Regulation of S Phase

  • Jamie K. Teer
  • Anindya DuttaEmail author
Part of the Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation book series (RESULTS, volume 42)


Regulation of DNA replication is critical for accurate and timely dissemination of genomic material to daughter cells. The cell uses a variety of mechanisms to control this aspect of the cell cycle. There are various determinants of origin identification, as well as a large number of proteins required to load replication complexes at these defined genomic regions. A pre-Replication Complex (pre-RC) associates with origins in the G1 phase. This complex includes the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC), which serves to recognize origins, the putative helicase MCM2-7, and other factors important for complex assembly. Following pre-RC loading, a pre-Initiation Complex (pre-IC) builds upon the helicase with factors required for eventual loading of replicative polymerases. The chromatin association of these two complexes is temporally distinct, with pre-RC being inhibited, and pre-IC being activated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). This regulation is the basis for replication licensing, which allows replication to occur at a specific time once, and only once, per cell cycle. By preventing extra rounds of replication within a cell cycle, or by ensuring the cell cycle cannot progress until the environmental and intracellular conditions are most optimal, cells are able to carry out a successful replication cycle with minimal mutations.


Helicase Activity Replication Initiation Origin Recognition Complex Replicator Sequence Replication License 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biological and Biomedical Sciences ProgramHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Dept. Of BiochemistryUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

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