Advertisement

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from structure to brain function

  • R. C. HoggEmail author
  • M. Raggenbass
  • D. Bertrand
Part of the Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology book series (REVIEWS, volume 147)

Abstract

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels and can be divided into two groups: muscle receptors, which are found at the skeletal neuromuscular junction where they mediate neuromuscular transmission, and neuronal receptors, which are found throughout the peripheral and central nervous system where they are involved in fast synaptic transmission. nAChRs are pentameric structures that are made up of combinations of individual subunits. Twelve neuronal nAChR subunits have been described, α2-α10 and β2-β4; these are differentially expressed throughout the nervous system and combine to form nAChRs with a wide range of physiological and pharmacological profiles. The nAChR has been proposed as a model of an allosteric protein in which effects arising from the binding of a ligand to a site on the protein can lead to changes in another part of the molecule. A great deal is known about the structure of the pentameric receptor. The extracellular domain contains binding sites for numerous ligands, which alter receptor behavior through allosteric mechanisms. Functional studies have revealed that nAChRs contribute to the control of resting membrane potential, modulation of synaptic transmission and mediation of fast excitatory transmission. To date, ten genes have been identified in the human genome coding for the nAChRs. nAChRs have been demonstrated to be involved in cognitive processes such as learning and memory and control of movement in normal subjects. Recent data from knockout animals has extended the understanding of nAChR function. Dysfunction of nAChR has been linked to a number of human diseases such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. nAChRs also play a significant role in nicotine addiction, which is a major public health concern. A genetically transmissible epilepsy, ADNFLE, has been associated with specific mutations in the gene coding for the α4 or β2 subunits, which leads to altered receptor properties.

Keywords

Xenopus Oocyte Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Chronic Nicotine Central Nervous System nAChR Subunit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler LE, Hoffer LJ, Griffith J, Waldo MC, Freedman R (1992) Normalization by nicotine of deficient auditory sensory gating in the relatives of schizophrenics. Biol Psychiatry 32:607–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler LE, Hoffer LD, Wiser A, Freedman R (1993) Normalization of auditory physiology by cigarette smoking in schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 150:1856–1861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adler LE, Freedman R, Ross RG, Olincy A, Waldo MC (1999) Elementary phenotypes in the neurobiological and genetic study of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 46:8–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Akabas MH, Karlin A (1995) Identification of acetylcholine receptor channel-lining residues in the M1 segment of the alpha-subunit. Biochemistry 34:12496–12500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Akabas MH, Kaufmann C, Archdeacon P, Karlin A (1994) Identification of acetylcholine receptor channel-lining residues in the entire M2 segment of the alpha subunit. Neuron 13:919–927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Albuquerque EX, Deshpande SS, Aracava Y, Alkondon M, Daly JW (1986) A possible involvement of cyclic AMP in the expression of desensitization of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. A study with forskolin and its analogs. FEBS Lett 199:113–120Google Scholar
  7. Alkondon M, Pereira EF, Albuquerque EX (1998) alpha-bungarotoxin-and methyllycaconitine-sensitive nicotinic receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission in interneurons of rat hippocampal slices. Brain Res 810:257–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Alkondon M, Pereira EF, Eisenberg HM, Albuquerque EX (2000) Nicotinic receptor activation in human cerebral cortical interneurons: a mechanism for inhibition and disinhibition of neuronal networks. J Neurosci 20:66–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Allen YS, Devanathan PH, Owen GP (1995) Neurotoxicity of beta-amyloid protein: cytochemical changes and apoptotic cell death investigated in organotypic cultures. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 22:370–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Anand R, Conroy WG, Schoepfer R, Whiting P, Lindstrom J (1991) Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes have a pentameric quaternary structure. J Biol Chem 266:11192–11198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ankarberg E, Fredriksson A, Eriksson P (2001) Neurobehavioural defects in adult mice neonatally exposed to nicotine: changes in nicotine-induced behaviour and maze learning performance. Behav Brain Res 123:185–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Apel ED, Glass DJ, Moscoso LM, Yancopoulos GD, Sanes JR (1997) Rapsyn is required for MuSK signaling and recruits synaptic components to a MuSK-containing scaffold. Neuron 18:623–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Arthur D, Levin ED (2002) Chronic inhibition of alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors in the ventral hippocampus of rats: impacts on memory and nicotine response. Psychopharmacology 160:140–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Assaf SY, Chung SH (1984) Release of endogenous Zn2+ from brain tissue during activity. Nature 308:734–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Balestra B, Vailati S, Moretti M, Hanke W, Clementi F, Gotti C (2000) Chick optic lobe contains a developmentally regulated alpha2alpha5beta2 nicotinic receptor subtype. Mol Pharmacol 58:300–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Balfour DJ, Wright AE, Benwell ME, Birrell CE (2000) The putative role of extra-synaptic mesolimbic dopamine in the neurobiology of nicotine dependence. Behav Brain Res 113:73–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Baron JA (1986) Cigarette smoking and Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 36:1490–1496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barrantes FJ, Antollini SS, Bouzat CB, Garbus I, Massol RH (2000) Nongenomic effects of steroids on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Kidney Int 57:1382–1389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Barrantes GE, Rogers AT, Lindstrom J, Wonnacott S (1995) Alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites in rat hippocampal and cortical cultures: initial characterisation, colocalisation with alpha 7 subunits and up-regulation by chronic nicotine treatment. Brain Res 672:228–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bartus RT, Dean RL 3rd, Beer B, Lippa AS (1982) The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction. Science 217:408–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Baulac S, Huberfeld G, Gourfinkel-An I, Mitropoulou G, Beranger A, Prud’homme JF, Baulac M, Brice A, Bruzzone R, LeGuern E (2001) First genetic evidence of GABA(A) receptor dysfunction in epilepsy: a mutation in the gamma2-subunit gene. Nat Genet 28:46–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Belousov AB, O’Hara BF, Denisova JV (2001) Acetylcholine becomes the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the hypothalamus in vitro in the absence of glutamate excitation. J Neurosci 21:2015–2027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bencherif M, Fowler K, Lukas RJ, Lippiello PM (1995) Mechanisms of up-regulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in clonal cell lines and primary cultures of fetal rat brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 275:987–994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Benwell ME, Balfour DJ, Birrell CE (1995) Desensitization of the nicotine-induced mesolimbic dopamine responses during constant infusion with nicotine. Br J Pharmacol 114:454–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bertrand D, Devillers-Thiery A, Revah F, Galzi JL, Hussy N, Mulle C, Bertrand S, Ballivet M, Changeux JP (1992) Unconventional pharmacology of a neuronal nicotinic receptor mutated in the channel domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:1261–1265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bertrand D, Valera S, Bertrand S, Ballivet M, Rungger D (1991) Steroids inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Neuroreport 2:277–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bertrand D, Galzi JL, Devillers-Thiery A, Bertrand S, Changeux JP (1993) Mutations at two distinct sites within the channel domain M2 alter calcium permeability of neuronal alpha 7 nicotinic receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:6971–6975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bertrand S, Weiland S, Berkovic SF, Steinlein OK, Bertrand D (1998) Properties of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mutants from humans suffering from autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Br J Pharmacol 125:751–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bettany JH, Levin ED (2001) Ventral hippocampal alpha 7 nicotinic receptor blockade and chronic nicotine effects on memory performance in the radial-arm maze. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 70:467–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bibevski S, Zhou Y, McIntosh JM, Zigmond RE, Dunlap ME (2000) Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that mediate ganglionic transmission in cardiac parasympathetic neurons. J Neurosci 20:5076–5082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Blanton MP, Xie Y, Dangott LJ, Cohen JB (1999) The steroid promegestone is a noncompetitive antagonist of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that interacts with the lipid-protein interface. Mol Pharmacol 55:269–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bloomenthal AB, Goldwater E, Pritchett DB, Harrison NL (1994) Biphasic modulation of the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor by Zn2+. Mol Pharmacol 46:1156–1159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Blount P, Smith MM, Merlie JP (1990) Assembly intermediates of the mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in stably transfected fibroblasts. J Cell Biol 111:2601–2611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Blumenthal EM, Conroy WG, Romano SJ, Kassner PD, Berg DK (1997) Detection of functional nicotinic receptors blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin on PC12 cells and dependence of their expression on posttranslational events. J Neurosci 17:6094–6104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bonfante-Cabarcas R, Swanson KL, Alkondon M, Albuquerque EX (1996) Diversity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat hippocampal neurons. IV. Regulation by external Ca++ of alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptor function and of rectification induced by internal Mg++. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 277:432–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bontempi B, Whelan KT, Risbrough VB, Rao TS, Buccafusco JJ, Lloyd GK, Menzaghi F (2001) SIB-1553A, (+/−)-4−[[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio]phenol hydrochloride, a subtype-selective ligand for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with putative cognitive-enhancing properties: effects on working and reference memory performances in aged rodents and nonhuman primates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 299:297–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Booker TK, Smith KW, Dodrill C, Collins AC (1998) Calcium modulation of activation and desensitization of nicotinic receptors from mouse brain. J Neurochem 71:1490–1500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Boorman JP, Groot-Kormelink PJ, Sivilotti LG (2000) Stoichiometry of human recombinant neuronal nicotinic receptors containing the beta3 subunit expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J Physiol 529:565–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bouzat C, Barrantes FJ (1996) Modulation of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the glucocorticoid hydrocortisone. Possible allosteric mechanism of channel blockade. J Biol Chem 271:25835–25841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Breese CR, Lee MJ, Adams CE, Sullivan B, Logel J, Gillen KM, Marks MJ, Collins AC, Leonard S (2000) Abnormal regulation of high affinity nicotinic receptors in subjects with schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 23:351–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Brejc K, van Dijk WJ, Klaassen RV, Schuurmans M, van Der Oost J, Smit AB, Sixma TK (2001) Crystal structure of an ACh-binding protein reveals the ligand-binding domain of nicotinic receptors. Nature 411:269–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Broide RS, O’Connor LT, Smith MA, Smith JA, Leslie FM (1995) Developmental expression of alpha 7 neuronal nicotinic receptor messenger RNA in rat sensory cortex and thalamus. Neuroscience 67:83–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Broide RS, Orr-Urtreger A, Patrick JW (2001) Normal apoptosis levels in mice expressing one alpha7 nicotinic receptor null and one L250T mutant allele. Neuroreport 12:1643–1648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Broide RS, Salas R, Ji D, Paylor R, Patrick JW, Dani JA, De Biasi M (2002) Increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures in mice expressing the L250T alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mutation. Mol Pharmacol 61:695–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Brown EM, Vassilev PM, Hebert SC (1995) Calcium ions as extracellular messengers. Cell 83:679–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Buisson B, Bertrand D (2001) Chronic exposure to nicotine upregulates the human alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function. J Neurosci 21:1819–1829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Buisson B, Gopalakrishnan M, Arneric SP, Sullivan JP, Bertrand D (1996) Human alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in HEK 293 cells: a patch-clamp study. J Neurosci 16:7880–7891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Buisson B, Vallejo YF, Green WN, Bertrand D (2000) The unusual nature of epibatidine responses at the alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Neuropharmacology 39:2561–2569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Cartier GE, Yoshikami D, Gray WR, Luo S, Olivera BM, McIntosh JM (1996) A new alpha-conotoxin which targets alpha3beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Biol Chem 271:7522–7528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Champtiaux N, Han ZY, Bessis A, Rossi FM, Zoli M, Marubio L, McIntosh JM, Changeux JP (2002) Distribution and pharmacology of alpha 6-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors analyzed with mutant mice. J Neurosci 22:1208–1217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Changeux J, Edelstein SJ (2001) Allosteric mechanisms in normal and pathological nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Opin Neurobiol 11:369–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Changeux JP (1990) The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: an allosteric protein prototype of ligand—gated ion channels. Trends Pharmacol Sci 11:485–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Chiara DC, Xie Y, Cohen JB (1999) Structure of the agonist-binding sites of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: affinity-labeling and mutational analyses identify gamma Tyr-111/delta Arg-113 as antagonist affinity determinants. Biochemistry 38:6689–6698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Clarke PB, Pert A (1985) Autoradiographic evidence for nicotine receptors on nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. Brain Res 348:355–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Clarke PB, Hamill GS, Nadi NS, Jacobowitz DM, Pert A (1986) 3H-nicotine-and 125I-alpha-bungarotoxin-labeled nicotinic receptors in the interpeduncular nucleus of rats. II. Effects of habenular deafferentation. J Comp Neurol 251:407–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Claudio T, Ballivet M, Patrick J, Heinemann S (1983) Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor gamma subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80:1111–1115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Cloues R, Jones S, Brown DA (1993) Zn2+ potentiates ATP-activated currents in rat sympathetic neurons. Pflugers Arch 424:152–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Collier B, Katz HS (1975) Studies upon the mechanism by which acetylcholine releases surplus acetylcholine in a sympathetic ganglion. Br J Pharmacol 55:189–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Conroy WG, Berg DK (1995) Neurons can maintain multiple classes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors distinguished by different subunit compositions. J Biol Chem 270:4424–4431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Cordero-Erausquin M, Marubio LM, Klink R, Changeux JP (2000) Nicotinic receptor function: new perspectives from knockout mice. Trends Pharmacol Sci 21:211–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Corringer PJ, Galzi JL, Eisele JL, Bertrand S, Changeux JP, Bertrand D (1995) Identification of a new component of the agonist binding site of the nicotinic alpha 7 homooligomeric receptor. J Biol Chem 270:11749–11752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Corringer PJ, Bertrand S, Galzi JL, Devillers-Thiery A, Changeux JP, Bertrand D (1999) Mutational analysis of the charge selectivity filter of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Neuron 22:831–843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Corringer PJ, Le Novere N, Changeux JP (2000) Nicotinic receptors at the amino acid level. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 40:431–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Court JA, Lloyd S, Johnson M, Griffiths M, Birdsall NJ, Piggott MA, Oakley AE, Ince PG, Perry EK, Perry RH (1997) Nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding in the human hippocampal formation during development and aging. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 101:93–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Covernton PJ, Connolly JG (2000) Multiple components in the agonist concentration-response relationships of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Neurosci Methods 96:63–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Coyle JT, Price DL, DeLong MR (1983) Alzheimer’s disease: a disorder of cortical cholinergic innervation. Science 219:1184–1190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Creese I, Sibley DR (1981) Receptor adaptations to centrally acting drugs. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 21:357–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Curtis DR, Ryall RW (1966a) The acetylcholine receptors of Renshaw cells. Exp Brain Res 2:66–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Curtis DR, Ryall RW (1966b) The synaptic excitation of Renshaw cells. Exp Brain Res 2:81–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Curtis L, Blouin JL, Radhakrishna U, Gehrig C, Lasseter VK, Wolyniec P, Nestadt G, Dombroski B, Kazazian HH, Pulver AE, Housman D, Bertrand D, Antonarakis SE (1999) No evidence for linkage between schizophrenia and markers at chromosome 15q 13–14. Am J Med Genet 88:109–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Curtis L, Buisson B, Bertrand S, Bertrand D (2002) Potentiation of human alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by estradiol. Mol Pharmacol 61:127–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Dajas-Bailador F A, Lima PA, Wonnacott S (2000) The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype mediates nicotine protection against NMDA excitotoxicity in primary hippocampal cultures through a Ca(2+) dependent mechanism. Neuropharmacology 39:2799–2807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Dani JA, Ji D, Zhou FM (2001) Synaptic plasticity and nicotine addiction. Neuron 31:349–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. De Biasi M, Nigro F, Xu W (2000) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the autonomic control of bladder function. Eur J Pharmacol 393:137–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Decker MW, Majchrzak MJ, Arneric SP (1993) Effects of lobeline, a nicotinic receptor agonist, on learning and memory. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 45:571–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Decker MW, Curzon P, Brioni JD, Arneric SP (1994) Effects of ABT-418, a novel cholinergic channel ligand, on place learning in septal-lesioned rats. Eur J Pharmacol 261:217–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Delacourte A, Defossez A (1986) Alzheimer’s disease: Tau proteins, the promoting factors of microtubule assembly, are major components of paired helical filaments. J Neurol Sci 76:173–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Descarries L, Gisiger V, Steriade M (1997) Diffuse transmission by acetylcholine in the CNS. Prog Neurobiol 53:603–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Devillers-Thiery A, Giraudat J, Bentaboulet M, Changeux JP (1983) Complete mRNA coding sequence of the acetylcholine binding alpha subunit of Torpedo marmorata acetylcholine receptor: a model for the transmembrane organization of the polypeptide chain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80:2067–2071PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Dineley KT, Bell K A, Bui D, Sweatt JD (2002) Beta-amyloid peptide activates alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J Biol Chem 277:25056–25061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Draguhn A, Verdorn TA, Ewert M, Seeburg PH, Sakmann B (1990) Functional and molecular distinction between recombinant rat GABAA receptor subtypes by Zn2+. Neuron 5:781–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Dursun SM, Reveley MA (1997) Differential effects of transdermal nicotine on microstructured analyses of tics in Tourette’s syndrome: an open study. Psychol Med 27:483–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Eddins D, Lyford LK, Lee JW, Desai SA, Rosenberg RL (2002) Permeant but not impermeant divalent cations enhance activation of nondesensitizing alpha(7) nicotinic receptors. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 282:C796–C804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Edelstein SJ, Schaad O, Henry E, Bertrand D, Changeux JP (1996) A kinetic mechanism for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors based on multiple allosteric transitions. Biol Cybern 75:361–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Eilers H, Schaeffer E, Bickler PE, Forsayeth JR (1997) Functional deactivation of the major neuronal nicotinic receptor caused by nicotine and a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Mol Pharmacol 52:1105–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Eisele JL, Bertrand S, Galzi JL, Devillers-Thiery A, Changeux JP, Bertrand D (1993) Chimaeric nicotinicserotonergic receptor combines distinct ligand binding and channel specificities. Nature 366:479–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Evans DA, Funkenstein HH, Albert MS, Scherr PA, Cook NR, Chown MJ, Hebert LE, Hennekens CH, Taylor JO (1989) Prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in a community population of older persons. Higher than previously reported. JAMA 262:2551–2556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Fabian-Fine R, Skehel P, Errington ML, Davies HA, Sher E, Stewart MG, Fine A (2001) Ultrastructural distribution of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit in rat hippocampus. J Neurosci 21:7993–8003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Felix R, Levin ED (1997) Nicotinic antagonist administration into the ventral hippocampus and spatial working memory in rats. Neuroscience 81:1009–1017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Fenster CP, Rains MF, Noerager B, Quick MW, Lester RA (1997) Influence of subunit composition on desensitization of neuronal acetylcholine receptors at low concentrations of nicotine. J Neurosci 17:5747–5759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Fenster CP, Beckman ML, Parker JC, Sheffield EB, Whitworth TL, Quick MW, Lester RA (1999a) Regulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor desensitization by calcium and protein kinase C. Mol Pharmacol 55:432–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Fenster CP, Whitworth TL, Sheffield EB, Quick MW, Lester RA (1999b) Upregulation of surface alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors is initiated by receptor desensitization after chronic exposure to nicotine. J Neurosci 19:4804–4814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Figl A, Viseshakul N, Shafaee N, Forsayeth J, Cohen BN (1998) Two mutations linked to nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy cause use-dependent potentiation of the nicotinic ACh response. J Physiol 513:655–670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Fisher JL, Dani JA (2000) Nicotinic receptors on hippocampal cultures can increase synaptic glutamate currents while decreasing the NMDA-receptor component. Neuropharmacology 39:2756–2769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Flores CM, Rogers SW, Pabreza LA, Wolfe BB, Kellar KJ (1992) A subtype of nicotinic cholinergic receptor in rat brain is composed of alpha 4 and beta 2 subunits and is up-regulated by chronic nicotine treatment. Mol Pharmacol 41:31–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Flores CM, DeCamp RM, Kilo S, Rogers SW, Hargreaves KM (1996) Neuronal nicotinic receptor expression in sensory neurons of the rat trigeminal ganglion: demonstration of alpha3beta4, a novel subtype in the mammalian nervous system. J Neurosci 16:7892–7901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Forloni G (1996) Neurotoxicity of beta-amyloid and prion peptides. Curr Opin Neurol 9:492–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Forsayeth JR, Kobrin E (1997) Formation of oligomers containing the beta3 and beta4 subunits of the rat nicotinic receptor. J Neurosci 17:1531–1538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Franceschini D, Orr-Urtreger A, Yu W, Mackey LY, Bond RA, Armstrong D, Patrick JW, Beaudet AL, De Biasi M (2000) Altered baroreflex responses in alpha7 deficient mice. Behav Brain Res 113:3–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Frazier CJ, Buhler AV, Weiner JL, Dunwiddie TV (1998) Synaptic potentials mediated via alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat hippocampal interneurons. J Neurosci 18:8228–8235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Frederickson CJ, Suh SW, Silva D, Thompson RB (2000) Importance of zinc in the central nervous system: the zinc-containing neuron. J Nutr 130:1471S–1483SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Freedman R, Adler LE, Waldo MC, Pachtman E, Franks RD (1983) Neurophysiological evidence for a defect in inhibitory pathways in schizophrenia: comparison of medicated and drug-free patients. Biol Psychiatry 18:537–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Freedman R, Adler LE, Gerhardt GA, Waldo M, Baker N, Rose GM, Drebing C, Nagamoto H, Bickford-Wimer P, Franks R (1987) Neurobiological studies of sensory gating in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 13:669–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Freedman R, Wetmore C, Stromberg I, Leonard S, Olson L (1993) Alpha-bungarotoxin binding to hippocampal interneurons: immunocytochemical characterization and effects on growth factor expression. J Neurosci 13:1965–1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Freedman R, Hall M, Adler LE, Leonard S (1995) Evidence in postmortem brain tissue for decreased numbers of hippocampal nicotinic receptors in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 38:22–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Galzi JL, Revah F, Black D, Goeldner M, Hirth C, Changeux JP (1990) Identification of a novel amino acid alpha-tyrosine 93 within the cholinergic ligand-binding sites of the acetylcholine receptor by photoaffinity labeling. Additional evidence for a three-loop model of the cholinergic ligand-binding sites. J Biol Chem 265:10430–10437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Galzi JL, Devillers-Thiery A, Hussy N, Bertrand S, Changeux JP, Bertrand D (1992) Mutations in the channel domain of a neuronal nicotinic receptor convert ion selectivity from cationic to anionic. Nature 359:500–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Galzi JL, Bertrand S, Corringer PJ, Changeux JP, Bertrand D (1996) Identification of calcium binding sites that regulate potentiation of a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. EMBO J 15:5824–5832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Garbus I, Bouzat C, Barrantes FJ (2001) Steroids differentially inhibit the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Neuroreport 12:227–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Gejman PV, Sanders AR, Badner JA, Cao Q, Zhang J (2001) Linkage analysis of schizophrenia to chromosome 15. Am J Med Genet 105:789–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Gil Z, Sack RA, Kedmi M, Harmelin A, Orr-Urtreger A (2002) Increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures in mice heterozygous for the L250T mutation in the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Neuroreport 13:191–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Giraudat J, Dennis M, Heidmann T, Chang JY, Changeux JP (1986) Structure of the high-affinity binding site for noncompetitive blockers of the acetylcholine receptor: serine-262 of the delta subunit is labeled by [3H]chlorpromazine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83:2719–2723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Giraudat J, Dennis M, Heidmann T, Haumont PY, Lederer F, Changeux JP (1987) Structure of the highaffinity binding site for noncompetitive blockers of the acetylcholine receptor: [3H]chlorpromazine labels homologous residues in the beta and delta chains. Biochemistry 26:2410–2418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Giraudat J, Gali J, Revah F, Changeux J, Haumont P, Lederer F (1989) The noncompetitive blocker [(3)H]chlorpromazine labels segment M2 but not segment M1 of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit. FEBS Lett 253:190–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Goff DC, Henderson DC, Amico E (1992) Cigarette smoking in schizophrenia: relationship to psychopathology and medication side effects. Am J Psychiatry 149:1189–1194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Gopalakrishnan M, Monteggia LM, Anderson DJ, Molinari EJ, Piattoni-Kaplan M, Donnelly-Roberts D, Arneric SP, Sullivan JP (1996) Stable expression, pharmacologic properties and regulation of the human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine alpha 4 beta 2 receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 276:289–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Gopalakrishnan M, Molinari EJ, Sullivan JP (1997) Regulation of human alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by cholinergic channel ligands and second messenger pathways. Mol Pharmacol 52:524–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Gratacos M, Nadal M, Martin-Santos R, Pujana MA, Gago J, Peral B, Armengol L, Ponsa I, Miro R, Bulbena A, Estivill X (2001) A polymorphic genomic duplication on human chromosome 15 is a susceptibility factor for panic and phobic disorders. Cell 106:367–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Groot-Kormelink PJ, Luyten W H, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG (1998) A reporter mutation approach shows incorporation of the “orphan” subunit beta3 into a functional nicotinic receptor. J Biol Chem 273:15317–15320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Groot-Kormelink PJ, Boorman JP, Sivilotti LG (2001) Formation of functional alpha3beta4alpha5 human neuronal nicotinic receptors in Xenopus oocytes: a reporter mutation approach. Br J Pharmacol 134:789–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Grosman C, Zhou M, Auerbach A (2000) Mapping the conformational wave of acetylcholine receptor channel gating. Nature 403:773–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Guan ZZ, Zhang X, Blennow K, Nordberg A (1999) Decreased protein level of nicotinic receptor alpha7 subunit in the frontal cortex from schizophrenic brain. Neuroreport 10:1779–1782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Harkin LA, Bowser DN, Dibbens LM, Singh R, Phillips F, Wallace RH, Richards MC, Williams DA, Mulley JC, Berkovic SF, Scheffer IE, Petrou S (2002) Truncation of the GABA(A)-receptor gamma2 subunit in a family with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. Am J Hum Genet 70:530–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Hatton GI, Yang QZ (2002) Synaptic potentials mediated by alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in supraoptic nucleus. J Neurosci 22:29–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Hayman M, Scheffer IE, Chinvarun Y, Berlangieri SU, Berkovic SF (1997) Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: demonstration of focal frontal onset and intrafamilial variation. Neurology 49:969–975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Hefft S, Hulo S, Bertrand D, Muller D (1999) Synaptic transmission at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat hippocampal organotypic cultures and slices. J Physiol 515:769–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Henningfield JE, Stapleton JM, Benowitz NL, Grayson RF, London ED (1993) Higher levels of nicotine in arterial than in venous blood after cigarette smoking. Drug Alcohol Depend 33:23–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Herzog AG, Klein P, Ransil BJ (1997) Three patterns of catamenial epilepsy. Epilepsia 38:1082–1088PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Hogg RC, Miranda LP, Craik DJ, Lewis RJ, Alewood PF, Adams DJ (1999) Single amino acid substitutions in alpha-conotoxin PnIA shift selectivity for subtypes of the mammalian neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. J Biol Chem 274:36559–36564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Horch HL, Sargent PB (1995) Perisynaptic surface distribution of multiple classes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurons in the chicken ciliary ganglion. J Neurosci 15:7778–7795PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Hsiao B, Dweck D, Luetje CW (2001) Subunit-dependent modulation of neuronal nicotinic receptors by zinc. J Neurosci 21:1848–1856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Hsu YN, Edwards SC, Wecker L (1997) Nicotine enhances the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of alpha4 subunits of neuronal nicotinic receptors. J Neurochem 69:2427–2431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Huganir RL (1991) Regulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by serine and tyrosine protein kinases. Adv Exp Med Biol 287:279–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Ibanez-Tallon I, Miwa JM, Wang HL, Adams NC, Crabtree GW, Sine SM, Heintz N (2002) Novel modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by association with the endogenous prototoxin lynx1. Neuron 33:893–903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Imoto K, Busch C, Sakmann B, Mishina M, Konno T, Nakai J, Bujo H, Mori Y, Fukuda K, Numa S (1988) Rings of negatively charged amino acids determine the acetylcholine receptor channel conductance. Nature 335:645–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Janson AM, Fuxe K, Agnati LF, Kitayama I, Harfstrand A, Andersson K, Goldstein M (1988) Chronic nicotine treatment counteracts the disappearance of tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies, dendrites and terminals in the mesostriatal dopamine system of the male rat after partial hemitransection. Brain Res 455:332–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Janson AM, Fuxe K, Agnati LF, Jansson A, Bjelke B, Sundstrom E, Andersson K, Harfstrand A, Goldstein M, Owman C (1989) Protective effects of chronic nicotine treatment on lesioned nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in the male rat. Prog Brain Res 79:257–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Janson AM, Fuxe K, Goldstein M (1992) Differential effects of acute and chronic nicotine treatment on MPTP-(1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) induced degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in the black mouse. Clin Investig 70:232–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Ji D, Dani JA (2000) Inhibition and disinhibition of pyramidal neurons by activation of nicotinic receptors on hippocampal interneurons. J Neurophysiol 83:2682–2690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Ji D, Lape R, Dani JA (2001) Timing and location of nicotinic activity enhances or depresses hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Neuron 31:131–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Jones IW, Bolam JP, Wonnacott S (2001) Presynaptic localisation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta2 subunit immunoreactivity in rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurones. J Comp Neurol 439:235–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Jones S, Sudweeks S, Yakel JL (1999) Nicotinic receptors in the brain: correlating physiology with function. Trends Neurosci 22:555–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Jonnala RR, Buccafusco JJ (2001) Relationship between the increased cell surface alpha7 nicotinic receptor expression and neuroprotection induced by several nicotinic receptor agonists. J Neurosci Res 66:565–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Kadesjo B, Gillberg C (2000) Tourette’s disorder: epidemiology and comorbidity in primary school children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:548–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Kaiser SA, Soliakov L, Harvey SC, Luetje CW, Wonnacott S (1998) Differential inhibition by alpha-conotoxin-MII of the nicotinic stimulation of [3H]dopamine release from rat striatal synaptosomes and slices. J Neurochem 70:1069–1076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Karlin A (1967) On the application of “a plausible model” of allosteric proteins to the receptor for acetylcholine. J Theor Biol 16:306–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Karlin A, Akabas MH (1995) Toward a structural basis for the function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and their cousins. Neuron 15:1231–1244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Kassiou M, Eberl S, Meikle SR, Birrell A, Constable C, Fulham MJ, Wong DF, Musachio JL (2001) In vivo imaging of nicotinic receptor upregulation following chronic (−)-nicotine treatment in baboon using SPECT. Nucl Med Biol 28:165–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Kawai H, Berg DK (2001) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing alpha 7 subunits on rat cortical neurons do not undergo long-lasting inactivation even when up-regulated by chronic nicotine exposure. J Neurochem 78:1367–1378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Ke L, Lukas RJ (1996) Effects of steroid exposure on ligand binding and functional activities of diverse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. J Neurochem 67:1100–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Keiger CJ, Walker JC (2000) Individual variation in the expression profiles of nicotinic receptors in the olfactory bulb and trigeminal ganglion and identification of alpha2, alpha6, alpha9, and beta3 transcripts. Biochem Pharmacol 59:233–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Kelton MC, Kahn HJ, Conrath CL, Newhouse PA (2000) The effects of nicotine on Parkinson’s disease. Brain Cogn 43:274–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Kihara T, Shimohama S, Sawada H, Kimura J, Kume T, Kochiyama H, Maeda T, Akaike A (1997) Nicotinic receptor stimulation protects neurons against beta-amyloid toxicity. Ann Neurol 42:159–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Kihara T, Shimohama S, Urushitani M, Sawada H, Kimura J, Kume T, Maeda T, Akaike A (1998) Stimulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors inhibits beta-amyloid toxicity. Brain Res 792:331–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Kita T, Okamoto M, Nakashima T (1992) Nicotine-induced sensitization to ambulatory stimulant effect produced by daily administration into the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens in rats. Life Sci 50:583–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Koob GF, Sanna PP, Bloom FE (1998) Neuroscience of addiction. Neuron 21:467–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Krause RM, Buisson B, Bertrand S, Corringer PJ, Galzi JL, Changeux JP, Bertrand D (1998) Ivermectin: a positive allosteric effector of the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Mol Pharmacol 53:283–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Kulak JM, Nguyen TA, Olivera BM, McIntosh JM (1997) Alpha-conotoxin MII blocks nicotine-stimulated dopamine release in rat striatal synaptosomes. J Neurosci 17:5263–5270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Kuo YM, Emmerling MR, Vigo-Pelfrey C, Kasunic TC, Kirkpatrick J B, Murdoch GH, Ball MJ, Roher AE (1996) Water-soluble Abeta (N-40, N-42) oligomers in normal and Alzheimer disease brains. J Biol Chem 271:4077–4081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Kuryatov A, Gerzanich V, Nelson M, Olale F, Lindstrom J (1997) Mutation causing autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy alters Ca2+ permeability, conductance, and gating of human alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Neurosci 17:9035–9047PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Kuryatov A, Olale FA, Choi C, Lindstrom J (2000) Acetylcholine receptor extracellular domain determines sensitivity to nicotine-induced inactivation. Eur J Pharmacol 393:11–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Lambert JJ, Belelli D, Harney SC, Peters JA, Frenguelli BG (2001a) Modulation of native and recombinant GABA(A) receptors by endogenous and synthetic neuroactive steroids. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 37:68–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Lambert JJ, Harney SC, Belelli D, Peters JA (2001b) Neurosteroid modulation of recombinant and synaptic GABAA receptors. Int Rev Neurobiol 46:177–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Le Novere N, Corringer PJ, Changeux JP (1999) Improved secondary structure predictions for a nicotinic receptor subunit: incorporation of solvent accessibility and experimental data into a two-dimensional representation. Biophys J 76:2329–2345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Lena C, Changeux JP (1997) Pathological mutations of nicotinic receptors and nicotine-based therapies for brain disorders. Curr Opin Neurobiol 7:674–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Leonard S, Breese C, Adams C, Benhammou K, Gault J, Stevens K, Lee M, Adler L, Olincy A, Ross R, Freedman R (2000) Smoking and schizophrenia: abnormal nicotinic receptor expression. Eur J Pharmacol 393:237–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Levin ED, Simon BB (1998) Nicotinic acetylcholine involvement in cognitive function in animals. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 138:217–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Levin ED, Rezvani AH (2000) Development of nicotinic drug therapy for cognitive disorders. Eur J Pharmacol 393:141–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Levin ED, Briggs SJ, Christopher NC, Rose JE (1993) Chronic nicotinic stimulation and blockade effects on working memory. Behav Pharmacol 4:179–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Levin ED, Kim P, Meray R (1996) Chronic nicotine working and reference memory effects in the 16-arm radial maze: interactions with D1 agonist and antagonist drugs. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 127:25–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Levin ED, Kaplan S, Boardman A (1997) Acute nicotine interactions with nicotinic and muscarinic antagonists: working and reference memory effects in the 16-arm radial maze. Behav Pharmacol 8:236–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Levin ED, Bradley A, Addy N, Sigurani N (2002) Hippocampal alpha 7 and alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic receptors and working memory. Neuroscience 109:757–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Levy DL, Holzman PS, Matthysse S, Mendell NR (1993) Eye tracking dysfunction and schizophrenia: a critical perspective. Schizophr Bull 19:461–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Li Y, Papke RL, He YJ, Millard WJ, Meyer EM (1999) Characterization of the neuroprotective and toxic effects of alpha7 nicotinic receptor activation in PC12 cells. Brain Res 830:218–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Lichtensteiger W, Hefti F, Felix D, Huwyler T, Melamed E, Schlumpf M (1982) Stimulation of nigrostriatal dopamine neurones by nicotine. Neuropharmacology 21:963–968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Lindstrom J (1997) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in health and disease. Mol Neurobiol 15:193–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Lindstrom JM, Seybold ME, Lennon VA, Whittingham S, Duane DD (1976) Antibody to acetylcholine receptor in myasthenia gravis. Prevalence, clinical correlates, and diagnostic value. Neurology 26:1054–1059PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Lippiello PM, Sears SB, Fernandes KG (1987) Kinetics and mechanism of L-[3H]nicotine binding to putative high affinity receptor sites in rat brain. Mol Pharmacol 31:392–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Liu Q, Kawai H, Berg DK (2001) beta-Amyloid peptide blocks the response of alpha 7-containing nicotinic receptors on hippocampal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:4734–4739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Lohr JB, Flynn K (1992) Smoking and schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 8:93–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Loring RH, Dahm LM, Zigmond RE (1985) Localization of alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites in the ciliary ganglion of the embryonic chick: an autoradiographic study at the light and electron microscopic level. Neuroscience 14:645–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Lubin M, Erisir A, Aoki C (1999) Ultrastructural immunolocalization of the alpha 7 nAChR subunit in guinea pig medial prefrontal cortex. Ann N Y Acad Sci 868:628–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Luo S, Kulak JM, Cartier GE, Jacobsen RB, Yoshikami D, Olivera BM, McIntosh JM (1998) alpha-conotoxin AuIB selectively blocks alpha3 beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and nicotine-evoked norepinephrine release. J Neurosci 18:8571–8579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. MacDermott AB, Role LW, Siegelbaum SA (1999) Presynaptic ionotropic receptors and the control of transmitter release. Annu Rev Neurosci 22:443–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Madhok TC, Beyer HS, Sharp BM (1994) Protein kinase A regulates nicotinic cholinergic receptors and subunit messenger ribonucleic acids in PC 12 cells. Endocrinology 134:91–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Madhok TC, Matta SG, Sharp BM (1995) Nicotine regulates nicotinic cholinergic receptors and subunit mRNAs in PC 12 cells through protein kinase A. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 32:143–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Maelicke A, Samochocki M, Jostock R, Fehrenbacher A, Ludwig J, Albuquerque EX, Zerlin M (2001) Allosteric sensitization of nicotinic receptors by galantamine, a new treatment strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. Biol Psychiatry 49:279–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Maimone MM, Merlie JP (1993) Interaction of the 43 kd postsynaptic protein with all subunits of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Neuron 11:53–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Mansvelder HD, McGehee DS (2000) Long-term potentiation of excitatory inputs to brain reward areas by nicotine. Neuron 27:349–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Mansvelder HD, Keath JR, McGehee DS (2002) Synaptic mechanisms underlie nicotine-induced excitability of brain reward areas. Neuron 33:905–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Marin P, Maus M, Desagher S, Glowinski J, Premont J (1994) Nicotine protects cultured striatal neurones against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotoxicity. Neuroreport 5:1977–1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Marks MJ, Pauly JR, Gross SD, Deneris ES, Hermans-Borgmeyer I, Heinemann SF, Collins AC (1992) Nicotine binding and nicotinic receptor subunit RNA after chronic nicotine treatment. J Neurosci 12:2765–2784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Marubio LM, del Mar Arroyo-Jimenez M, Cordero-Erausquin M, Lena C, Le Novere N, de Kerchove d’Exaerde A, Huchet M, Damaj MI, Changeux JP (1999) Reduced antinociception in mice lacking neuronal nicotinic receptor subunits. Nature 398:805–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Mayer ML, Vyklicky L Jr, Westbrook GL (1989) Modulation of excitatory amino acid receptors by group IIB metal cations in cultured mouse hippocampal neurones. J Physiol 415:329–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. McConville BJ, Sanberg PR, Fogelson MH, King J, Cirino P, Parker KW, Norman AB (1992) The effects of nicotine plus haloperidol compared to nicotine only and placebo nicotine only in reducing tic severity and frequency in Tourette’s disorder. Biol Psychiatry 31:832–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. McCormick DA, Prince DA (1986) Mechanisms of action of acetylcholine in the guinea-pig cerebral cortex in vitro. J Physiol 375:169–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. McGehee DS, Heath MJ, Gelber S, Devay P, Role LW (1995) Nicotine enhancement of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in CNS by presynaptic receptors. Science 269:1692–1696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. McGehee DS, Role LW (1995) Physiological diversity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed by vertebrate neurons. Annu Rev Physiol 57:521–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. McKee AC, Kowall NW, Schumacher JS, Beal MF (1998) The neurotoxicity of amyloid beta protein in aged primates. Amyloid 5:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. McQuiston AR, Madison DV (1999) Nicotinic receptor activation excites distinct subtypes of interneurons in the rat hippocampus. J Neurosci 19:2887–2896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Miao H, Liu C, Bishop K, Gong ZH, Nordberg A, Zhang X (1998) Nicotine exposure during a critical period of development leads to persistent changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of adult rat brain. J Neurochem 70:752–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Middleton RE, Cohen JB (1991) Mapping of the acetylcholine binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: [3H]nicotine as an agonist photoaffinity label. Biochemistry 30:6987–6997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Middleton P, Jaramillo F, Schuetze SM (1986) Forskolin increases the rate of acetylcholine receptor desensitization at rat soleus endplates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83:4967–4971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Middleton P, Rubin LL, Schuetze SM (1988) Desensitization of acetylcholine receptors in rat myotubes is enhanced by agents that elevate intracellular cAMP. J Neurosci 8:3405–3412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Mihailescu S, Palomero-Rivero M, Meade-Huerta P, Maza-Flores A, Drucker-Colin R (1998) Effects of nicotine and mecamylamine on rat dorsal raphe neurons. Eur J Pharmacol 360:31–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Mishina M, Takai T, Imoto K, Noda M, Takahashi T, Numa S, Methfessel C, Sakmann B (1986) Molecular distinction between fetal and adult forms of muscle acetylcholine receptor. Nature 321:406–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Miwa JM, Ibanez-Tallon I, Crabtree GW, Sanchez R, Sali A, Role LW, Heintz N (1999) lynx1, an endogenous toxin-like modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the mammalian CNS. Neuron 23:105–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Miyazawa A, Fujiyoshi Y, Stowell M, Unwin N (1999) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at 4.6 A resolution: transverse tunnels in the channel wall. J Mol Biol 288:765–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Molinari EJ, Delbono O, Messi ML, Renganathan M, Arneric SP, Sullivan JP, Gopalakrishnan M (1998) Up-regulation of human alpha7 nicotinic receptors by chronic treatment with activator and antagonist ligands. Eur J Pharmacol 347:131–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Monod J, Wyman J, Changeux JP (1965) On the nature of allosteric transitions: a plausible model. J Mol Biol 12:88–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Morens DM, Grandinetti A, Reed D, White LR, Ross GW (1995) Cigarette smoking and protection from Parkinson’s disease: false association or etiologic clue? Neurology 45:1041–1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Moss SJ, McDonald BJ, Rudhard Y, Schoepfer R (1996) Phosphorylation of the predicted major intracellular domains of the rat and chick neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 subunit by cAMPdependent protein kinase. Neuropharmacology 35:1023–1028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Moulard B, Picard F, le Hellard S, Agulhon C, Weiland S, Favre I, Bertrand S, Malafosse A, Bertrand D (2001) Ion channel variation causes epilepsies. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 36:275–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Mulle C, Benoit P, Pinset C, Roa M, Changeux JP (1988) Calcitonin gene-related peptide enhances the rate of desensitization of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in cultured mouse muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:5728–5732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Mulle C, Lena C, Changeux JP (1992) Potentiation of nicotinic receptor response by external calcium in rat central neurons. Neuron 8:937–945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Nakamura S, Takahashi T, Yamashita H, Kawakami H (2001) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and neurodegenerative disease. Alcohol 24:79–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Nakazawa K, Ohno Y (2001) Modulation by estrogens and xenoestrogens of recombinant human neuronal nicotinic receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 430:175–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Neves-Pereira M, Bassett AS, Honer WG, Lang D, King NA, Kennedy JL (1998) No evidence for linkage of the CHRNA7 gene region in Canadian schizophrenia families. Am J Med Genet 81:361–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Newhouse PA, Potter A, Corwin J, Lenox R (1992) Acute nicotinic blockade produces cognitive impairment in normal humans. Psychopharmacology 108:480–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Nishizaki T, Matsuoka T, Nomura T, Sumikawa K (1998) Modulation of ACh receptor currents by arachidonic acid. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 57:173–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Noda M, Takahashi H, Tanabe T, Toyosato M, Kikyotani S, Furutani Y, Hirose T, Takashima H, Inayama S, Miyata T, Numa S (1983) Structural homology of Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor subunits. Nature 302:528–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Olale F, Gerzanich V, Kuryatov A, Wang F, Lindstrom J (1997) Chronic nicotine exposure differentially affects the function of human alpha3, alpha4, and alpha7 neuronal nicotinic receptor subtypes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 283:675–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Orr-Urtreger A, Goldner FM, Saeki M, Lorenzo I, Goldberg L, De Biasi M, Dani JA, Patrick JW, Beaudet AL (1997) Mice deficient in the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor lack alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites and hippocampal fast nicotinic currents. J Neurosci 17:9165–9171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Orr-Urtreger A, Broide RS, Kasten MR, Dang H, Dani JA, Beaudet AL, Patrick JW (2000) Mice homozygous for the L250T mutation in the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor show increased neuronal apoptosis and die within 1 day of birth. J Neurochem 74:2154–2166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Oswald RE, Changeux JP (1982) Crosslinking of alpha-bungarotoxin to the acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata by ultraviolet light irradiation. FEBS Lett 139:225–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Palma E, Maggi L, Miledi R, Eusebi F (1998) Effects of Zn2+ on wild and mutant neuronal alpha7 nicotinic receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:10246–10250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Paoletti P, Ascher P, Neyton J (1997) High-affinity zinc inhibition of NMDA NR1-NR2A receptors. J Neurosci 17:5711–5725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Paradiso K, Sabey K, Evers AS, Zorumski CF, Covey DF, Steinbach JH (2000) Steroid inhibition of rat neuronal nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Mol Pharmacol 58:341–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Paradiso K, Zhang J, Steinbach JH (2001) The C terminus of the human nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptor forms a binding site required for potentiation by an estrogenic steroid. J Neurosci 21:6561–6568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Pascual JM, Karlin A (1998) State-dependent accessibility and electrostatic potential in the channel of the acetylcholine receptor. Inferences from rates of reaction of thiosulfonates with substituted cysteines in the M2 segment of the alpha subunit. J Gen Physiol 111:717–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Paterson D, Nordberg A (2000) Neuronal nicotinic receptors in the human brain. Prog Neurobiol 61:75–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Paulson HL, Ross AF, Green WN, Claudio T (1991) Analysis of early events in acetylcholine receptor assembly. J Cell Biol 113:1371–1384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Paylor R, Nguyen M, Crawley JN, Patrick J, Beaudet A, Orr-Urtreger A (1998) Alpha7 nicotinic receptor subunits are not necessary for hippocampal-dependent learning or sensorimotor gating: a behavioral characterization of Acra7-deficient mice. Learn Mem 5:302–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Peng X, Gerzanich V, Anand R, Whiting PJ, Lindstrom J (1994) Nicotine-induced increase in neuronal nicotinic receptors results from a decrease in the rate of receptor turnover. Mol Pharmacol 46:523–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Perry DC, Davila-Garcia MI, Stockmeier CA, Kellar KJ (1999) Increased nicotinic receptors in brains from smokers: membrane binding and autoradiography studies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 289:1545–1552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Perry EK, Tomlinson BE, Blessed G, Bergmann K, Gibson PH, Perry RH (1978) Correlation of cholinergic abnormalities with senile plaques and mental test scores in senile dementia. Br Med J 2:1457–1459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Perry EK, Morris CM, Court JA, Cheng A, Fairbairn AF, McKeith IG, Irving D, Brown A, Perry RH (1995) Alteration in nicotine binding sites in Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: possible index of early neuropathology. Neuroscience 64:385–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Pettit DL, Shao Z, Yakel JL (2001) beta-Amyloid(1-42) peptide directly modulates nicotinic receptors in the rat hippocampal slice. J Neurosci 21:RC120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Phillips HA, Favre I, Kirkpatrick M, Zuberi SM, Goudie D, Heron SE, Scheffer IE, Sutherland GR, Berkovic SF, Bertrand D, Mulley JC (2001) CHRNB2 is the second acetylcholine receptor subunit associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Am J Hum Genet 68:225–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Picard F, Bertrand S, Steinlein OK, Bertrand D (1999) Mutated nicotinic receptors responsible for autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy are more sensitive to carbamazepine. Epilepsia 40:1198–1209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Picciotto MR, Zoli M, Lena C, Bessis A, Lallemand Y, LeNovere N, Vincent P, Pich EM, Brulet P, Changeux JP (1995) Abnormal avoidance learning in mice lacking functional high-affinity nicotine receptor in the brain. Nature 374:65–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Picciotto MR, Zoli M, Rimondini R, Lena C, Marubio LM, Pich EM, Fuxe K, Changeux JP (1998) Acetylcholine receptors containing the beta2 subunit are involved in the reinforcing properties of nicotine. Nature 391:173–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Pidoplichko VI, DeBiasi M, Williams JT, Dani JA (1997) Nicotine activates and desensitizes midbrain dopamine neurons. Nature 390:401–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Pomerleau OF, Downey KK, Stelson FW, Pomerleau CS (1995) Cigarette smoking in adult patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Subst Abuse 7:373–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Poth K, Nutter TJ, Cuevas J, Parker MJ, Adams DJ, Luetje CW (1997) Heterogeneity of nicotinic receptor class and subunit mRNA expression among individual parasympathetic neurons from rat intracardiac ganglia. J Neurosci 17:586–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Potter A, Corwin J, Lang J, Piasecki M, Lenox R, Newhouse PA (1999) Acute effects of the selective cholinergic channel activator (nicotinic agonist) ABT-418 in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 142:334–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Pow DV, Morris JF (1989) Dendrites of hypothalamic magnocellular neurons release neurohypophysial peptides by exocytosis. Neuroscience 32:435–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Prasad C, Ikegami H, Shimizu I, Onaivi ES (1994) Chronic nicotine intake decelerates aging of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Life Sci 54:1169–1184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Qu ZC, Moritz E, Huganir RL (1990) Regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the rat neuromuscular junction. Neuron 4:367–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Radcliffe KA, Dani JA (1998) Nicotinic stimulation produces multiple forms of increased glutamatergic synaptic transmission. J Neurosci 18:7075–7083PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Ramirez-Latorre J, Yu CR, Qu X, Perin F, Karlin A, Role L (1996) Functional contributions of alpha5 subunit to neuronal acetylcholine receptor channels. Nature 380:347–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Revah F, Bertrand D, Galzi JL, Devillers TA, Mulle C, Hussy N, Bertrand S, Ballivet M, Changeux JP (1991) Mutations in the channel domain alter desensitization of a neuronal nicotinic receptor. Nature 353:846–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Reynolds JA, Karlin A (1978) Molecular weight in detergent solution of acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica. Biochemistry 17:2035–2038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Robel P, Baulieu EE (1995) Neurosteroids: biosynthesis and function. Crit Rev Neurobiol 9:383–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Roerig B, Nelson DA, Katz LC (1997) Fast synaptic signaling by nicotinic acetylcholine and serotonin 5-HT3 receptors in developing visual cortex. J Neurosci 17:8353–8362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Role LW, Berg DK (1996) Nicotinic receptors in the development and modulation of CNS synapses. Neuron 16:1077–1085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Ross SA, Wong JY, Clifford JJ, Kinsella A, Massalas JS, Horne MK, Scheffer IE, Kola I, Waddington JL, Berkovic SF, Drago J (2000) Phenotypic characterization of an alpha 4 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit knock-out mouse. J Neurosci 20:6431–6441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Rowell PP, Wonnacott S (1990) Evidence for functional activity of up-regulated nicotine binding sites in rat striatal synaptosomes. J Neurochem 55:2105–2110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Rusted JM, Warburton DM (1992) Facilitation of memory by post-trial administration of nicotine: evidence for an attentional explanation. Psychopharmacology 108:452–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Rusted J, Graupner L, O’Connell N, Nicholls C (1994) Does nicotine improve cognitive function? Psychopharmacology 115:547–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Rusted JM, Newhouse PA, Levin ED (2000) Nicotinic treatment for degenerative neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Behav Brain Res 113:121–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Sabey K, Paradiso K, Zhang J, Steinbach JH (1999) Ligand binding and activation of rat nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptors stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Mol Pharmacol 55:58–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Salin-Pascual RJ, Drucker-Colin R (1998) A novel effect of nicotine on mood and sleep in major depression. Neuroreport 9:57–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Samochocki M, Zerlin M, Jostock R, Groot Kormelink PJ, Luyten WH, Albuquerque EX, Maelicke A (2000) Galantamine is an allosterically potentiating ligand of the human alpha4/beta2 nAChR. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 176:68–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Sanberg PR, McConville BJ, Fogelson HM, Manderscheid PZ, Parker KW, Blythe MM, Klykylo WM, Norman AB (1989) Nicotine potentiates the effects of haloperidol in animals and in patients with Tourette syndrome. Biomed Pharmacother 43:19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Sanberg PR, Shytle RD, Silver AA (1998) Treatment of Tourette’s syndrome with mecamylamine. Lancet 352:705–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Scheffer IE, Bhatia KP, Lopes-Cendes I, Fish DR, Marsden CD, Andermann F, Andermann E, Desbiens R, Cendes F, Manson JI et al (1994) Autosomal dominant frontal epilepsy misdiagnosed as sleep disorder. Lancet 343:515–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Scheffer IE, Bhatia KP, Lopes-Cendes I, Fish DR, Marsden CD, Andermann E, Andermann F, Desbiens R, Keene D, Cendes F et al (1995) Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. A distinctive clinical disorder. Brain 118:61–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Seguela P, Wadiche J, Dineley-Miller K, Dani JA, Patrick JW (1993) Molecular cloning, functional properties, and distribution of rat brain alpha 7: a nicotinic cation channel highly permeable to calcium. J Neurosci 13:596–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Shafaee N, Houng M, Truong A, Viseshakul N, Figl A, Sandhu S, Forsayeth JR, Dwoskin LP, Crooks PA, Cohen BN (1999) Pharmacological similarities between native brain and heterologously expressed alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors. Br J Pharmacol 128:1291–1299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Sharples CG, Kaiser S, Soliakov L, Marks MJ, Collins AC, Washburn M, Wright E, Spencer JA, Gallagher T, Whiteaker P, Wonnacott S (2000) UB-165: a novel nicotinic agonist with subtype selectivity implicates the alpha4beta2+ subtype in the modulation of dopamine release from rat striatal synaptosomes. J Neurosci 20:2783–2791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Shimohama S, Akaike A, Kimura J (1996) Nicotine-induced protection against glutamate cytotoxicity. Nicotinic cholinergic receptor—mediated inhibition of nitric oxide formation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 777:356–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Shoop RD, Martone ME, Yamada N, Ellisman MH, Berg DK (1999) Neuronal acetylcholine receptors with alpha7 subunits are concentrated on somatic spines for synaptic signaling in embryonic chick ciliary ganglia. J Neurosci 19:692–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Shytle RD, Silver AA, Sanberg PR (2000) Comorbid bipolar disorder in Tourette’s syndrome responds to the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (Inversine). Biol Psychiatry 48:1028–1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Siegel C, Waldo M, Mizner G, Adler LE, Freedman R (1984) Deficits in sensory gating in schizophrenic patients and their relatives. Evidence obtained with auditory evoked responses. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41:607–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Sihver W, Gillberg PG, Svensson AL, Nordberg A (1999) Autoradiographic comparison of [3H](-)nicotine, [3H]cytisine and [3H]epibatidine binding in relation to vesicular acetylcholine transport sites in the temporal cortex in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience 94:685–696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Silver AA, Shytle RD, Sanberg PR (2000) Mecamylamine in Tourette’s syndrome: a two-year retrospective case study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 10:59–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Silver AA, Shytle RD, Philipp MK, Wilkinson BJ, McConville B, Sanberg PR (2001) Transdermal nicotine and haloperidol in Tourette’s disorder: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry 62:707–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Simosky JK, Stevens KE, Kem WR, Freedman R (2001) Intragastric DMXB-A, an alpha7 nicotinic agonist, improves deficient sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice. Biol Psychiatry 50:493–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Smit AB, Syed NI, Schaap D, van Minnen J, Klumperman J, Kits KS, Lodder H, van der Schors RC, van Elk R, Sorgedrager B, Brejc K, Sixma TK, Geraerts WP (2001) A glia-derived acetylcholine-binding protein that modulates synaptic transmission. Nature 411:261–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Soliakov L, Wonnacott S (1996) Voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels involved in nicotinic receptor-mediated [3H]dopamine release from rat striatal synaptosomes. J Neurochem 67:163–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Soliakov L, Gallagher T, Wonnacott S (1995) Anatoxin-a-evoked [3H]dopamine release from rat striatal synaptosomes. Neuropharmacology 34:1535–1541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Sparks JA, Pauly JR (1999) Effects of continuous oral nicotine administration on brain nicotinic receptors and responsiveness to nicotine in C57Bl/6 mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 141:145–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Steinlein OK, Magnusson A, Stoodt J, Bertrand S, Weiland S, Berkovic SF, Nakken KO, Propping P, Bertrand D (1997) An insertion mutation of the CHRNA4 gene in a family with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Hum Mol Genet 6:943–947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Steriade M, McCormick DA, Sejnowski TJ (1993) Thalamocortical oscillations in the sleeping and aroused brain. Science 262:679–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Svensson AL (2000) Tacrine interacts with different sites on nicotinic receptor subtypes in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and M10 cells. Behav Brain Res 113:193–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Svensson AL, Nordberg A (1996) Tacrine interacts with an allosteric activator site on alpha 4 beta 2 nAChRs in M10 cells. Neuroreport 7:2201–2205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Svensson AL, Nordberg A (1998) Tacrine and donepezil attenuate the neurotoxic effect of A beta(25–35) in rat PC12 cells. Neuroreport 9:1519–1522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Sweileh W, Wenberg K, Xu J, Forsayeth J, Hardy S, Loring RH (2000) Multistep expression and assembly of neuronal nicotinic receptors is both host-cell-and receptor-subtype-dependent. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 75:293–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Tamamizu S, Guzman GR, Santiago J, Rojas LV, McNamee MG, Lasalde-Dominicci J A (2000) Functional effects of periodic tryptophan substitutions in the alpha M4 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Biochemistry 39:4666–4673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Tanner CM, Goldman SM, Aston DA, Ottman R, Ellenberg J, Mayeux R, Langston JW (2002) Smoking and Parkinson’s disease in twins. Neurology 58:581–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Temburni MK, Blitzblau RC, Jacob MH (2000) Receptor targeting and heterogeneity at interneuronal nicotinic cholinergic synapses in vivo. J Physiol 525:21–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Tomaselli GF, McLaughlin JT, Jurman ME, Hawrot E, Yellen G (1991) Mutations affecting agonist sensitivity of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Biophys J 60:721–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Toyoshima C, Unwin N (1988) Ion channel of acetylcholine receptor reconstructed from images of postsynaptic membranes. Nature 336:247–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Turrini P, Casu MA, Wong TP, De Koninck Y, Ribeiro-da-Silva A, Cuello AC (2001) Cholinergic nerve terminals establish classical synapses in the rat cerebral cortex: synaptic pattern and age-related atrophy. Neuroscience 105:277–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Unwin N (1993) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at 9 A resolution. J Mol Biol 229:1101–1124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Unwin N, Miyazawa A, Li J, Fujiyoshi Y (2002) Activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor involves a switch in conformation of the alpha subunits. J Mol Biol 319:1165–1176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Valera S, Ballivet M, Bertrand D (1992) Progesterone modulates a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:9949–9953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Vernallis AB, Conroy WG, Berg DK (1993) Neurons assemble acetylcholine receptors with as many as three kinds of subunits while maintaining subunit segregation among receptor subtypes. Neuron 10:451–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Vernino S, Amador M, Luetje CW, Patrick J, Dani JA (1992) Calcium modulation and high calcium permeability of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Neuron 8:127–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Vetter DE, Liberman MC, Mann J, Barhanin J, Boulter J, Brown MC, Saffiote-Kolman J, Heinemann SF, Elgoyhen AB (1999) Role of alpha9 nicotinic ACh receptor subunits in the development and function of cochlear efferent innervation. Neuron 23:93–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Vincent A, Palace J, Hilton-Jones D (2001) Myasthenia gravis. Lancet 357:2122–2128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Viseshakul N, Figl A, Lytle C, Cohen BN (1998) The alpha4 subunit of rat alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors is phosphorylated in vivo. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 59:100–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Vizi ES, Lendvai B (1999) Modulatory role of presynaptic nicotinic receptors in synaptic and non-synaptic chemical communication in the central nervous system. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 30:219–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Wagner K, Edson K, Heginbotham L, Post M, Huganir RL, Czernik AJ (1991) Determination of the tyrosine phosphorylation sites of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. J Biol Chem 266:23784–23789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Wallace RH, Marini C, Petrou S, Harkin LA, Bowser DN, Panchal RG, Williams DA, Sutherland GR, Mulley JC, Scheffer IE, Berkovic SF (2001) Mutant GABA(A) receptor gamma2-subunit in childhood absence epilepsy and febrile seizures. Nat Genet 28:49–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Wang D, Chiara DC, Xie Y, Cohen JB (2000) Probing the structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with 4-benzoylbenzoylcholine, a novel photoaffinity competitive antagonist. J Biol Chem 275:28666–28674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Wang HY, Lee D H, D’Andrea MR, Peterson PA, Shank RP, Reitz AB (2000a) beta-Amyloid(1-42) binds to alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with high affinity. Implications for Alzheimer’s disease pathology. J Biol Chem 275:5626–5632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Wang HY, Lee DH, Davis CB, Shank RP (2000b) Amyloid peptide Abeta(1–42) binds selectively and with picomolar affinity to alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Neurochem 75:1155–1161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Warpman U, Nordberg A (1995) Epibatidine and ABT 418 reveal selective losses of alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic receptors in Alzheimer brains. Neuroreport 6:2419–2423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Wecker L, Guo X, Rycerz AM, Edwards SC (2001) Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and protein kinase C phosphorylate sites in the amino acid sequence corresponding to the M3/M4 cytoplasmic domain of alpha4 neuronal nicotinic receptor subunits. J Neurochem 76:711–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Weiland S, Witzemann V, Villarroel A, Propping P, Steinlein O (1996) An amino acid exchange in the second transmembrane segment of a neuronal nicotinic receptor causes partial epilepsy by altering its desensitization kinetics. FEBS Lett 398:91–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Weiland S, Bertrand D, Leonard S (2000) Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from the gene to the disease. Behav Brain Res 113:43–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Wessler I, Apel C, Garmsen M, Klein A (1992) Effects of nicotine receptor agonists on acetylcholine release from the isolated motor nerve, small intestine and trachea of rats and guinea-pigs. Clin Investig 70:182–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Whiteaker P, Peterson CG, Xu W, McIntosh JM, Paylor R, Beaudet AL, Collins AC, Marks MJ (2002) Involvement of the alpha3 subunit in central nicotinic binding populations. J Neurosci 22:2522–2529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Whiting P, Lindstrom J (1986) Pharmacological properties of immuno-isolated neuronal nicotinic receptors. J Neurosci 6:3061–3069PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Wilson GG, Karlin A (1998) The location of the gate in the acetylcholine receptor channel. Neuron 20:1269–1281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Wilson G, Karlin A (2001) Acetylcholine receptor channel structure in the resting, open, and desensitized states probed with the substituted cysteine-accessibility method. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:1241–1248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Wonnacott S (1997) Presynaptic nicotinic ACh receptors. Trends Neurosci 20:92–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Wonnacott S, Kaiser S, Mogg A, Soliakov L, Jones IW (2000) Presynaptic nicotinic receptors modulating dopamine release in the rat striatum. Eur J Pharmacol 393:51–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Xu W, Gelber S, Orr-Urtreger A, Armstrong D, Lewis RA, Ou CN, Patrick J, Role L, De Biasi M, Beaudet AL (1999a) Megacystis, mydriasis, and ion channel defect in mice lacking the alpha3 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:5746–5751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Xu W, Orr-Urtreger A, Nigro F, Gelber S, Sutcliffe CB, Armstrong D, Patrick JW, Role LW, Beaudet AL, De Biasi M (1999b) Multiorgan autonomic dysfunction in mice lacking the beta2 and the beta4 subunits of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Neurosci 19:9298–9305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Zaninetti M, Tribollet E, Bertrand D, Raggenbass M (1999) Presence of functional neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in brainstem motoneurons of the rat. Eur J Neurosci 11:2737–2748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Zaninetti M, Blanchet C, Tribollet E, Bertrand D, Raggenbass M (2000a) Magnocellular neurons of the rat supraoptic nucleus are endowed with functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Neuroscience 95:319–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Zaninetti M, Dubois-Dauphin M, Lindstrom J, Raggenbass M (2000b) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in neonatal motoneurons are regulated by axotomy: an electrophysiological and immunohistochemical study in human bcl-2 transgenic mice. Neuroscience 100:589–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Zaninetti M, Tribollet E, Bertrand D, Raggenbass M (2002) Nicotinic cholinergic activation of magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Neuroscience 110:287–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Zarei MM, Radcliffe KA, Chen D, Patrick JW, Dani JA (1999) Distributions of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 and beta2 subunits on cultured hippocampal neurons. Neuroscience 88:755–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Zhang H, Karlin A (1997) Identification of acetylcholine receptor channel-lining residues in the M1 segment of the beta-subunit. Biochemistry 36:15856–15864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Zhang H, Karlin A (1998) Contribution of the beta subunit M2 segment to the ion-conducting pathway of the acetylcholine receptor. Biochemistry 37:7952–7964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Zoli M, Lena C, Picciotto MR, Changeux JP (1998) Identification of four classes of brain nicotinic receptors using beta2 mutant mice. J Neurosci 18:4461–4472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Zoli M, Picciotto MR, Ferrari R, Cocchi D, Changeux JP (1999) Increased neurodegeneration during ageing in mice lacking high-affinity nicotine receptors. Embo J 18:1235–1244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Zwart R, Van Kleef RG, Milikan JM, Oortgiesen M, Vijverberg HP (1995) Potentiation and inhibition of subtypes of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by Pb2+. Eur J Pharmacol 291:399–406PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyCMUGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations