Cytochrome c oxidase — structure, function, and physiology of a redox-driven molecular machine

  • O.-M. H. RichterEmail author
  • B. Ludwig
Part of the Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology book series (REVIEWS, volume 147)


Cytochome c oxidase is the terminal member of the electron transport chains of mitochondria and many bacteria. Providing an efficient mechanism for dioxygen reduction on the one hand, it also acts as a redox-linked proton pump, coupling the free energy of water formation to the generation of a transmembrane electrochemical gradient to eventually drive ATP synthesis. The overall complexity of the mitochondrial enzyme is also reflected by its subunit structure and assembly pathway, whereas the diversity of the bacterial enzymes has fostered the notion of a large family of heme-copper terminal oxidases. Moreover, the successful elucidation of 3-D structures for both the mitochondrial and several bacterial oxidases has greatly helped in designing mutagenesis approaches to study functional aspects in these enzymes.


Oxidase Subunit Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Bovine Heart Proton Translocation Paracoccus Denitrificans 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



electron paramagnetic resonance




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© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biochemistry, BiocenterJ.W. Goethe-UniversitätFrankfurtGermany

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