Advertisement

Influence of pressure and solvent composition on the density gradient in the analytical ultracentrifuge I extended Hermans-Ende equation for the equilibrium density gradient

  • M. D. Lechner
  • U. Sedlack
  • W. Mächtle
Polymers, Colloids, And Supramolecular Systems
Part of the Progress in Colloid & Polymer Science book series (PROGCOLLOID, volume 107)

Abstract

An extended Hermans-Ende equation for real solutions has been derived in order to calculate the density as a function of the radial distance in a density gradient mixture (light/heavy medium) inside an ultracentrifugal cell. The equation has been tested with equilibrium density gradient measurements of the system H2O/methanol/metrizamide/polystyrene latex where metrizamide is the heavy medium. Additionally, density measurements of the systems with a vibrating tube densitometer at normal pressures and at pressures up to 400 bar have been performed in order to complete the measurements. The solvent compositions were 8–25% metrizamide, 20–100% water and 0–80% methanol. The latex concentration was 0.03%. It is demonstrated that the density gradient is highly influenced by nonideality effects with respect to the solvent composition and by the pressure gradient in the ultracentrifuge.

Keywords

Analytical ultracentrifuge density gradient equilibrium Hermans-Ende/it equation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hermans JJ, Ende HA (1963) J Polym Sci C1:161Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hearst JE, Vinograd J (1961) Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 47:999, 1005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Munk P (1982) Macromolecules 15: 500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Härzschel R, Mcyerhoff G (1990) Makromol Chem 191:3139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lechner MD, Gehrke K, Nordmeier EH (1996) Makromolekulare Chemie. Birkhäuser, BaselGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fujita H (1975) Foundations of Ultracentrifugal Analysis. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mächtle W, Lechner MD, unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mächtle W, Klodwig U (1979) Makromol Chem 180:2507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Landolt-Börnstein (1971), 6. Aufl., Bd. II/1. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  10. 9a.
    Rickwood D (1979) Metrizamide. Nycgaard & Co., Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    Vennemann N, Lechner MD, Oberthür RC (1987) Polymer 28:1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 10a.
    Busch B, Lechner MD, Kleintjens LA (1992) Angew Makromol Chem 194:35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 11.
    Elias HG (1990) Makromoleküle. Hüthig & Wepf, BaselGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag GmbH & Co. KG 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. D. Lechner
    • 1
  • U. Sedlack
    • 1
  • W. Mächtle
    • 2
  1. 1.Physikalische ChemieUniversität OsnabrückOsnabrückGermany
  2. 2.Kunststofflaboratorium Polymerphysik BASF AGLudwigshafenGermany

Personalised recommendations