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Afrikaans

  • Johanita Kirsten
Chapter

Abstract

This article focuses on the social and political history of Afrikaans, a relatively young, fully standardised language spoken mainly in South Africa and Namibia. Afrikaans originated from the Dutch that was spoken in the Cape Colony from the seventeenth century onwards, which changed through internal language change, language contact with a variety of languages and creolisation. Attempts to formally separate Afrikaans as a language from Dutch started in the nineteenth century, and Afrikaans received status as an official language of South Africa in 1925. It is currently the mother tongue of several million South Africans and Namibians and boasts with a formidable literature.

Keywords

Afrikaans Standard Afrikaans Arabic Afrikaans Colonisation Apartheid 

References

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Literature of Afrikaans

    Dictionaries

    1. A very authoritative source on Afrikaans spelling is the official spelling guide by the Taalkommissie [Language Committee] of the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns [South African Academy for Science and Arts]:Google Scholar
    2. AWS: Afrikaanse woordelys en spelreëls [Afrikaans word list and spelling rules] {in Afrikaans}, 10th ed. 2009. Cape Town: Pharos Dictionaries.Google Scholar
    3. The most widely used one-volume Afrikaans dictionary is:Google Scholar
    4. HAT: Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal [Explanatory Desk Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language] {in Afrikaans}, 6th ed. 2015. Cape Town: Pearson Education. (NB: CD-ROM included.)Google Scholar
    5. The latest volume of the comprehensive dictionary of Afrikaans is:Google Scholar
    6. WAT: Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal, Veertiende Deel: S-SKOOI [Dictionary of the Afrikaans Language, Fourteenth Part: S-SKOOI] {in Afrikaans}. 2013. Stellenbosch, South Africa: Buro of the WAT. (NB: The whole dictionary is available on CD-ROM.)Google Scholar
    7. Other dictionaries and specialist dictionaries that might be of use include:Google Scholar
    8. Blokraaisel-en-Rymwoordeboek [Crossword and Rhyme Dictionary] {in Afrikaans}. 2008. Cape Town: Pearson Education. (NB: CD-ROM included.)Google Scholar
    9. De Stadler, L. (2006). Tesourus van Afrikaans [Thesaurus of Afrikaans] {in Afrikaans}. Cape Town: Pharos Dictionaries.Google Scholar
    10. Groot Woordeboek Afrikaans en Nederlands [Great Dictionary Afrikaans and Dutch] {in Afrikaans}. (2011.) Cape Town: Pharos Dictionaries. (NB: Also available on CD-ROM.)Google Scholar
    11. Labuschagne, F. J., & Eksteen, L. C. (2010). Verklarende Afrikaanse Woordeboek [Explanatory Afrikaans Dictionary] {in Afrikaans}, 9th ed. Cape Town: Pharos Dictionaries.Google Scholar
    12. Lochner, J. de V., & Brink, A. J. (2011). Woordeboek vir die Gesondheidswetenskappe/Dictionary for the Health Sciences. Cape Town: Pharos Dictionaries. (NB: Also available on CD-ROM.)Google Scholar
    13. Longman-HAT Afrikaans Dictionary and Grammar for English Speakers. (2013). Cape Town: Pharos Dictionaries.Google Scholar
    14. Pansegrouw, L. (2008). Pansegrouw Makro Blokraaiselwoordeboek [Pansegrouw Macro Crossword Dictionary] {in Afrikaans}. Cape Town: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
    15. Pharos Afrikaans-Engels-Engels-Afrikaans Woordeboek/Pharos Afrikaans-English-English-Afrikaans Dictionary. (2010). Cape Town: Pharos Dictionaries. (NB: Also available on CD-ROM.)Google Scholar
    16. Prinsloo, A. (2009). Spreekwoorde en waar hulle vandaan kom [Proverbs and where they come from] {in Afrikaans}. Cape Town: Pharos Dictionaries.Google Scholar
    17. Sinonieme en verwante woorde [Synonyms and related words] {in Afrikaans} (2006). Cape Town: Pharos Dictionaries.Google Scholar

    Grammars

    1. A list of the most important grammars and normative grammatical works on Afrikaans is given below:Google Scholar
    2. Carstens, W. A. M. (2011). Norme vir Afrikaans: enkele riglyne by die gebruik van Afrikaans [Norms for Afrikaans: a few guidelines in using Afrikaans] {in Afrikaans}, 5th ed. Pretoria: Van Schaik. (NB: First edition: 1989)Google Scholar
    3. Combrink, J. G. H., & Spies, J. (1994). SARA: Sakboek van regte Afrikaans [Pocket book of correct Afrikaans] {in Afrikaans}, 2nd ed. Cape Town: Tafelberg. (NB: First edition: 1986)Google Scholar
    4. De Villiers, M. (1983). Afrikaanse grammatika vir volwassenes [Afrikaans grammar for adults] {in Afrikaans}. Goodwood: Nasou.Google Scholar
    5. Donaldson, B. C. (1993). A grammar of Afrikaans. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    6. Hiemstra, L. W. (1980). Die juiste woord: Praktiese taalgids by die skryf van Afrikaans [The right word: Practical linguistic guide for the writing of Afrikaans] {in Afrikaans}. Cape Town: Tafelberg.Google Scholar
    7. Müller, D., & Pistor, S. (2011). Skryf Afrikaans van A tot Z [Write Afrikaans from A to Z] {in Afrikaans}, 2nd ed. Cape Town: Pharos.Google Scholar
    8. Prinsloo, A. F., & Odendal, F. F. (1995). Afrikaans op sy beste: Hulp met moderne taalkwessies [Afrikaans at its best: Help with modern language questions] {in Afrikaans}. Pretoria: Van Schaik.Google Scholar
    9. Van der Merwe, H. J. J. M, & Ponelis, F. A. (1991). Die korrekte woord: Afrikaanse Taalkwessies [The correct word: Afrikaans Language Issues] {in Afrikaans}, 7th ed. Pretoria: Van Schaik. (NB: First edition: 1967)Google Scholar
    10. Van Schoor, J. L. (1983). Die grammatika van Standaard-Afrikaans [The grammar of Standard Afrikaans] {in Afrikaans}. Cape Town: Lex Patria.Google Scholar

    First Books

    1. The very first Afrikaans book published is often considered to be:Google Scholar
    2. Meurant, L. H. (1861). Zamenspraak tusschen Klaas Waarzegger en Jan Twyfelaar, over het onderwerp van Afscheiding tusschen de oostelyke en westelyke provincie [Conversation between Claus Truthsayer and John Doubter, about the subject of Separation between the eastern and western province] {in Afrikaans}. Cradock: J.S. Bold.Google Scholar
    3. There are rumours about another Afrikaans book published in 1861, a collection of Biblically themed rhymes for children, but it was published and spread privately, and unfortunately no copies of it have been preserved (Scholtz 1939).Google Scholar
    4. The first Afrikaans novel that was published is:Google Scholar
    5. Hoogenhout, C. P. (1879). Catharina, die dogter van die advokaat [Catherine, the daughter of the advocate] {in Afrikaans}. Paarl, South Africa: D.F. du Toit.Google Scholar

    First Periodicals

    1. The first periodical that published Afrikaans texts, usually comical texts written as social commentary, from the 1830s onwards, is the South African Dutch publication:Google Scholar
    2. De Zuid-Afrikaan [The South African] {in Dutch}. (1830–1904). Cape Town, South Africa.Google Scholar
    3. The first completely Afrikaans periodical is:Google Scholar
    4. Die Afrikaanse Patriot [The Afrikaans Patriot] {in Afrikaans}. (1876–1905). Paarl, South Africa.Google Scholar
    5. Another early Afrikaans periodical published by the same group of people than Die Afrikaanse Patriot, namely the GRA [Society of True Afrikaners], is:Google Scholar
    6. Ons Klijntji [Our Little One] {in Afrikaans}. (1896–1905). Paarl, South Africa.Google Scholar

    Important Websites

    1. There is a vast amount of Afrikaans websites available on the internet. To help one find these websites, Afrikaans search engines can be used, like Soek Afrikaans [Search Afrikaans] at http://www.soek-afrikaans.co.za or Rieme [Reams] at http://www.rieme.co.za. For research for school projects, one can visit the Afrikaans online encyclopaedia Mieliestronk [Corn Stock] at http://mieliestronk.com or the Afrikaans Wikipedia at http://af.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuisblad.
    2. If one wants to learn more about current events relevant to the Afrikaans language and read about contemporary and past Afrikaans literature, the website LitNet at http://www.litnet.co.za is of great use. To learn more about Afrikaans language and electronic resources, the website of the Virtuele Instituut vir Afrikaans [Virtual Institute for Afrikaans] can be found at http://viva-afrikaans.org/.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johanita Kirsten
    • 1
  1. 1.North-West University Vaal Triangle CampusVanderbijlparkSouth Africa

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