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Unsaturated Polyester Resins: Chemistry and Technology

  • Piotr PenczekEmail author
  • Piotr Czub
  • Jan Pielichowski
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 184)

Abstract

Results of investigations on novel formulations, structure-property relationships, curing, and compositions with fillers and reinforcing fibers (1997--2004) are reviewed with about 200 references to articles and several references to patents. The following topics are considered in particular: novel dibasic acids, glycols, crosslinking monomers, and curing systems, “vinyl ester” resins, fire retardant materials, IPNs and other systems comprising built-in thermoplastic polymers and oligomers with terminal functional groups. Information on unsaturated polyesters manufactured using PET scrap is given. Analytical (mainly spectrometric) methods for studying the chemical structure of crosslinked unsaturated polyester resins are presented. Approaches to the decrease in styrene emission on processing of unsaturated polyester resins are also discussed.

Unsaturated polyester resins Reinforced polyesters Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Vinyl ester resins Curing  

Abbreviations

ΔHr

heat released

ρv

depolarization ratio

AFM

atomic force microscopy

APP

ammonium polyphosphate

ATH

aluminum trihydroxide Al(OH)3

BHET

bis(hydroxyethyl)terephthalate

Bis-GMA

2,2-bis[4-(3-methacryloyloxy-2-hydroxypropoxy)phenyl]

BMC

bulk molding compounds

BMI

bismaleimide

CDRE

convulsion difference resolution enhancement

CMDB

composite modified double-base

CoHx

cobalt hexanoate

CoNp

cobalt naphthenate

CP/ MAS

magic angle spinning

CPD

cyclopentadiene

CTBN

carboxyl terminated poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)

DAD

diode array detection

DCPD

dicyclopentadiene

DD

dipolar decoupling

DEF

diethyl fumarate

DEPT

distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer

DGEBA

diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A

DKGA

diketogulonic acid

DLS

dynamic light scattering

DMA

dynamic mechanical analysis

DMB

2,5-dimethyl-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexanoylperoxy)hexane

DMC

dough molding compounds

DSC

differential scanning calorimetry

DTA

differential thermal analysis

E

storage modulus

E′′

loss modulus

Ea

activation energy

EMTHPA

endomethylene tetrahydrophthalic anhydride

ESR

electron spin resonance spectroscopy

FID

free induction decay

FT-IR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

FUPR

fluorine-modified unsaturated polyester resin

GC/ FT-IR

gas chromatography-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

GC/ MS

gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

GIC

fracture energy

GPC

gel permeation chromatography

GPC-MALLS

multiangle laser light scattering detector

HDT

heat deflection temperature

HPLC

high-performance liquid chromatography

HPN

hybrid polymer network

IPN

interpenetrating polymer network

iTBN

maleimide terminated liquid butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber

k0

frequency factor

LLCT

lyotropic liquid-crystalline thermoset

LOI

limiting oxygen index

LOM

laminated object manufacturing

LPA

low profile additives

LRP-NMR

low-resolution pulse 1H -NMR

LSA

low shrink additives

LSE

low styrene emission

\(\overline{M_{\rm n}}\)

number-average molecular weight

\(\overline{M_{\rm w}}\)

weight-average molecular weight

MDI

methylene diphenyl diisocyanate

MEKP

methylethylketone peroxide

MI

maleimides

MMT

montmorillonite

MPD

2-methyl-1,3-propane diol

MTDSC

modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry

MTGA

modulated thermogravimetric analysis

NBR

acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber

NPI

Novolac-type polyisocyanate

PB

pentabromoethylbenzene

PCL

poly(ε -caprolactone)

PD

1,2-propanediol

PDO

tert-butylperoxy-2 -ethyl hexanoate

PET

poly(ethylene terephthalate)

PFPE

perfluoropolyether

phr

weight parts of additive per 100 parts by weight of resin

PPF

poly(propylene fumarate)s

PTSA

p -toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate

PU

polyurethane

PVAc

poly(vinyl acetate)

Py-GC

pyrolysis-gas chromatography

RDA

rheometric dynamic analyzer

RO

rapeseed oil

RTM

resin transfer molding

S

antimony trioxide, Sb2O3

SBR

styrene-butadiene rubber

SCRIMP

Seemann composites resin infusion molding process

SIN

semi-interpenetrating polymer network

SLS

static light scattering

SMC

sheet molding compounds

TTT

time-temperature-transformation

SPE

solid-phase extraction

T1H

proton spin-lattice relaxation time

TH

spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame

T2

spin-spin relaxation time

Tg

glass transition temperature

tan δ

loss tangent

TCTFE

1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane

TDI

toluene diisocyanate

TEM

transmission electron microscopy

TFA

trifluoroacetic acid

TGA

thermogravimetric analysis

TMS

tetramethylsilane

TSR

thermal scanning rheometry

TX/ PCL

fluorinated macromers/ poly(ε -caprolactone)

TXCL

poly(ε -caprolactone)-perfluoropolyether-poly(ε -caprolactone) block copolymer

UP

unsaturated polyesters

UPR

unsaturated polyester resin

VARTM

vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding

VE

vinyl ether

VEUH

vinyl-ester-urethane hybrid

VER

vinyl ester resin

VTBN

vinyl terminated poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)

x

order of reaction

ZSA

zero shrink additive

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg  2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Industrial Chemistry Research InstituteWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Cracow University of TechnologyCracowPoland

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