Advertisement

Channeling—The lattice steering of swift charged particles through crystalline solids

  • Rudolf Sizmann
  • Constantin Varelas
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Solid State Physics book series (ASSP, volume 17)

Abstract

In channeling swift charged projectiles are utilized as versatile probes for solid state properties, with applications in nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics. In a review the development of this field—15 years after its fortuitous discovery—is presented. The outlines are: Introduction and principles; Flux distribution; Dechanneling; Blocking; Classical scattering versus quantum diffraction; Negative particle channeling; Consequences and applications (energy loss, ranges, radiation damage, interaction rates, lattice locations, nuclear lifetimes, cluster ions as channeled projectiles).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    M. T. Robinson and O. S. Oen, in the Proceedings of the Conference “Le Bombardement Ionique”, Ed. J. J. Trillat, C.N.R.S., Paris (1962); Appl. Phys. Letters 2, 30 (1963); Phys. Rev. 132, 2385 (1963).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    G. R. Piercy, F. Brown, J. A. Davies, and M. McCargo, Phys. Rev. Letters 10, 399 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    H. Lutz and R. Sizmann, Phys. Lett. 5, 113 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    R. S. Nelson and M. W. Thompson, Phil. Mag. 8, 1677 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    W. H. Bragg, Nature 24, 219 (1912).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    J. Stark, Phys. Z. 13, 973 (1912).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    C. Lehmann and G. Leibfried, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2821 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    J. Lindhard, Kgl. Danske Videnskab Selskab, Mat. Pys. Medd. 34, no. 14 (1965).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    C. Varelas and R. Sizmann, Rad. Effects. 16, 211 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    G. Della Mea, A. V. Drigo, S. Lo Russo, P. Mazzoldi, G. G. Bentini, A. Desalso, and R. Rosa, Phys. Rev. B7, 4029 (1973). A. Desalso and R. Rosa, Phys. Rev. B9, 4065 (1974).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    U. Bill, R. Sizmann, C. Varelas, and K. E. Rehm, Rad. Effects 27, 59 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    D. Van Vliet, Rad. Effects 10, 137 (1971).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    H. D. Carstanjen and R. Sizmann, Rad. Effects 12, 225 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    E. Bonderup, H. Esbensen, J. U. Andersen, and H. E. Schiøtt, Rad. Effects 12, 261 (1972). V. V. Beloshisky, M. A. Kumakov, and V. A. Muralev, Rad. Effects 13, 9 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    G. Delsarte, J. C. Jousset, J. Mong, and Y. Quéré, Atomic Collision Phenomena in Solids, eds. D. W. Palmer, M. W. Thompson, P. D. Townsend, North Holland Publ. Co., 1970, p. 501. D. V. Morgan and D. Van Vliet, ibid. Atomic Collision Phenomena in Solids, eds. D. W. Palmer, M. W. Thompson, P. D. Townsend, North Holland Publ. Co., 1970, p. 476.Google Scholar
  16. [15a]
    R. E. Holland and D. S. Gemmel, Phys. Rev. 173, 344 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. [16]
    E. Bøgh and J. L. Whitton, Phys. Rev. Letters 19, 553 (1967).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. [17]
    B. Domeij and K. Björkquist, Phys. Letters 14, 127 (1965).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. [18]
    R. Behrisch, Can. J. Phys. 46, 527 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. [19]
    B. R. Appleton and L. C. Feldman, Bull. Am. Soc. 14, 377 (1969). Appl. Phys. Letters 15, 305 (1969) and Atomic Collision phenomena in Solids, eds. D. W. Palmer, M. W. Thompson and P. D. Townsend, North Holland Publ. Co. 1970, p. 417.Google Scholar
  21. [20]
    S. T. Picreaux, W. L. Brown, and M. W. Gibson, Phys. Rev. B6, 1382 (1972).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. [21]
    J. U. Andersen, M. W. Augustyniak, and E. Uggerhøj, Phys. Rev. B3, 705 (1971).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. [22]
    P. Lervig, J. Lindhard and V. Nielsen, Nucl. Phys. A96, 481 (1967).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. [23]
    M. J. Whelan, Atomic Collision Phenomena in Solids, eds. D. W. Palmer, M. W. Thompson, P. D. Townsend, North Holland Publ. Co, 1970, p. 3.Google Scholar
  25. [24]
    A. Howie, Phil. Mag. 14, 223 (1966).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. [25]
    R. E. De Wames, W. F. Hall, Phys. Rev. 148, 181 (1966) and Phys. Rev. 174, 392 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. [26]
    L. T. Chadderton, J. Appl. Cryst. 3, 429 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [27]
    Yu. Kagan and Yu. V. Kononets, Soviet Physics JETP 31, 124 (1970) and Soviet Physics JETP 37, 530 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. [28]
    F. Bell, H. J. Kreiner, and R. Sizmann, Phys. Letters 38A, 373 (1972). H. J. Kreiner, F. Bell, R. Sizmann, D. Harder, and W. Hüttl, Phys. Letters 33A, 135 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. [29]
    H. Kumm, F. Bell, R. Sizmann, H. J. Kreiner, and D. Harder, Rad. Effects 12, 53 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [30]
    O. Schiebel, A. Neufert, and G. Clausnitzer, Rad. Effects 29, 57 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [31]
    J. Lindhard, Dan. Vid. Selsk. Mat. Fys. Medd. 28, No. 8 (1954).Google Scholar
  33. [32]
    J. Lindhard and M. Scharff, Phys. Rev. 124, 128 (1961).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. [33]
    J. Lindhard, M. Scharff, and H. E. Schiøtt, Dan. Vid. Selsk. Mat. Fys. Medd. 33, No. 14 (1963).Google Scholar
  35. [34]
    J. Lindhard, Proc. R. Soc. A311, 11 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. [35]
    O. B. Firsov, Soviet Phys. JETP 9, 1076 (1959).Google Scholar
  37. [36]
    J. S. Briggs and A. P. Pathak, J. Phys. C7, 1929 (1974).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. [37]
    J. Bøttiger and F. Bason, Rad. Effects 2, 105 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. [38]
    F. H. Eisen, Can. J. Phys. 46, 561 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. [39]
    Ya. A. Teplova, V. S. Nikolaev, I. S. Dmitriev and L. N. Fateeva, Soviet Phys. JETP 15, 31 (1962).Google Scholar
  41. [40]
    I. M. Cheshire and J. M. Poate, Atomic Collision Phenomena in Solids, eds. D. W. Palmer, M. W. Thompson, P. D. Townsend, North Holland Publ. Co, 1970, p. 351.Google Scholar
  42. [41]
    C. P. Bhalla, J. N. Bradford, and G. Reese, ibid. Atomic Collision Phenomena in Solids, eds. D. W. Palmer, M. W. Thompson, P. D. Townsend, North Holland Publ. Co, 1970, p. 361.Google Scholar
  43. [42]
    J. Lindhard and A. Winther, Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Mat. Fys. Medd. 34, No. 4 (1964).Google Scholar
  44. [43]
    W. Brandt and J. Reinheimer, Phys. Rev. B2, 3104 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. [44]
    B. R. Appleton, C. Erginsoy, and M. W. Gibson, Phys. Rev. 161, 330 (1967).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. [45]
    G. J. Clark, D. V. Morgan, and J. M. Poate, Atomic Collisions Phenomena in Solids, eds. D. W. Palmer, M. W. Thompson, P. D. Townsend, North Holland Publ. Co, 1970, p. 388.Google Scholar
  47. [46]
    H. Bethe, Ann. Physik 5, 325 (1930); H. Bethe, Handbuch der Physik, Springer, Berlin 1933, vol. 24 I.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. [47]
    D. Pines, in Solid State Physics vol. 1, New York, 1955, p. 435.Google Scholar
  49. [48]
    M. McCargo, J. A. Davies and F. Brown, Can. J. Phys. 41, 1231 (1963).ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. [49]
    J. L. Whitton, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3917 (1965).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. [50]
    L. Eriksson, J. A. Davies, and P. Jespersgaard, Phys. Rev. 161, 219 (1967).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. [51]
    J. L. Whitton, Can. J. Phys. 46, 581 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. [52]
    E. V. Kornelsen, F. Brown, J. A. Davies, B. Domeij, and G. R. Piercy, Phys. Rev. A136, 849 (1964).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. [53]
    H. Hermann, H. O. Lutz, and R. Sizmann, Z. Naturforschung 21a, 365 (1966).ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. [54]
    F. Centmayer and R. Sizmann, Rad. Effects. 28, 49 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [55]
    T. S. Noggle and O. S. Oen, Phys. Rev. Letters 16, 395 (1966).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. [56]
    H. H. Andersen and P. Sigmund, Nucl. Instr. Methods 38, 238 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [57]
    H. E. Jack Jr., Rad. Effects 13, 101 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. [58]
    J. Bang and J. M. Hansteen, Mat. Fys. Medd. Dan. Vid. Selsk. 31, No. 13 (1959).Google Scholar
  60. [59]
    W. Brandt, J. M. Kahn, D. L. Potter, R. D. Worley, and H. P. Smith Jr., Phys. Letters 14, 42 (1965).ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. [60]
    W. Brandt and R. Laubert, Phys. Rev. Letters 24, 1037 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  62. [61]
    F. W. Saris, VII Inter. Conf. Phys. of Electronic and Atomic Collisions, North Holland, (1972) p. 181.Google Scholar
  63. [62]
    S. Roth, R. Sizmann, R. Coutelle, and F. Bell, Phys. Lettes 32A, 119 (1970). S. Roth and R. Sizmann, Rad. Effects 20, 43 (1973).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. [63]
    M. W. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Letters 13, 756 (1964).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. [64]
    E. Bøgh, J. A. Davies, and K. O. Nielsen, Phys. Letters 12, 129 (1964).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. [65]
    J. P. Biersack and D. Fink, Nucl. Instr. Meth. 108, 397 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. [66]
    E. Bøgh, in Interaction of Radiation with Solids, Plenum Press, New York, 1967, p. 361.Google Scholar
  68. [67]
    H. Fischer, R. Sizmann, and F. Bell, Z. Phys. 224, 135 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  69. [68]
    H. D. Carstanjen and R. Sizmann, Phys. Letters 40A, 93 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. [69]
    G. Löbl, H. D. Carstanjen, and R. Sizmann, Conf. of the German Phys. Soc., Münster, March 7–12, 1977.Google Scholar
  71. [70]
    S. T. Picreaux, New Uses of Low-Energy Accelerators, ed. by J. F. Ziegler, Plenum Press, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  72. [71]
    W. M. Gibson and K. O. Nielsen, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1969, IAEA-SM-122/129, Phys. Rev. Letters 24, 114 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  73. [72]
    D. S. Gemmell and R. E. Holland, Phys. Rev. Letters 14, 965 (1965).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  74. [73]
    A. F. Tulinov, Sov. Phys. Doklady 5, 463 (1965).ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. [74]
    W. Brandt, A. Ratkowski, and R. H. Ritchie, Phys. Letters 33, 1325 (1974); 35, 130 (E) (1975).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  76. [75]
    D. S. Gemmell, J. Remillieux, J.-C. Poizat, M. J. Gaillard, R. E. Holland, and Z. Vager, Phys. Rev. Letters 34, 1420 (1975).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  77. [76]
    V. N. Neelavathi and R. H. Ritchie, in Atomic Collisions in Solids, eds. S. Datz, B. R. Appleton, and C. D. Moak, Plenum Press, p. 289, 1975.Google Scholar
  78. [77]
    G. J. Clark, J. M. Poate, E. Fuschini, C. Maroni, I. G. Massa, A. Uguzzoni, and E. Verodini, Nucl. Phys. A173, 73 (1971).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  79. [78]
    F. Abel, G. Amsel, M. Bruneaux, and C. Cohen, Phys. Letters 42A, 165 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. [79]
    M. Maruyama, K. Tsukada, K. Ozawa, F. Fujimoto, K. Komaki, M. Mannami, and T. Sahurai, Nucl. Phys. A145, 581 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  81. [80]
    K. Komaki, F. Fujimoto, H. Nakayama, M. Ishii, and K. Hisakate, Phys. Letters B38, 218 (1972).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  82. [81]
    R. P. Sharma, J. U. Andersen, and K. O. Nielsen, Nucl. Phys. A204, 371 (1973).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  83. [82]
    S. A. Karamyan, Yu. V. Melikov, F. Normuratov, F. Otgonsuren, and G. M. Solovena, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 13, 543 (1971).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rudolf Sizmann
    • 1
  • Constantin Varelas
    • 1
  1. 1.Sektion PhysikUniversität MünchenMünchenGermany

Personalised recommendations