press.Google Scholar
  25. Nyembezi, S. (1956). Uhlelo LwesiZulu. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter and Shooter.Google Scholar
  26. Paulos, G. (1990). A linguistic analysis of Venda. Pretoria: Via Africa Ltd.Google Scholar
  27. Pelling, J. N. (1966). A practical dictionary of Ndebele. Harare: Literature Bureau.Google Scholar
  28. Prah, K. K. (2009). The role of missionaries in the development of African languages. Cape Town: CASAS.Google Scholar
  29. Rasmussen, R. K. (1977). Mzilikazi of the Ndebele. London: Heinemann Educational.Google Scholar
  30. Rasmussen, R. K. (1978). Migrant Kingdom: Mzilikazi’s Ndebele in South Africa. London: Collins.Google Scholar
  31. Sigogo, N. S. (1978). Indlalifa Ngubani. Rhodesia Literature Bureau: Harare.Google Scholar
  32. Sithole, N. (1956–1981). Umvukela wamaNdebele. Gwelo. Mambo Press.Google Scholar
  33. Southern Rhodesia African Literature Bureau. (1959). Imbongi Zalamuhla Layizolo. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter and Shooter.Google Scholar

Literature

    Dictionaries

    1. Elliott, W. A. (1897). Dictionary of the Tebele and Shuna languages. Cape Town: London Missionary Society.Google Scholar
    2. Hadebe, S. et al. (2001). Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele. Harare: College Press.Google Scholar
    3. Nkomo, D., & N. Moyo. (2006). Isichazamazwi sezomculo. Gweru: Mambo Press.Google Scholar
    4. Pelling, J. N. (1966). A practical dictionary of Ndebele. Harare: Literature Bureau.Google Scholar

    Grammars

    1. Khumalo, L. (2003). A general introduction to Ndebele grammar. Cape Town: CASAS.Google Scholar

    First Novel

    1. Sithole, N. (1956–1981). Umvukela wamaNdebele. Gwelo: Mambo Press.Google Scholar

    Latest Novel

    1. Ncube, T. M. (2011). Igazi Labafo. United Kingdom: Malaba Books Ltd.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Langa Khumalo
    • 1
  1. 1.Linguistics ProgramUniversity of Kwazulu NatalDurbanSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations