Clay chemistry — colloidal chemistry
The changes in properties and behaviour of clays when exposed to the influence of various substances are known to a very limited extent, in particular with regard to clays in undisturbed condition. Most of the colloid chemical laws established for diluted colloid solutions are unsuitable for explaining the behaviour of undisturbed clays. Thus the Schultze-Hardy rule for predicting colloid stability when adding electrolytes, and which has hitherto been regarded as a background for different stabilizing processes, is not valid for undisturbed clays. One important factor in this connection is the clay structure. Experiments have been carried out to establish a clay structure by means of dielectric dispersion, comparing clays with artificial lamellar model systems. The investigations of the undisturbed clays were carried out both in the laboratory on extract samples and in situ by pumping different chemicals into the ground with subsequent sampling. It was found that rheopexy occurred in some clays and caused difficulties in mesuring the strength properties. Model studies of rheopexy were carried out. Various experiments regarding the importance of the double layer for stability properties were also initiated.
Key wordsClay colloid stability clay structure model systems infiltration experiments electric double layer
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