Laser Application of Polymers

  • Thomas LippertEmail author
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 168)


Laser ablation of polymers has been studied with designed materials to evaluate the mechanism of ablation and the role of photochemically active groups on the ablation process, and to test possible applications of laser ablation and designed polymers. The incorporation of photochemically active groups lowers the threshold of ablation and allows high-quality structuring without contamination and modification of the remaining surface. The decomposition of the active chromophore takes place during the excitation pulse of the laser and gaseous products are ejected with supersonic velocity. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry reveals that a metastable species is among the products, suggesting that excited electronic states are involved in the ablation process. Experiments with a reference material, i.e., polyimide, for which a photothermal ablation mechanism has been suggested, exhibited pronounced differences. These results strongly suggest that, in case of designed polymers which contain photochemically active groups, a photochemical part in the ablation mechanism cannot be neglected. Various potential applications for laser ablation and the special photopolymers were evaluated and it became clear that the potential of laser ablation and specially designed material is in the field of microstructuring. Laser ablation can be used to fabricate three-dimensional elements, e.g., microoptical elements.


Laser ablation Ablation mechanism Photopolymers Polyimide Spectroscopy 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. I thank Macarena Montenegro, PSI, for help with the literature database and Katharina Meissner for help with the figures.


  1. 1.
    Maiman TH (1960) Nature 187:493Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gordon JP, Zeiger HJ, Townes CH (1954) Phys Rev 95:282Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kneubühl FW, Sigrist MW (1999) Laser. Teubner Studienbücher Physik, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schawlow AL (1965) Science 149:13Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brech F, Cross L (1962) Appl Spectrosc 16:59Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Linlor WI (1965) Bull Am Phys Soc 7:440Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Honig RE, Woolston JR (1963) Appl Phys Lett 2:138Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Murray JJ (1963) Bull Am Phys Soc 8:77Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ready JF (1963) Appl Phys Lett 3:11Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rosan RC, Healy MK, McNary J, W.F. (1963) Science 142:236Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Howe JA (1963) J Chem Phys 39:1362Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berkowitz J, Chupka WA (1964) J Chem Phys 40:2735Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Basov NG, Krokhin ON (1964) Sov Phys JETP 19:123Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ehlers AW, Weissler GL (1966) Appl Phys Lett 8:89Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Basov NG, Kruikov PG, Zakharov SD, Senatskii YV, Tchekalin SV (1968) IEEE J Quant Electron Q40:864Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Langer P, Tonon G, Floux F, Ducauze A (1966) IEEE QE2:499Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Archibold E, Hughes TP (1964) Nature 204:670Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sonneburg H, Heffner H, Spicer W (1964) Appl Phys Lett 5:95Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Logothetis EM, Hartman PL (1967) Phys Rev Lett 18:581Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Smith AH, Turner AF (1965) Appl Opt 4:147Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kawamura Y, Toyoda K, Namba S (1982) Appl Phys Lett 40:374Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Srinivasan R, Mayne-Banton V (1982) Appl Phys Lett 41:576Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Patel RS, Wassick TA (1997) Proc SPIE-Int Soc Opt Eng 2991:217Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aoki H (04/1998). 5736999, USGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zaitsev-Zotov SV, Martynyuk AN, Protasov NE (1983) Sov Phys Solid State 25:100Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dijkamp D, Venkatesan T, Wu XD, Shaheen SA, Jiswari N, Min-Lee YH, McLean WL, Croft M (1987) Appl Phys Lett 51:619Google Scholar
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
    Karas M, Bachmann D, Hillekamp F (1985) Anal Chem 57:2953Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zenobi R, Knochenmuss R (1999) Mass Spectrom Rev 17:337Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rose-Petruck C, Jiminez R, Guo T, Cavalleri A, Siders CW, Raksi F, Squire JA, Walker BC, Wilson KR, Barty CJP (1999) Nature 398:310Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Perkins LJ, Logan BG, Rosen MD, Perry MD, de la Rubia TD, Ghoniem NM, Ditmire T, Springer PT, Wilks SC (2000) Nuclear Fusion 40:1Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zafiropulos V, Fotakis C (1998) Laser cleaning in conservation. Butterworth Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rudolph P, Pentzien S, Krüger J, Kautek W, König E (1998) Restauro 6:396Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ready JF (1971) Effects of high power laser radiation. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    (1989) Laser-induced plasmas and applications. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vertes A, Gijbels R, Adams F (1993) Laser ionization mass analysis. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chrisey DB, Hubler GK (1994) Pulsed laser deposition of thin films. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    (1994) Laser ablation principles and applications. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    (1998) Laser ablation and desorption. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bäuerle D (2000) Laser processing and chemistry. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhigilei LV, Leveugle E, Garrison BJ, Yingling YG, Zeifman M (2003) Chem Rev 103:321Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Georgiou S, Koubenakis A (2003) Chem Rev 103:349Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lippert T, Dickinson JT (2003) Chem Rev 103:453Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Paltauf G, Dyer PE (2003) Chem Rev 103:487Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bityurin N, Luk’yanchuk B, Hong MH, Chong TC (2003) Chem Rev 103:519Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chrisey DB, Pique A, McGrill RA, Horwitz JS, Ringeisen BR, Bubb DM, Wu PK (2003) Chem Rev 103:553Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Vogel A, Venugopalan V (2003) Chem Rev 103:577Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    (1990) Lasers in polymer science and technology: applications, vol I-IV. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dekker M (1989) Laser-induced plasmas and applications, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Blanchet GB (1996) Chemtech June:31Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jiang W, Norton MG, Tsung L, Dickinson JT (1995) J Mater Res 10:1038Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lippert T, Zimmermann F, Wokaun A (1993) Appl Spectrosc 47:1931Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Watanabe H, Takata T (1996) Angew Makromol Chem 235:95Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dyer PE (1992) Photochemical processing of materials. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bolle M, Lazare S (1993) Appl Surf Sci 69:31Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lazare S, Granier V (1989) Laser Chem 10:25Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Srinivasan R, Braren B (1989) Chem Rev 89:1303Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Suzuki K (1998), Hitachi Ltd, Mobara, JapanGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Babu SV, D’Couto GC, Egitto FD (1992) J Appl Phys:692Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Himmelbauer M, Arenholz E, Bäuerle D (1996) Appl Phys A 63:87Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Paraskevopoulos G, Singleton DL, Irwin RS, Taylor RS (1987) J Appl Phys 70:1938Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Taylor RS, Singleton DL, Paraskevopoulos G (1987) Appl Phys Lett 50:1779Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Küper S, Brannon J, Brannon K (1993) Appl Phys A 56:43Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lippert T, David C, Dickinson JT, Hauer M, Kogelschatz U, Langford SC, Nuyken O, Phipps C, Robert J, Wokaun A (2001) J Photochem Photobiol. A Chem 145:145Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Schumann M, Sauerbrey R, Smayling M (1991) Appl Phys Lett 58:428Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ball Z, Hopp B, Csete M, Ignacz F, Racz B, Sauerbrey R, Szabo G (1995) Appl Phys A 61:547Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ball Z, Hopp B, Csete M, Ignacz F, Racz B, Szabo G, Sauerbrey R (1995) Appl Phys A 61:575Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lippert T, Bennett LS, Nakamura T, Niino H, Ouchi A, Yabe A (1996) Appl Phys A 63:257Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Srinivasan R, Hall RR, Loehle WD, Wilson WD, Allbee DC (1995) J Appl Phys 78:4881Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lippert T, Nakamura T, Niino H, Yabe A (1996) Macromolecules 29:6301Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lu J, Deshpande SV, Gulari E, Kanicki J, Warren WL (1996) J Appl Phys 80:5028Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Deutsch TF, Geis MW (1983) J Appl Phys 54:7201Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Andrew JE, Dyer PE, Foster D, Key PH (1983) Appl Phys Lett 43:717Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sutcliffe E, Srinivasan R (1986) J Appl Phys 60:3315Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mahan GD, Cole HS, Liu YS, Philipp HR (1988) Appl Phys Lett 53:2377Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cain SR, Burns FC, Otis CE (1992) J Appl Phys 71:4107Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Cain S (1993) J Phys Chem 97:7572Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    D’Couto GC, Babu SV (1994) J Appl Phys 76:3052Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Luk’yanchuk B, Bityurin N, Himmelbauer M, Arnold N (1997) Nucl Instrum Met B 122:347Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Arnold N, Luk’yanchuk B, Bityurin N (1998) Appl Surf Sci 127:184Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Srinivasan V, Smrtic MA, Babu SV (1986) A Appl Phys 59:3861Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schmidt H, Ihlemann J, Wolff-Rottke B, Luther K, Troe J (1998) J Appl Phys 83:5458Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Luk’yanchuk B, Bityurin N, Anisimov S, Bäuerle D (1993) Appl Phys A 57:367Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Luk’yanchuk B, Bityurin N, Anisimov S, Arnold N, Bäuerle D (1996) Appl Phys A 62:397Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bityurin N, Malyshev A, Luk’yanchuk B, Anisimov S, Bäuerle D (1996) Proc SPIE-Int Soc Opt Eng 2802:103Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bityurin N (1999) Appl Surf Sci 138-139:354Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Treyz GV, Scarmozzoni R, Osgood J, R. M. (1989) Appl Phys Lett 55:346Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Anisimov SI, Khokhlov VA (1995) Instabilities in laser–matter interaction. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Arnold N, Bityurin N (1999) Appl Phys A 68:615Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wei J, Hoogen N, Lippert T, Nuyken O, Wokaun A (2001) J Phys Chem B 105:1267Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lazare S, Granier V (1990) Chem Phys Lett 168:593Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Srinivasan R (1993) Appl Phys A 56:417Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fujiwara H, Fukumura H, Masuhara H (1995) J Phys Chem 99:11844Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Fukumura H, Takahashi E-i, Masuhara H (1995) J Phys Chem 99:750Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Fukumura H, Mibuka N, Eura S, Masuhara H, Nishi N (1993) J Phys Chem 97:13761Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Fujiwara H, Hayashi T, Fukumura H, Masuhara H (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:2451Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Fukumura H, Masuhara H (1994) Chem Phys Lett 221:373Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wu X, Sadeghi M, Vertes A (1998) J Phys Chem B 102:4770Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Dutkiewicz L, Johnson RE, Vertes A, Pedrys R (1999) J Phys Chem A 103:2925Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Chang T-C, Dlott D (1989) J Phys Chem 90:3590Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Zhigilei LV, Kodali PBS, Garrison BJ (1997) J Phys Chem B 101:2028Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Zhigilei LV, Kodali PBS, Garrison BJ (1998) J Phys Chem B 102:2845Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Zhigilei LV, Garrison BJ (2000) J Appl Phys 88:1281Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zhigilei LV, Kodali PBS, Garrison BJ (1997) Chem Phys Lett 276:269Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zhigilei LV, Garrison BJ (1997) Appl Phys Lett 71:551Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zhigilei LV, Garrison BJ (1998) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 12:1273Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Zhigilei LV, Garrison BJ (1999) Appl Phys Lett 74:1341Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zhigilei LV, Garrison BJ (1999) Appl Phys A 69:S75Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Smirnova JA, Zhigilei LV, Garrison BJ (1999) Comput Phys Commun 118:11Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Dekel E, Eliezer S, Henis Z, Moshe E, Ludmirsky A, Goldberg IB (1998) J Appl Phys 84:4851Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lippert T, Wokaun A, Stebani J, Nuyken O, Ihlemann J (1993) J Phys Chem 97:12297Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Zeifman M, Zhigilei LV, Garrison BJ (2001) 6th international conference on laser ablation, TsukubaGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Reichmanis E, Wilkins Jr. CW (1989) Microelectronic polymers. Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ito H (1997) IBM J Res Develop 41:69Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Allen RD, Wallraff GM, Hofer DC, Kunz RR (1997) IBM J Res Develop 41:95Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Nalamasu O, Wallow TI, Reichmanis E, Novembre AE, Houlihan F, Dabbagh G, Mixon DA, Hutton RS, Timko AG, Wood OR, Cirelli RA (1997) Microelect Engin 35:133Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Lippert T, Yabe A, Wokaun A (1997) Adv Mat 9:105Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lippert T, Stebani J, Ihlemann J, Nuyken O, Wokaun A (1993) Angew Makromol Chem 213:127Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Panitz J-C, Lippert T, Stebani J, Nuyken O, Wokaun A (1993) J Phys Chem 97:5246Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lippert T, Stebani J, Ihlemann J, Nuyken O, Wokaun A (1993) Angew Makromol Chem 206:97Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Stebani J, Nuyken O, Lippert T, Wokaun A (1993) Makromol Chem Rapid Commun 14:365Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Stebani J, Nuyken O, Lippert T, Wokaun A, Stasko A (1995) Makromol Chem Phys 196:739Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Nuyken O, Dahn U, Hoogen N, Marquis D, Nobis MN, Scherer C, Stebani J, Wokaun A, Hahn C, Kunz T, Lippert T (1999) Polym News 24:257Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sadafule DS, Panda SP (1979) J Appl Polym Sci 24:511Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hoogen N, Nuyken O (2000) J Polym Sci Polym Chem 38:1903Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lippert T, Wei J, Wokaun A, Hoogen N, Nuyken O (2000) Appl Surf Sci 168:270Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kunz T, Stebani J, Ihlemann J, Wokaun A (1998) Appl Phys A 67:347Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Wei J, Hoogen N, Lippert T, Hahn C, Nuyken O, Wokaun A (1999) Appl Phys A 69:S849Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lippert T, Wei J, Wokaun A, Hoogen N, Nuyken O (2000) Macromol Mat Eng 283:140Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Srinivasan R, Braren B (1984) J Polym Sci 22:2601Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lazare S, Granier V (1989) Appl Phys Lett 54:862Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Pettit GH, Sauerbrey R (1993) Appl Phys A 56:51Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Furutani H, Fukumura H, Masuhara H, Lippert T, Yabe A (1997) J Phys Chem A 101:5742Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lippert T, Bennett LS, Nakamura T, Niino H, Yabe A (1996) Appl Surf Sci 96-98:601Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Tonyali K, Jensen LC, Dickinson JT (1988) J Vac Sci Technol A 6:941Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Dyer PE, Jenkins SD, Sidhu J (1986) Appl Phys Lett 49:453Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Hopp B, Bor Z, Homolya E, Mihalik E (1998) SPIE Proc, vol 3423 p 389Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Raimondi F, Abolhassani S, Brütsch R, Geiger F, Lippert T, Wambach J, Wei J, Wokaun A (2000) J Appl Phys 88:1Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Atkins PW (1994) Physical chemistry. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Lippert T, Stebani J, Stasko A, Nuyken O, Wokaun A (1994) J Photochem Photobiol 78:139Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ortelli EE, Geiger F, Lippert T, Wei J, Wokaun A (2000) Macromolecules 33:5090Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Van Saarloos PP, Constable JJ (1990) J Appl Phys 68:377Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lazare S, Granier V, Lutgen F, Feyder G (1988) Revue Phys Appl 23:1065Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Zimmermann F, Lippert T, Beyer C, Stebani J, Nuyken O, Wokaun A (1993) Appl Spectrosc 47:931Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Schrader B, Moore DS (1995) vol 12Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Beamson G, Briggs D (1992) High resolution XPS of organic polymers. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Clark DT (1985) Pure Appl Chem 57:941Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Gelius U (1974) J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 5:985Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Beamson G, Briggs D (1992) Mol Phys 76:919Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Brezini A, Zekri N (1994) J Appl Phys 75:2015Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Briggs D (1989) Br Polym J 21:3Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Briggs D, Brown A, Vickermann JC (1989) Handbook of static secondary ion mass spectrometry. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Stasko A, Adamcik V, Lippert T, Wokaun A, Dauth J, Nuyken O (1993) Makromol Chem 194:3385Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Schrader B, Bergmann G (1967) Fres Z Anal Chem 225:230Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Novis Y, De Meulemeester R, Chtaïb M, Pireaux J-J, Caudano R (1989) Br Polym J 21:147Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Lau ANK, Vo LP (1992) Macromolecules 25:7294Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Bolle M, Lazare S, Leblanc M, Wilmes A (1992) Appl Phys Lett 60:674Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Dyer PE, Farley RJ (1990) Appl Phys Lett 66:1884Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Bahners T, Schollmeyer E (1989) J Appl Phys 66:1884Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Dyer PE, Farley RJ (1993) J Appl Phys 74:1442Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Arenholz E, Wahner M, Heitz J, Bäuerle D (1992) Appl Phys A 55:119Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Dunn DS, Ouderkirk AJ (1990) Macromolecules 23:770Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Creasy WR, Brenna JT (1990) J Chem Phys 92:2269Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Otis CE (1989) Appl Phys B 49:455Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Campbell EEB, Ulmer G, Hasselberger B, Hertel IV (1989) Appl Surf Sci 43:346Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Campbell EEB, Ulmer G, Hasselberger B, Busmann H-G, Hertel IV (1990) J Chem Phys 93:6900Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Singleton DL, Paraskevopoulos G, Irwin RS (1989) J Appl Phys 66:3324Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Srinivasan R, Braren B, Seeger DE, Dreyfus RW (1986) Macromolecules 19:916Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Gu XJ (1993) Appl Phys Lett 62:1568Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Feurer T, Sauerbrey R, Smayling MC, Story BJ (1993) Appl Phys A 56:275Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Shimoyama M, Niino H, Yabe A (1992) Makromol Chem 193:569Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Bennett LS, Lippert T, Furutani H, Fukumura H, Masuhara H (1996) Appl Phys A 63:327Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Furzikov NP (1990) Appl Phys Lett 56:1638Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Pettit GH, Sauerbrey R (1991) Appl Phys Lett 58:793Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Pettit GH, Ediger MN, Hahn DW, Brinson BE, Sauerbrey R (1994) Appl Phys A 58:573Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Lazare S, Soulignac JC, Fragnaud P (1987) Appl Phys Lett 50:624Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Reyna LG, Sobehart JR (1994) J Appl Phys 76:4367Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Brannon JH, Lankard JR, Baise AI, Burns F, Kaufmann J (1985) J Appl Phys 58:2036Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Pettit GH, Ediger MN, Weiblinger RP (1993) Appl Opt 32:488Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Stewart JJP, BloomingtonGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Stewart JJP (1989) J Comput Chem 209:221Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Stewart JJP (1990) J Comput Aided Mol Design 4:1Google Scholar
  183. 183.
  184. 184.
    Shaw R (1975) The chemistry of the hydrazo, azo and azoxy groups. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Braren B, Srinivasan R (1988) J Vac Sci Technol B 6:537Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Ihlemann J, Wolff B, Simon P (1992) Appl Phys A 54:363Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Corporation S (1995)Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Kunagai H, Midorikawa K, Toyoda K, Nakamura S, Okamoto T, Obara M (1994) Appl Phys Lett 65:1850Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Chen S, Lee I-Y, Tolbert SWA, Wen X, Dlott DD (1992) J Phys Chem 96:7178Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Tsuboi Y, Fukumura H, Masuhara H (1995) J Phys Chem 99:10305Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Tsuboi Y, Hatanaka K, Fukumura H, Masuhara H (1994) J Phys Chem 98:11237Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Hare DE, Dlott DD (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:715Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Lippert T, Koskelo A, Stoutland PO (1996) J Am Chem Soc 118:1151Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Srinivasan R, Braren B, Casey KG, Yeh M (1989) Appl Phys Lett 55:2790Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Srinivasan R, Braren B, Casey KG, Yeh M (1990) J Appl Phys 67:1604Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Gilgenbach RM, Ventzek PLG (1991) Appl Phys Lett 58:1597Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Srinivasan RJ (1993) J Appl Phys 73:2743Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Furutani H, Fukumura H, Masuhara H (1994) Appl Phys Lett 65:3413Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Furutani H, Fukumura H, Masuhara H (1996) J Phys Chem 100:6871Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Furutani H (1997), Ph.D. thesis, Osaka UniversityGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Gupta A, Braren B, Casey KG, Hussey BW, Kelly R (1991) Appl Phys Lett 59:1302Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Dyer PE, Sidhu J (1988) J Appl Phys 64:4657Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Ben-Eliahu Y, Haas Y, Welner S (1995) J Phys Chem 99:6010Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Korobeinikov VP (1991) Problems of point blast theory. Institute of Physics, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Freiwald DA, Axford RA (1975) J Appl Phys 46:1171Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Freiwald DA (1972) J Appl Phys 43:2224Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Kim H, Postlewaite JC, Zyung T, Dlott DD (1988) J Appl Phys 64:2955Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Tsuboi Y, Fukumura H, Masuhara H (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:2745Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Bobin JL, Durand YA, Langer PP, Tonon G (1968) J Appl Phys 39:4184Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Hall RB (1969) J Appl Phys 40:1941Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Bennett LS, Horie Y (1994) Shock Waves 4:127Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Fujiwara H, Nakajima Y, Fukumura H, Masuhara H (1995) J Phys Chem 99:11481Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Kokai F, Koga Y, Kakudate Y, Kawaguchi M, Fujiwara S, Kubota M, Fukuda M (1994) Appl Phys A 59:299Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Estler RC, Nogar NS (1986) Appl Phys Lett 49:1175Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Krajnovich DJ (1997) J Phys Chem A 101:2033Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Dickinson JT, Shin J-J, Jiang W, Norton MG (1993) J Appl Phys 74:4729Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Blanchet GB, Fincher JCR (1996) Appl Phys Lett 68:929Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Hansen SG (1989) J Appl Phys 66:1411Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Larciprete R, Stuke M (1987) Appl Phys B 42:181Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Tsunekawa M, Nishio S, Sato H (1994) J Appl Phys 76:5598Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Tsunekawa M, Nishio S, Sato H (1995) Jpn J Appl Phys 34:218Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Danielzik B, Fabricius N, Röwekamp M, Linde D (1986) Appl Phys Lett 48:212Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Feldmann D, Kutzner J, Laukemper J, MacRobert S, Welge KH (1987) Appl Phys B 44:81Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Lippert T, Webb RL, Langford SC, Dickinson JT (1999) J Appl Phys 85:1838Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Lippert T, Kunz T, Hahn C, Wokaun A (1997) Recent Res Develop Macromol Res 2:121Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Lippert T, Dickinson JT, Hauer M, Kopitkovas G, Langford SC, Masuhara H, Nuyken O, Robert J, Salmio H, Tada T, Tomita K, Wokaun A (2002) Appl Surf Sci 197–198c:611Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Lippert T, David C, Hauer M, Wokaun A, Robert J, Nuyken O, Phipps C (2001) J Photochem Photobiol A:Chem 145:87Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Lippert T, David C, Hauer M, Masuhara H, Nuyken O, Phipps C, Robert J, Tada T, Tomita K, Wokaun A (2002) Appl Surf Sci 186:14Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Shin JJ, Ermer DR, Langford SC, Dickinson JT (1997) Appl Phys A 64:7Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Press WH, Flannery BP, Teukolsky SA, Vetterling WT (1989) Numerical recipes in Pascal:the art of scientific computing. Cambridge University, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Zhao X, Hintsa EJ, Lee YT (1988) J Chem Phys 88:801Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Dickinson JT, Jensen LC, Doering DL, Yee R (1990) J Appl Phys 67:3641Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Webb RL, Langford SC, Dickinson JT (1995) Nucl Instrum Meth Phys Res B 103:29Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Dickinson JT, Shin J-J, Langford SC (1996) Appl Surf Sci 96-98:326Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Kelly R, Dreyfus RW (1988) Nucl Instr Methods Phys Res B 32:341Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Eliasson B, Kogelschatz U (1988) Appl Phys B 46:299Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Kogelschatz U (1990) Pure Appl Chem 62:1667Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Eliasson B, Kogelschatz U (1991) OZONE Sci Eng. 13:356Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Zhang JY, Esrom H, Kogelschatz U, Emig G (1993) Appl Surf Sci 69:299Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Nuyken O, Stebani J, Lippert T, Wokaun A, Stasko A (1995) Macromol Chem Phys 196:751Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Srinivasan R, Lazare S (1985) Polymer 26:1297Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Zewail AH (1996) J Phys Chem 100:12701Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Tas G, Hambir SA, Franken J, Hare DE, Dlott DD (1997) J Appl Phys 82:1080Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Rabek JF (1987) Mechanism of photophysical processes and photochemical reactions in polymers. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Delaire JA, Faure J, Hassine-Renou F, Soreau M, Mayeaux A (1987) Nouv J Chim 1:15Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    Vleggaar JJM, Huizer AH, Kraakman PA, Nijssen WPM, Visser RJ, Varma CAGO (1994) J Am Chem Soc 116:11754Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Tanigaki K, Ebbesen TW (1989) J Phys Chem 93:4531Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Willson CG, Clecak NJ, Grant BD, Twieg RJ (1980) Electrochem Soc Preprints:696Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Grant BD, Clecak NJ, Twieg RJ, Willson CG (1981) IEEE Trans Electron Devices 28:1300Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Willson CG, Miller RD, McKean DR (1987) Proc SPIE-Int Soc Opt Eng:771Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Wen X, Hare DE, Dlott DD (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:184Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Tidwell TT (1995) Ketenes. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Ulbricht M, Thurner J-U, Siegmund M, Tomaschewski G (1988) Z Chem 28:102Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Winnik MA, Wang F, Nivaggioi T, Hruska Z, Fukumura H, Masuhara H (1991) J Am Chem Soc 113:7655Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Gillet P, Goyot F, Malezieux J-M (1989) Phys Earth Planet Interiors 58:141Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Fishbine B, Lippert T, Dick JJ (1997) Los Alamos National LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Lippert T, Stoutland PO (1997) Appl Surf Sci 109-110:43Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Sroog CE (1996) Polyimides—fundamentals and applications. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Dimitrakopoulos CD, Machlin ES, Kowalczyk SP (1996) Macromolecules 29:5818Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Matsumoto T (1999) Macromolecules 32:4933Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Hasegawa M, Sensui N, Shindo Y, Yokota R (1999) Macromolecules 32:387Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Chern YT (1998) Macromolecules 31:5837Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Pyo SM, Kim SI, Shin TJ, Park HK, Ree M, Park KH, Kang JS (1998) Macromolecules 31:4777Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Chen JP, Labarthet FL, Natansohn A, Rochon P (1999) Macromolecules 32:8579Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Wilson A (1984) Polyimides. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Kawakami H, Mikawa M, Nagaoka S (1998) Macromolecules 31:6636Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Coleman MR, Koros WJ (1999) Macromolecules 32:3106Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Pettit GH (1996) Polyimides—fundamentals and applications. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Bachman F (1989) ChemtronicsGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Lankard JR, Wolbold G (1992) Appl Phys A 54:355Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Hansen SG, Robitaille TE (1988) Appl Phys Lett 52:81Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Ulmer G, Hasselberger B, Busman H-G, Campbell EEB (1990) Appl Surf Sci 46:272Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    Koren J, Yeh YTC (1984) J Appl Phys 56:2120Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Srinivasan R, Braren B, Dreyfus R (1987) J Appl Phys 61:372Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Ball Z, Sauerbrey R (1994) Appl Phys Lett 65:391Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Lippert T, Ortelli E, Panitz J-C, Raimondi F, Wambach J, Wei J, Wokaun A (1999) Appl Phys A 69:S651Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Moyses S, Spells SJ (1999) Macromolecules 32:2684Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Shimomura M, Okumoto H, Kaito A, Ueno K, Shen JS, Ito K (1998) Macromolecules 31:7843Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Minagawa M, Yoshida W, Kurita S, Takada S, Yoshii F (1997) Macromolecules 30:1782Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Snively CM, Koenig JL (1998) Macromolecules 31:3753Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Buback M, Kowollik C (1998) Macromolecules 31:3211Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Ozaki Y, Liu YL, Noda I (1997) Macromolecules 30:2391Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Ren YZ, Murakami T, Nishioka T, Nakashima K, Noda I, Ozaki Y (1999) Macromolecules 32:6307Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Storey RF, Donnalley AB (1999) Macromolecules 32:7003Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    Ortelli E, Geiger F, Lippert T, Wokaun A (2001) Appl SpectroscGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Kokai F, Saito H, Fujioka T (1990) Macromolecules 23:674Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Mihailov S, Duley W (1988) Proc SPIE-Int Soc Opt Eng 957:111Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Yeboah SA, Wang S-H, Griffiths PR (1984) Appl Spectrosc 38:259Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Kubelka P, Munk F (1931) Z Tech Phys 11:593Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Ehlers GFL, Fisch KR, Powell WR (1970) J Polym Sci 8:3511Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Ishida H, Wellinghoff ST, Baer E, Koenig JL (1980) Macromolecules 13:826Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Brekner MJ, Geger C (1987) J Polym Sci 25:2005Google Scholar
  293. 293.
    Socrates G (1994) Infrared characteristic group frequencies. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    Borisevich NA, Khovratovich NN (1961) Optics Spectrosc 10:309Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Molis S (1987)Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Ball Z, Feurer T, Callahan DL, Sauerbrey R (1996) Appl Phys A 62:203Google Scholar
  297. 297.
    Graham JL, Berham JM, Dellinger B (1993) J Photochem Photobiol A 71:65Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Sroog CE (1976) Polym Sci Macromol Rev 11:176Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Dussel JJ, Rosen H, Hummel DO (1976) Makromol Chem 177:2343Google Scholar
  300. 300.
    Inagaki M, Takichi T, Hishiyama Y, Obslei A (1999) Chemistry and physics of carbon. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Kubelka P (1948) J Opt Soc Am 38:1067Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    Kubelka P (1954) J Opt Soc Am 44:330Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    Kortum G (1957) Spectrochim Acta 6:534Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    Kortum G (1962) Trans Faraday Soc 58:1624Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Kortum G, Braun W, Herzog G (1963) Angew Chem Intern Ed 2:333Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    Weigel JM, Fröhlich C, Baiker A, Wokaun A (1996) Appl Catal 140:29Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    White RL (1992) Appl Spectrosc 46:1508Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    White RL (1992) Anal Chem 64:2010Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    Snyder RW, Wade Sheen C, Painter PC (1988) Appl Spectrosc 42:503Google Scholar
  310. 310.
    Sakuma T, Ogitani S, Ikeda A (1995) J Photopolym Sci Technol 8:277Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Buncick MC, Denton DD (1991) J Vacuum Sci Technol A9:350Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    Snyder RW, Sheen CW (1988) Appl Spectrosc 42:296Google Scholar
  313. 313.
    Digiulio C, Gautier M, Jasse B (1984) J Appl Polym Sci 29:1771Google Scholar
  314. 314.
    Mayer GW, Glass TE, Grubbs HJ, McGrath JE (1994) Polym Prepr. 35:549Google Scholar
  315. 315.
    Deshpande JSV, Gulari E, Kanicki J, Warren WL (1996) J Appl Phys 80:5028Google Scholar
  316. 316.
    Chandrasekhar TM, White RL (1996) J Appl Polym Sci 60:1209Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    Sroog CE, Endrey AL, Abramo SV, Berr CE, Edwards WM, Olivier KL (1965) J Polym Sci A 3:1373Google Scholar
  318. 318.
    Anderson OL, Susuki J (1983) J Geophys. Res 88:3549Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Peri JB (1968) J Phys Chem 72:2917Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    Peri JB (1982) J Phys Chem 86:1615Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    Levenspiel O (1972) Chemical reaction engineering. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Elias HG (1975) Makromoleküle. Hütig & Wepf, Basel, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Traeger RK, Salazar EA (1971) Polym Preprints 12:292Google Scholar
  324. 324.
    Heacock JF, Berr CE (1965) SPE Trans 5:105Google Scholar
  325. 325.
    Lippert T, Gerber T, Wokaun A, Funk DJ, Fukumura H, Gorto M (1999) Appl Phys Lett 75:1018Google Scholar
  326. 326.
    David C, Wei J, Lippert T, Wokaun A (2001) Microlectr Eng 57-58:453Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    Lippert T, Wokaun A, Langford SC, Dickinson JT (1999) Appl Phys A 69:S655Google Scholar
  328. 328.
    Lippert T, Langford SC, Wokaun A, Georgiou S, Dickinson JT (1999) J Appl Phys 86:7116Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Webb RL, Jensen LC, Langford SC, Dickinson JT (1993) J Appl Phys 74:2323Google Scholar
  330. 330.
    Webb RL, Jensen LC, Langford SC, Dickinson JT (1993) J Appl Phys 74:2338Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    Ermer DR, Langford SC, Dickinson JT (1997) J Appl Phys 81:1495Google Scholar
  332. 332.
    Wright AN, Winkler CA (1968) Active nitrogen. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Ermer DR, Langford SC, Dickinson JT (1998) Surf Sci 127–129:977Google Scholar
  334. 334.
    Suzuki K, Matsuda M, Ogino T, Hayashi N, Terabayashi T, Amemiya K (1997) Proc SPIE-Int Soc Opt Eng 2992:98Google Scholar
  335. 335.
    Suzuki K, Matsuda M, Hayashi N (1998) Appl Surf Sci 127–129:905Google Scholar
  336. 336.
    Kunz T, Hahn C, Wokaun A (1998) Adv Mater 10:786Google Scholar
  337. 337.
    Seki S, Kanzaki K, Yoshida Y, Tagawa S, Shibata H, Asai K, Ishigure K (1997) Jpn J Appl Phys 36:5361Google Scholar
  338. 338.
    Schue F, Giral L (1998) Makromol Chem, Makromol Symp 24:21Google Scholar
  339. 339.
    Fukumura H, Kohji Y, Nagasawa K, Masuhara H (1994) J Am Chem Soc 116:10304Google Scholar
  340. 340.
    Gery G, Fukumura H, Masuhara H (1997) J Phys Chem B 101:3698Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    Tolbert WA, Lee I-YS, Doxtader MM, Ellis EW, Dlott DD (1993) J Imag Sci Technol 37:411Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    Lippert T, Bennett L, Kunz T, Hahn C, Wokaun A, Furutani H, Fukumura H, Masuhara H, Nakamura T, Yabe A (1997) Proc SPIE-Int Soc Opt Eng 2992:135Google Scholar
  343. 343.
    Kalyanasundaram K, Thomas JK (1977) J Am Chem Soc 99:2039Google Scholar
  344. 344.
    Guillet J (1985) Polymer photophysics and photochemistry. Cambridge Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Stein SE, Fahr A (1985) J Phys Chem 89:3714Google Scholar
  346. 346.
    (1996) Diffraction grating handbook, RochesterGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Hill KO, Fujii Y, Johnson DC, Kawasaki BS (1978) Appl Phys Lett 32:847Google Scholar
  348. 348.
    Newsome CJ, O’Neill M, Farley RJ, Bryan-Brown GP (1998) Appl Phys Lett 72:2078Google Scholar
  349. 349.
    Söchtig J, Schütz H, Widmer R, Lehmann R, Grosse R (1994) Proc SPIE-Int Soc Opt Eng 2213:98Google Scholar
  350. 350.
    Lazare S, Bolle M, Cros A, Bellard L (1995) Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 105:159Google Scholar
  351. 351.
    Lazare S, Drillhole D (1997) J Photochem Photobiol A:Chem 106:15Google Scholar
  352. 352.
    Sendova M, Hiraoka H (1993) Jpn J Appl Phys 32:6182Google Scholar
  353. 353.
    Niino H, Kawabata Y, Yabe A (1989) Jpn J Appl Phys 28:L2225Google Scholar
  354. 354.
    Knittel D, Kesting W, Schollmeyer E (1997) Polym Int 43:231Google Scholar
  355. 355.
    Okamoto T, Ohmori R, Hayakawa S, Seo I, Sato H (1997) Opt Rev 4:516Google Scholar
  356. 356.
    Dyer PE, Farley RJ, Giedl R (1996) Opt Commun 129:98Google Scholar
  357. 357.
    Dyer PE, Farley RJ, Giedl R, Karnakis DM (1996) Appl Surf Sci 96-98:537Google Scholar
  358. 358.
    Phillips HM, Callahan DL, Sauerbrey R, Szabò G, Bor Z (1991) Appl Phys Lett 58:2761Google Scholar
  359. 359.
    Phillips HM, Callahan DL, Sauerbrey R, Szabò G, Bor Z (1992) Appl Phys A 54:158Google Scholar
  360. 360.
    Chen K, Ihlemann J, Simon P, Baumann I, Sohler W (1997) Appl Phys A 65:517Google Scholar
  361. 361.
    Ilcisin KJ, Fedosejevs R (1987) Appl Opt 26:396Google Scholar
  362. 362.
    David C, Hambach D (1999) Microelectron Eng 46:219Google Scholar
  363. 363.
    Marrian CRK (1993) Technology of proximal probe lithography. SPIE, BellinghamGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Eigler DM, Schweizer LK (1990) Nature 344:524Google Scholar
  365. 365.
    Lebreton C, Wang ZZ (1994) Scanning Microsc J 8:441Google Scholar
  366. 366.
    Beton PH, Dunn AW, Moriarty P (1995) Appl Phys Lett 67:1075Google Scholar
  367. 367.
    Marrian CRK, Dobisz EA (1992) J Vac Sci Technol B 10:2877Google Scholar
  368. 368.
    Majumdar A, Oden PI, Carrejo JP, Nagahara LA, Graham JJ, Alexander J (1992) Appl Phys Lett 61:2293Google Scholar
  369. 369.
    Park SW, Soh HT, Quate CF, Park SI (1995) Appl Phys Lett 67:2415Google Scholar
  370. 370.
    Kragler F, Günther LE, Leuschner R, Falk G, Hammerschmidt A, von Seggern H, Saeman-Ischenko G (1995) Appl Phys Lett 67:1163Google Scholar
  371. 371.
    Marrian CRK, Perkins FK, Brandow SL, Koloski TL, Dobisz EA, Calvert JM (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:390Google Scholar
  372. 372.
    Kumar A, Biebuyck HA, Abbott NL, Whitesides GM (1992) J Am Chem Soc 114:9188Google Scholar
  373. 373.
    Stockman L, Neuttiens G, Van Haesendonck C, Bruynseraede Y (1993) Appl Phys Lett 62:2935Google Scholar
  374. 374.
    Thundat T, Nagahara LA, Oden PI, Lindsay SM, George MA, Glausinger WS (1990) J Vac Sci Technol A 8:3537Google Scholar
  375. 375.
    Thibaudau F, Roche JR, Salvan F (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:523Google Scholar
  376. 376.
    Minne SC, Soh HT, Flueckiger P, Quate CF (1995) Appl Phys Lett 66:703Google Scholar
  377. 377.
    Hattori T, Ejiri Y, Saito K, Yasutake M (1994) J Vac Sci Technol A 12:2586Google Scholar
  378. 378.
    Dagata JA, Schnier J, Harary HH, Evans CJ, Postek MT, Bennet J (1990) Appl Phys Lett 56:2001Google Scholar
  379. 379.
    Kramer N, Birk H, Joritsm J, Schöneberger C (1995) Appl Phys Lett 66:1325Google Scholar
  380. 380.
    Larsen NB, Bjornholm T, Ganaes J, Larsen J, Schaumburg K (1995) Ultimate limits of fabrication and measurements. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Sohn LL, Willet RL (1995) Appl Phys Lett 67:1552Google Scholar
  382. 382.
    Bouchiat V, Esteve D (1996) Appl Phys Lett 69:3098Google Scholar
  383. 383.
    Jung TA, Moser A, Hug HJ, Brodbeck D, Hofer R, Hidber HR, Schwarz UD (1992) Ultramicroscopy 42-44:1446Google Scholar
  384. 384.
    Jin X, Unertl WN (1992) Appl Phys Lett 61:657Google Scholar
  385. 385.
    Boschung E, Heuberger M, Dietler G (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:3565Google Scholar
  386. 386.
    Krausch G, Mynek J (1996) Microelectron Eng 32:219Google Scholar
  387. 387.
    Dutoit B, Zeisel D, Deckert V, Zenobi R (1997) J Phys Chem B 101:6955Google Scholar
  388. 388.
    Synge EH (1928) Phil Mag 6:356Google Scholar
  389. 389.
    Hecht B, Sick B, Wild U, Deckert V, Zenobi R, Martin OJF, Pohl DW (2000) J Chem Phys 112:7761Google Scholar
  390. 390.
    Stöckle R, Setz P, Deckert V, Lippert T, Wokaun A, Zenobi R (2001) Anal Chem 73:1399Google Scholar
  391. 391.
    Baro J, Dudek D, Luther K, Troe J (1983) Ber Bunsenges Phys Chem 87:1161Google Scholar
  392. 392.
    Baro J, Dudek D, Luther K, Troe J (1983) Ber Bunsenges Phys Chem 87:1155Google Scholar
  393. 393.
    Hoen S, Mamin HJ, Rugar D (1993) Appl Phys Lett 64:267Google Scholar
  394. 394.
    La Rosa AH, Yakobson BI, Hallen HD (1995) Appl Phys Lett 67:2597Google Scholar
  395. 395.
    Phipps CR, Luke J (2000) Proc SPIE-Int Soc Opt Eng 4065:801Google Scholar
  396. 396.
    Phipps CR, Michaelis MM (1994) Laser Part Beams 12:23Google Scholar
  397. 397.
    Phipps CR, Turner TP, Harrison RF, York GW, Osborne WZ, Anderson GK, Corlis XF, Haynes LC, Steele HS, Spicochi KC, King TR (1988) J Appl Phys 64:1083Google Scholar
  398. 398.
    Kokorakis A (2001)Google Scholar
  399. 399.
    Hsieh YS, Yang CR, Hwang GY, Lee YD (2001) Macromol Chem Phys 202:2394Google Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Paul Scherrer InstitutVilligen-PSISwitzerland

Personalised recommendations