Advertisement

Physics and astrophysics of strange quark matter

  • Jes Madsen
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 516)

Abstract

3-flavor quark matter (strange quark matter; SQM) can be stable or metastable for a wide range of strong interaction parameters. If so, SQM can play an important role in cosmology, neutron stars, cosmic ray physics, and relativistic heavy-ion collisions. As an example of the intimate connections between astrophysics and heavy-ion collision physics, this Chapter gives an overview of the physical properties of SQM in bulk and of small-baryon number strangelets; discusses the possible formation, destruction, and implications of lumps of SQM (quark nuggets) in the early Universe; and describes the structure and signature of strange stars, as well as the formation and detection of strangelets in cosmic rays. It is concluded, that astrophysical and laboratory searches are complementary in many respects, and that both should be pursued to test the intriguing possibility of a strange ground state for hadronic matter, and (more generally) to improve our knowledge of the strong interactions.

Keywords

Dark Matter Neutron Star Bulk Viscosity Baryon Number Quark Matter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. R. Bodmer, Phys. Rev. D 4, 1601 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. Witten, Phys. Rev. D 30, 272 (1984).ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Strange Quark Matter in Physics and Astrophysics, edited by J. Madsen and P. Haensel (Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.), 24B, 1991).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Alcock and A. Olinto, Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 38, 161 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. S. Kumar, in Physics and Astrophysics of Quark-Gluon Plasma, edited by B. Sinha, Y. P. Viyogi, and S. Raha (World Scientific, Singapore, 1994), pp. 63–74.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. S. Kumar, in Strangeness and Quark Matter, edited by G. Vassiliadis, A. D. Panagiotou, S. Kumar, and J. Madsen (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 318–332.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. S. Kumar, Nucl. Phys. A 590, 29c (1995).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Madsen, in Physics and Astrophysics of Quark-Gluon Plasma, edited by B. Sinha, Y. P. Viyogi, and S. Raha (World Scientific, Singapore, 1994), pp. 186–205.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Madsen, in Strangeness and Quark Matter, edited by G. Vassiliadis, A. D. Panagiotou, S. Kumar, and J. Madsen (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 191–205.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Madsen, in Strangeness in Hadronic Matter, Vol. 340 of AIP Conf. Proc., edited by J. Rafelski (AIP, New York, 1995), pp. 32–45.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Papazoglou et al., in Strangeness and Quark Matter, edited by G. Vassiliadis, A. D. Panagiotou, S. Kumar, and J. Madsen (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 206–219.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Greiner and J. Schaffner-Bielich, preprint nucl-th/9801062.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Kabana for the NA52 collaboration, J. Phys. G 23, 2135 (1997).ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. L. Shaw, M. Shin, R. H. Dalitz, and M. Desai, Nature 337, 436 (1989).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. L. Shapiro and S. A. Teukolsky, Black Holes, White Dwarfs, and Neutron Stars (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Farhi and R. L. Jaffe, Phys. Rev. D 30, 2379 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Chodos et al., Phys. Rev. D 9, 3471 (1974).ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. A. DeGrand, R. L. Jaffe, K. Johnson, and J. Kiskis, Phys. Rev. D 12, 2060 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    D. Vasak, W. Greiner, and L. Neise, Phys. Rev. C 34, 1307 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. Greiner, D.-H. Rischke, H. Stöcker, and P. Koch, Phys. Rev. D 38, 2797 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. Takahashi and R. N. Boyd, Astrophys. J. 327, 1009 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. P. Gilson and R. L. Jaffe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 332 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Madsen, Phys. Rev. D 50, 3328 (1994).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Schaffner-Bielich, C. Greiner, A. Diener, and H. Stöcker, Phys. Rev. C 55, 3038 (1997).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. S. Desai, H. J. Crawford, and G. L. Shaw, Phys. Rev. D 47, 2063 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. J. Crawford, M. S. Desai, and G. L. Shaw, Phys. Rev. D 48, 4474 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. S. Berger and R. L. Jaffe, Phys. Rev. C 35, 213 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Madsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 391 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Madsen, Phys. Rev. D 47, 5156 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    H. Heiselberg, Phys. Rev. D 48, 1418 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. Balian and C. Bloch, Ann. Phys. 60, 401 (1970).zbMATHADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. Saito, Y. Hatano, Y. Fukada, and H. Oda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2094 (1990).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. Heiselberg, J. Madsen, and K. Riisager, Phys. Scr. 34, 556 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    P. Koch, in Strange Quark Matter in Physics and Astrophysics, edited by J. Madsen and P. Haensel (Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.), 24B, 1991), pp. 255–259.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. Madsen, Phys. Rev. D 47, 325 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    H. Heiselberg, Phys. Scr. 46, 485 (1992).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    D. M. Jensen and J. Madsen, Phys. Rev. D (Rapid Communication) 53, R4719 (1996).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Y. B. He, C. S. Gao, X. Q. Li, and W. Q. Chao, Phys. Rev. C 53, 1903 (1996).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. G. Mustafa and A. Ansari, Phys. Rev. D 53, 5136 (1996); Erratum ibid 54, 4694 (1996).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    M. G. Mustafa and A. Ansari, Phys. Rev. C 55, 2005 (1997).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. H. Applegate and C. J. Hogan, Phys. Rev. D 31, 3037 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    H. Kurki-Suonio, Phys. Rev. D 37, 2104 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    K. Sumiyoshi, T. Kajino, C. R. Alcock, and G. J. Mathews, Phys. Rev. D 42, 3963 (1990).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    K. Jedamzik and G. M. Fuller, Astrophys. J. 423, 33 (1994).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    C. Alcock and E. Farhi, Phys. Rev. D 32, 1273 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    J. Madsen, H. Heiselberg, and K. Riisager, Phys. Rev. D 34, 2947 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    K. Sumiyoshi and T. Kajino, in Strange Quark Matter in Physics and Astrophysics, edited by J. Madsen and P. Haensel (Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.), 24B, 1991), pp. 80–83.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    P. Bhattacharjee, J. Alam, B. Sinha, and S. Raha, Phys. Rev. D 48, 4630 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    C. Alcock and A. Olinto, Phys. Rev. D 39, 1233 (1989).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. Madsen and M. L. Olesen, Phys. Rev. D 43, 1069 (1991); Erratum ibid 44, 566 (1991).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    M. L. Olesen and J. Madsen, Phys. Rev. D 47, 2313 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    H.-C. Liu and G. L. Shaw, Phys. Rev. D 30, 1137 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    C. Greiner, P. Koch, and H. Stöcker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1825 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    C. Greiner and H. Stöcker, Phys. Rev. D 44, 3517 (1991).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    H. W. Barz, B. L. Friman, J. Knoll, and H. Schulz, in Strange Quark Matter in Physics and Astrophysics, edited by J. Madsen and P. Haensel (Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.), 24B, 1991), pp. 211–220.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    H. J. Crawford, M. S. Desai, and G. L. Shaw, Phys. Rev. D 45, 857 (1992).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    C. Spieles et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1776 (1996).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    C. H. Lee and H. K. Lee, Phys. Rev. D 44, 398 (1991).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    S. J. Cho, K. S. Lee, and U. Heinz, Phys. Rev. D 50, 4771 (1994).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    J. Madsen and K. Riisager, Phys. Lett. 158B, 208 (1985).ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    M. L. Olesen, Master Thesis, University of Aarhus, 1990.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    R. Schaeffer, P. Delbourgo-Salvador, and J. Audouze, Nature 317, 407 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    K. Jedamzik, G. M. Fuller, and G. J. Mathews, Astrophys. J. 422, 423 (1994).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    G. Baym and S. A. Chin, Nucl. Phys. A 262, 527 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    G. Chapline and M. Nauenberg, Nature 264, 23 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    B. Freedman and L. McLerran, Phys. Rev. D 17, 1109 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    P. Haensel, J. L. Zdunik, and R. Schaeffer, Astron. Astrophys. 160, 121 (1986).ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    C. Alcock, E. Farhi, and A. Olinto, Astrophys. J. 310, 261 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    C. Alcock, in Strange Quark Matter in Physics and Astrophysics, edited by J. Madsen and P. Haensel (Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.), 24B, 1991), pp. 93–102.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    T. Chmaj, P. Haensel, and W. Słomiński, in Strange Quark Matter in Physics and Astrophysics, edited by J. Madsen and P. Haensel (Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.), 24B, 1991), pp. 40–44.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    C. Kettner, F. Weber, M. K. Weigel, and N. K. Glendenning, Phys. Rev. D 51, 1440 (1995).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    N. K. Glendenning, C. Kettner, and F. Weber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3519 (1995).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    N. K. Glendenning, C. Kettner, and F. Weber, Astrophys. J. 450, 253 (1995).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    O. G. Benvenuto and J. E. Horvath, Mon. Not. R. Ast. Soc. 247, 584 (1990).ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    F. C. Michel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 677 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    N. K. Glendenning, Phys. Rev. D 46, 1274 (1992).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    H. Heiselberg, C. J. Pethick, and E. F. Staubo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1355 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    N. K. Glendenning and S. Pei, Phys. Rev. C 52, 2250 (1995).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    M. B. Christiansen and N. K. Glendenning, Phys. Rev. C 56, 2858 (1997).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    J. M. Lattimer, C. J. Pethick, M. Prakash, and P. Haensel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2701 (1991).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    C. J. Pethick, Rev. Mod. Phys. 64, 1133 (1992).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    C. Schaab, B. Hermann, F. Weber, and M. K. Weigel, Astrophys. J. 480, L111 (1997).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Y. F. Huang and T. Lu, Astron. Astrophys. 325, 189 (1997).ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    T. Lu, preprint astro-ph/9807052.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    M. A. Alpar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2152 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    N. K. Glendenning and F. Weber, Astrophys. J. 400, 647 (1992).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    B. Datta, P. K. Sahu, J. D. Anand, and A. Goyal, Phys. Lett. B 283, 313 (1992).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Q. D. Wang and T. Lu, Phys. Lett. B 148, 211 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    R. F. Sawyer, Phys. Lett. B 233, 412 (1989).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    C. Cutler, L. Lindblom, and R. J. Splinter, Astrophys. J. 363, 603 (1990).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    J. Madsen, Phys. Rev. D 46, 3290 (1992).ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    J. L. Zdunik, in Strange Quark Matter in Physics and Astrophysics, edited by J. Madsen and P. Haensel (Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.), 24B, 1991), pp. 119–124.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    M. Colpi and J. C. Miller, Astrophys. J. 388, 513 (1992).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    N. Andersson, Astrophys. J. in press (1998). Preprint gr-qc/9706075.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    J. L. Friedman and S. M. Morsink, Astrophys. J. in press (1998). Preprint gr-qc/9706073.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    L. Lindblom, B. J. Owen, and S. M. Morsink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4843 (1998).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    J. Madsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. submitted (1998). Preprint astro-ph/9806032.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    H. Heiselberg and C. J. Pethick, Phys. Rev. D 48, 2916 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    P. Haensel and A. J. Jerzak, Acta Phys. Pol. B 20, 141 (1989).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    C. Alcock, E. Farhi, and A. Olinto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2088 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    J. E. Horvath, H. Vucetich, and O. G. Benvenuto, Mon. Not. R. Ast. Soc. 262, 506 (1993).ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    K. S. Cheng and Z. G. Dai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 18 (1998).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    K. S. Cheng, Z. G. Dai, D. M. Wei, and T. Lu, Science 280, 407 (1998).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    P. Haensel, B. Paczyński, and P. Amsterdamski, Astrophys. J. 375, 209 (1991).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    X.-D. Li, Z.-G. Dai, and Z.-R. Wang, Astron. Astrophys. 303, L1 (1995).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    J. Madsen, Astron. Astrophys. 318, 466 (1997).ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    G. Baym et al., Phys. Lett. B 160, 181 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    A. V. Olinto, Phys. Lett. B 192, 71 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    H. Heiselberg, G. Baym and C. J. Pethick, in Strange Quark Matter in Physics and Astrophysics, edited by J. Madsen and P. Haensel (Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.), 24B, 1991), pp. 144–147.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    M. L. Olesen and J. Madsen, in Strange Quark Matter in Physics and Astrophysics, edited by J. Madsen and P. Haensel (Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.), 24B, 1991), pp. 170–174.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    A. Olinto, in Strange Quark Matter in Physics and Astrophysics, edited by J. Madsen and P. Haensel (Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.), 24B, 1991), pp. 103–109.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    J. E. Horvath and O. G. Benvenuto, Phys. Lett. B 213, 516 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    M. L. Olesen and J. Madsen, Phys. Rev. D 49, 2698 (1994).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    M. I. Krivoruchenko and B. V. Martemyanov, Astrophys. J. 378, 628 (1991).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    J. E. Horvath, O. G. Benvenuto, and H. Vucetich, Phys. Rev. D 45, 3865 (1992).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    K. Iida and K. Sato, Prog. Theor. Phys. 98, 277 (1997).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    K. Iida, Prog. Theor. Phys. 98, 739 (1997).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    A. De Rújula and S. L. Glashow, Nature 312, 734 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    P. B. Price, Phys. Rev. D 38, 3813 (1988).ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    D. M. Lowder, in Strange Quark Matter in Physics and Astrophysics, edited by J. Madsen and P. Haensel (Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.), 24B, 1991), pp. 177–183.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    J. Madsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2909 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    M. Jändel, Z. Phys. C 40, 599 (1988).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    R. R. Caldwell and J. L. Friedman, Phys. Lett. 264B, 143 (1991).ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    R. N. Boyd and T. Saito, Phys. Lett. B 298, 6 (1993).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    J. D. Bjorken and L. D. McLerran, Phys. Rev. D 20, 2353 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    F. Halzen and H. C. Liu, Phys. Rev. D 32, 1716 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    M. S. Desai and G. L. Shaw, in Strange Quark Matter in Physics and Astrophysics, edited by J. Madsen and P. Haensel (Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.), 24B, 1991), pp. 207–210.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jes Madsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of AarhusÅrhus CDenmark

Personalised recommendations