Advertisement

Disk observations

  • Anneila I. Sargent
Part I: Disks—Observation
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 465)

Abstract

A wide variety of observations suggest that solar mass stars are surrounded by disks of gas and dust for much of their pre-main sequence lifetimes and even beyond. Here, techniques by which the small-scale circumstellar material can be detected are described and evidence for disks is briefly reviewed. Because of the general similarity between the disks around solar-mass stars and the nebula that surrounded the sun as the planets formed, disk properties may have strong bearing on our understanding of solar system evolution. Questions which must be addressed include: How frequently are disks found, and does the fraction vary with environment? What effect do companion stars have? How do disks evolve? Are low infrared fluxes necessarily indicative of disk clearing? Is there evidence of chemical evolution? How long do the disks persist? Are dissipation time-scales different for the gas and dust components? Observations addressing such problems will be summarized and discussed.

Keywords

Accretion Disk Young Star Tauri Star Molecular Line Circumstellar Disk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, F.C., Emerson, J.P., & Fuller, G.A. 1990, ApJ, 357, 606.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, F.C., Lada, C.J., Shu, F.H. 1987, ApJ, 312, 788ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams, F.C., Lada, C.J., Shu, F.H. 1988, ApJ, 326, 865ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agladze, N.I., Sievers, A.J., Jones, S.A., Burlitch, J.M., & Beckwith, S.V.W. 1995, Nature, 372, 243ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. André, P., Montmerle, T., & Steppe, H. 1990, A&A, 240, 321ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. André, P., & Montmerle, T. 1994, ApJ, 420, 837ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Appenzeller, I. 1983, RevMexAA, 7, 151ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Appenzeller, I., Jankovics, I., & Ostreicher, R. 1984, A&A, 141, 108ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Appenzeller, I., & Mundt, R. 1989, A&A Rev., 1, 291ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Artymowicz, P., Clarke, C.J., Lubow, S.H., & Pringle, J.E. 1991, ApJ, 370, L35ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Artymowicz, P., & Lubow, S.H. 1994, ApJ, 421, 651ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aumann, H.H., Gillett, F.C., Beichman, C.A., de Jong, T., Houck, J.R., et al. 1984, ApJ, 278, L23.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Backman, D.E. & Gillett, F.C. 1987, in Cool Stars, Stellar Systems and the Sun, ed. J.C. Linsky & R.E. Stencel (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), 340Google Scholar
  14. Backman, D.E. & Paresce, F. 1993, in Protostars & Planets III, ed. E.H. Levy & J.I. Lunine (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 1253Google Scholar
  15. Barshay, S.S., & Lewis, J.S. 1976, ARA&A, 14, 81ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Basri, G. & Bertout, C. 1993, in Protostars & Planets III, ed. E.H. Levy & J.I. Lunine (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 543Google Scholar
  17. Bastien, P. 1982, ApJS, 48, 153ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Bastien, P., & Ménard, F. 1990, ApJ, 364, 232ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Beckwith, S.V.W., Birk, C.C. 1995, ApJ, 449, L59ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beckwith, S.V.W. 1994, in Theory of Accretion Disks-2, eds. W. Duschl, J. Frank, F. Meyer, E. Meyer-Hofmeister, & W. Tscharnuter, NATO ASI Series (Kluwer: Dordrecht), 1Google Scholar
  21. Beckwith, S.V.W., & Sargent, A.I. 1991, ApJ, 381, 250ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Beckwith, S.V.W., & Sargent, A.I. 1993a, in Protostars & Planets III, ed. E.H. Levy & J.I. Lunine (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 521Google Scholar
  23. Beckwith, S.V.W., & Sargent, A.I. 1993b, ApJ, 402, 280ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Beckwith, S.V.W., Sargent, A.I., Chini, R.S., & Güsten, R. 1990, AJ, 99, 924 (BSCG)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Beckwith, S.V.W., Sargent, A.I., Scoville, N.Z., Masson, C.R., Zuckerman, B. Phillips, T.G. 1986, ApJ 309, 755ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bertout, C. 1989, ARA&A, 27, 351ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Blake, G.A., Sandell, G., van Dishoeck, E.F., Groesbeck, T.D., Mundy, L.G., & Aspin, C. 1995, ApJ, 441, 689ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Blake, G.A., van Dishoeck, E.F., & Sargent, A.I. 1992, ApJ, 391, L99ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bodenheimer, P. 1985, in Protostars and Planets II, ed. D.C. Black, & M.S. Matthews (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 873Google Scholar
  30. Boss, A.P., & Yorke, H.W. 1993, ApJ, 411, L99ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bouvier, J. 1995, in The Eighth Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun, ed. J.-P. Caillault (San Francisco: Bookcrafters), in pressGoogle Scholar
  32. Bouvier, J., Cabrit, S., Fernandez, M., Martin, E.L., & Matthews, J.M. 1993, A&A, 272, 176ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Cabrit, S., Guilloteau, S., André, P., Bertout, C., & Montmerle, T. 1995, in Circumstellar Disks, Outflows & Star Formation, ed. S. Lizano & J. Torrelles, in pressGoogle Scholar
  34. Calvet, N., Hartmann, L., Kenyon, S.J., & Whitney, B.A. 1994, ApJ, 434, 330ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Carr, J.S., & Tokunaga, A.T. 1992, ApJ, 393, L67ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carr, J.S., Tokunaga, A.T., Najita, J., Shu, F.H., & Glassgold, A.E. 1993, ApJ, 411, L37ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chandler, C.J., Carlstrom, J.E., Scoville, N.Z., Dent, W.R.F., & Geballe, T.R. 1993, ApJ, 412, L71ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chandler, C.J., Carlstrom, J.E., & Scoville, N.Z. 1995, ApJ, 446, 793ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cohen, M. 1983, ApJ, 270, L69ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cohen, M., Emerson, J., & Beichman, C.A. 1989, ApJ, 339, 455ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. D’Alessio, P., Cantó, J., Lizano, S., Calvet, N., & Rodriguez, L. 1995, in Circumstellar Disks, Outflows & Star Formation, ed. S. Lizano & J. Torrelles, in pressGoogle Scholar
  42. Difrancesco, J., Evans, N.J., Harvey, P.M., Mundy, L.G., & Butner, H.M. 1994, ApJ, 432, 710ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Draine, B.T., & Lee, H.M. 1984, ApJ, 285, 89ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Duquennoy, A., & Mayor, M. 1991, A&A, 248, 485ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Durisen, R.H., & Sterzik, M.F. 1994, A&A, 286, 84ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Dutrey, A., Guilloteau, S., & Simon, M. 1994, A&A, 286, 149ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Edwards, S., Cabrit, S., Strom, S.E., Heyer, I., Strom, K.M., et al. 1987, ApJ, 321, 473ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Edwards, S., Ray, T., & Mundt, R. 1993a, in Protostars & Planets III ed. E.H. Levy & J.I. Lunine (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 567Google Scholar
  49. Edwards, S., Strom, S.E., Hartigan, P., Strom, K.M., Hillenbrand, L.A., et al. 1993b, AJ, 106, 372ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Elsässer, H., & Staude, H.J. 1978, A&A, 127, 290Google Scholar
  51. Emerson, J.P. 1988, in Formation & Evolution of Low Mass Stars, ed. A.K. Dupree & M.T.V. Lago (Kluwer: Dordrecht), 21Google Scholar
  52. Feigelson, E.D., Jackson, J.M., Mathieu, R.D., Myers, P.C., & Walter, F.M. 1987, AJ, 94, 1251ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Felli, M., Churchwell, E., Wilson, T.L., & Taylor, G.B. 1993, A&AS, 98, 137ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Frerking, M.A., Langer, W.D., & Wilson, R.W. 1982, ApJ, 262, 590ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gahm, G.F., Zinnecker, H., Pallavicini, R., & Pasquini, L. 1994, A&A, 282, 123ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Galli, D., & Shu, F.H. 1993a, ApJ, 417, 220ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Galli, D., & Shu, F.H. 1993a, ApJ, 417, 243ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ghez, A.M., Emerson, J.P., Graham, J.R., Meixner, M., & Skinner, C.J. 1994, ApJ, 343, 707ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ghez, A.M., Neugebauer, G., & Matthews, K. 1993, AJ, 106, 2005ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Guilloteau, S., & Dutrey, A. 1994, A&A, 291, L23ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Handa, T., Miyama, S., Yamashita, T., Omodaka, T., Kitamura, Y., et al. 1995, ApJ, 449, 894ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hartigan, P., Hartmann, L., Kenyon, S., Hewett, R., & Stauffer, J. 1989, ApJS, 70, 899ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hartmann, L., & Kenyon, S. 1987, ApJ, 312, 243ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hartmann, L., Jones, B.B., Stauffer, J.R., & Kenyon, S.J. 1991, AJ, 101, 1050ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hayashi, M., Ohashi, N., Miyama, S.M. 1993, ApJ, 418, L71ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Henning, T., & Thamm, E. 1994, Ap&SS, 212, 215ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Henning, T., Launhardt, R., Steinacker, J., & Thamm, E. 1994, A&A, 291, 546ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Herbig, G.H. 1960 ApJS, 4, 337ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hillenbrand, L.A., Strom, S.E., Vrba, F.J., & Keene, J. 1992, ApJ, 397, 613ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hodapp, K.W. 1984, A&A, 141, 255ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. Hollenbach, D.D., Johnstone, S., & Shu, F. 1993, in Massive Stars: Their Lives in the Interstellar Medium, ed. J. Cassinelli & E.B. Churchwell (San Francisco: BookCrafters), 26Google Scholar
  72. Jensen, E.L.N., Mathieu, R.D., & Fuller, G.F. 1994, ApJ, 429, L29ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jewett, D. C. 1994, AJ, 108, 661ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kawabe, R., Ishiguro, M., Omodaka, T., Kitamura, Y., & Miyama, S.M. 1993, ApJ, 404, L63ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Keene, J., & Masson, C.R. 1990, ApJ, 355, 635ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kenyon, S.J., & Hartmann, L. 1989, ApJ, 342, 1134ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kenyon, S.J., Hartmann, L., & Hewett, R. 1988, ApJ, 325, 231ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kleiner, S.C., & Dickman, R.L. 1984, ApJ, 286, 255ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Koerner, D.W. 1994, Ph. D. Dissertation, California Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  80. Koerner, D.W., Sargent, A.I., & Beckwith, S.V.W. 1993a, Icarus, 106, 2ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Koerner, D.W., Sargent, A.I., & Beckwith, S.V.W. 1993b, ApJ, 408, L93ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Koerner, D.W., & Sargent, A.I. 1995, AJ, 109, 2138ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Krügel, R., & Siebenmorgen, R. 1994, A&A, 288, 929ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. Lada, C.J., & Adams, F.C. 1992, ApJ 393, 278ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lada, C.J., & Lada, E.A. 1995, AJ, 109, 1682ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lada, C.J., Young, E.T., & Greene, T.P. 1993, ApJ, 408, 471ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ladd, E.F., Lada, E.A., & Myers, P.C. 1993, ApJ, 410, 168ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lagage, P.-O., & Pantin, E. 1994, Nature, 369, 628ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lagrange, A.M. 1995, Ap&SS, 223, 19ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. Langevelde, H. J. van, van Dishoeck, E.F., & Blake, G. A. 1994, ApJ, 425, L45ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lay, O.P., Carlstrom, J., Hills, R.J., & Phillips, T.G. 1994, ApJ, 434, L75ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Leinert, C., Zinnecker, H., Weitzel, N., Christou, J., Ridgway, S.T. et al. 1993, A&A, 278, 129ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. Lin, D.N.C., & Papaloizou, J. 1993, in Protostars & Planets III, ed. E.H. Levy & J.I. Lunine (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 749Google Scholar
  94. Lin, D.N.C., Hayashi, M., Bell, K.R., & Ohashi, N. 1994, ApJ, 435, 821ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lissauer, J.J., Pollack, J.B., Wetherill, G.W., & Stevenson, D.J. 1994, in Neptune and Triton, ed. D.P. Cruickshank & M.S. Matthews (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), in pressGoogle Scholar
  96. Lynden-Bell, D., & Pringle, J. E. 1974, MNRAS, 168, 603ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. Mannings, V. 1994, MNRAS, 271, 587ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. Mannings, V., & Emerson, J.P. 1994, MNRAS, 267, 361ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. Marsh, K.A., & Mahoney, M.J. 1992, ApJ, 395, L115ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mathieu, R.D. 1994, ARA&A, 32, 405ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. Mathis, J.S. 1990, ARA&A, 28, 37ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. McCaughrean, M.J., & Stauffer, J.R. 1994, AJ, 108, 1382ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ménard, F., Monin, J.L., Angelucci, F., Rouan, D. 1993, ApJ, 414, L117ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Montmerle, T., Feigelson, E.D., Bouvier, J., & André, P. 1993, in Protostars & Planets III, ed. E.H. Levy & J.I. Lunine (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 689Google Scholar
  105. Mundt, R., & Fried, J. W. 1983, ApJ, 274, L83ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mundy, L.G., McMullin, J.P., Grossman, A.W., & Sandell, G. 1993, Icarus, 106, 11ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mundy, L.G., Wilking, B.A., & Myers, S.T. 1986, ApJ, 311, L75ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mundy, L.G., Wootten, H.A., Wilking, B.A., Blake, G.A., & Sargent, A.I. 1992, ApJ, 385, 306ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Natta, A. 1993, ApJ, 412, 761ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Natta, A. 1994, Infrared Physics & Technology, 35, 375ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Natta, A., Palla, F., Butner, H.M., & Harvey, P. M. 1993, ApJ, 406, 674ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Neuhäuser, R., Sterzik, M.F., Schmitt, J.H.M.M., Wichman, R., & Krautter, J. 1995a A&A, 295, L5ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. Neuhäuser, R., Sterzik, M.F., Schmitt, J.H.M.M., Wichman, R., & Krautter, J. 1995b A&A, 297, 391ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. O’Dell, C.R., & Wen, Z. 1994, ApJ, 436, 194ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. O’Dell, C.R., Wen, Z., & Hu, X. 1993, ApJ, 410, 696ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ohashi, N., Kawabe, R., Hayashi, M., & Ishiguro, M. 1991, AJ, 102, 2054ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ohashi, N., Kawabe, R., Ishiguro, M., & Hayashi, M. 1994, Ap&SS, 212, 239ADSGoogle Scholar
  118. Omodaka, T., Kitamura, Y., & Kawazoe, E. 1992, ApJ, 396, L87ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ossenkopf, V., & Henning, T. 1994, A&A, 291, 943ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. Osterloh, M., & Beckwith, S.V.W. 1995, ApJ, 439, 288ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Piirola, V., Scaltriti, F., & Coyne, G. V. 1992, Nature, 359, 399ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Podosek, F.A., & Cassen, P. 1994, Meteoritics, 29, 6ADSGoogle Scholar
  123. Pollack, J.B., Hollenbach, D., Beckwith, S.V.W., Sandelli, D.P., Roush, T., et al. 1994, ApJ, 421, 615ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Pringle, J.E. 1991, MNRAS, 248, 754ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. Prosser, C.F., Stauffer, J. R., Hartmann, L., Soderblom, D. R., Jones, B. F., et al. 1994, ApJ, 421, 517ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Prusti, T., Natta, A., Palla, F. 1994, A&A, 292,593ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. Ray, T.P., Sargent, A.I., Beckwith, S.V.W., Koresko, C., & Kelly, P. 1995, ApJ, 440, L89ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Reipurth, B., & Zinnecker, H. 1993, å, 278, 81Google Scholar
  129. Richichi, A., Leinert, C., Jameson, R., Zinnecker, H. 1994, A&A, 287, 145ADSGoogle Scholar
  130. Rydgren, A.E., & Cohen, M. 1985, in Protostars & Planets II, ed. D.C. Black & M.S. Matthews, (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 371Google Scholar
  131. Safronov, V.S. 1991, Icarus, 94, 260ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sargent, A.I., & Beckwith, S. 1987, ApJ, 323, 294ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Sargent, A.I., Beckwith, S.V.W. 1989, in I.A.U. Colloquium No. 120, Structure and Dynamics of the Interstellar Medium, ed. G. Tenorio-Tagle, J. Melnick, & M. Moles (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), 221Google Scholar
  134. Sargent, A.I., & Beckwith, S.V.W. 1991, ApJ, 382, L31ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Sargent, A.I., & Beckwith, S.V.W. 1993, in IAU Colloquium 140, Astronomy with Millimeter & Submillimeter Wave Interferometry, ed. M. Ishiguro & Wm. J. Welch (San Francisco: BookCrafters), 203Google Scholar
  136. Sargent, A.I., & Beckwith, S.V.W. 1994, Ap&SS, 212, 181ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. Sargent, A.I., Beckwith, S.V.B., Keene, J., & Masson, C.R. 1988, ApJ, 333, 936ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sargent, A.I., Koerner, D.W., & Beckwith, S.V.W. 1995, in preparationGoogle Scholar
  139. Sargent, A.I., & Welch, W.J., 1993, ARA&A, 31, 297ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. Shu, F.H., Adams, F.C., & Lizano, S. 1987, ARA&A, 25, 23ADSGoogle Scholar
  141. Shu, F.H., Johnstone, D., & Hollenbach, D. 1993, Icarus, 106, 92ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Shu, F.H., Najita, J., Galli, D., & Ostriker, E. 1993, in Protostars & Planets III, ed. E.H. Levy & J.I. Lunine (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 3Google Scholar
  143. Simon, M., Chen, W.P., Howell, R.R., Benson, J.A., & Slowik, D. 1992, ApJ, 384, 212ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Simon, M., & Guilloteau, S. 1992, ApJ, 397, L47ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Skinner, S.L., Brown, A., Walter, F.M. 1991, AJ, 102, 1742ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Skrutskie, M.F., Dutkevitch, D., Strom, S.E., Edwards, S., Strom, K.M., et al. 1990, AJ, 99, 1187ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Skrutkie, M.F., Snell, R.L., Strom, S.E., Edwards, S., Fukui, Y., et al., 1993, ApJ, 409, 422ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Smith, B.A., & Terrile, R.J. 1984, Science, 126, 1421ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Snell, R.L., Loren, R.B., & Plambeck, R.L. 1980, ApJ, 239, L17ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Spangler, E.C., & Sargent, A.I. 1995, in preparationGoogle Scholar
  151. Stahler, S.W., Korycansky, D.G., Brothers, M.J., & Touma, J. 1994, ApJ, 431, 341ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Stahler, S.W., & Walter, F.M. 1993, in Protostars & Planets III, ed. E.H. Levy & J.I. Lunine (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 405Google Scholar
  153. Stapelfeldt, K.R., Burrows, C.J., Krist, J.E., Trauger, J.T., Hester, J.J., et al. 1995, ApJ, 449, 888ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Stauffer, J.R., Prosser, C.F., Hartmann, L., & McCaughrean, M.J. 1994, AJ, 108, 1375ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Stevenson, D.J. 1982, Pl&SS, 30, 755ADSGoogle Scholar
  156. Strom, K.M., Strom, S.E., Edwards, S., Cabrit, S., & Skrutskie, M.F. 1989, AJ, 97, 1451ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Strom, K.M., Strom, S.E., Wilkin, F.P., Carrasco, L., Cruzgonzalez, I. et al. 1990, ApJ, 362, 168ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Strom, S.E., Edwards, S., & Skrutskie, M.F. 1993, in Protostars & Planets III, ed. E.H. Levy & J.I. Lunine (Tucson: University of Arizona Press), 837Google Scholar
  159. Strom, S.E., Strom, K.M., Yost, J., Carrasco, L., & Grasdalen, G. 1972, ApJ, 173, 353ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Tamura, M., & Sato, S. 1989, AJ, 98, 1368ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Walker, H.J., & Wolstencroft, R.D. 1988, PASP, 100, 1509ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Walter, F.M., Brown, A., Mathieu, R. D., Myers, P. C., & Vrba, F. J. 1988, AJ, 96, 297ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Walter, F.M., Vrba, F. J., & Mathieu, R. D. 1994, AJ, 107, 692ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Weidenschilling, S. J. 1989, in The Formation & Evolution of Planetary Systems, ed. H. A. Weaver & L. Danly (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 131Google Scholar
  165. Weintraub, D.A., Kastner, J.H., Whitney, B.A. 1995, ApJ 452, L141ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Weintraub, D.A., Masson, C.R., & Zuckerman, B. 1989a, ApJ, 344 915ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Weintraub, D.A., Sandell, G., & Duncan, W. D. 1989b, ApJ, 340 L69ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Weintraub, D.A., Sandell, G., & Duncan, W.D. 1991, ApJ, 382, 270ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Whitney, B.A., Hartmann, L. 1992, ApJ 395, 529ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Whitney, B.A., Hartmann, L. 1993, ApJ 402, 605ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Zuckerman, B. 1995, in Circumstellar Dust Disks and Planet Formation ed. R. Ferlet & A. Vidal-Madjar (Editions Frontières), in pressGoogle Scholar
  172. Zuckerman, B., & Becklin, E.E. 1993, ApJ, 414, 793ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Zuckerman, B., Forveille, T., & Kastner, J.H. 1995, Nature, 373, 494ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anneila I. Sargent
    • 1
  1. 1.California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations