Human factors in tele-inspection and tele-surgery: Cooperative manipulation under asynchronous video and control feedback

  • James M. Thompson
  • Mark P. Ottensmeyer
  • Thomas B. Sheridan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1496)


A telesurgical model was developed for simulation experiments evaluating cooperative manipulation between a paramedic local to the patient and a physician operating through a telerobot. In this study we tested the hypothesis that sending the signals from a remote telesurgical setup asynchronously (sending the telemanipulator signals ahead of the video signals, which were delayed because of the time it took for compression / decompression) improve controller stability and favorably affect task performance by the medical team. We found essentially no difference in task performance between the synchronous and asynchronous transmission of the telesurgical signals when the physician operated the laparoscope and the assistant operated the laparotomy tools. But with asynchronous transmission we found a significant improvement (31% to 60%) in task completion time when the physician operated any of the laparotomy tools.


Video Signal Video Compression Task Completion Time Master Manipulator Round Trip Delay 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Ferrell, W. R. and Sheridan, T. B.: Supervisory control of remote manipulation. IEEE Spectrum 4, no. 10, (1967):81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Black, J.: Factorial study of remote manipulation with transmission time delay. Master’s thesis, MIT, Engineering Projects Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dec. 1970.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zydacron, Inc.: ZydApp2 User’s Guide for software release 1.1, February:87.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mitsuishi, M., Watanabe, T., Nakanishi, H., Hori, T., Watanabe, H., and Kramer B.: A telemicro-surgery system with co-located view and operation points and a rotational-force-fedback-free master manipulator. Second Annual International Symposium on Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery:(1995):111–118.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hu, J., Ren, J., Thompson, J. M., and Sheridan, T. B.: Fuzzy sliding force reflecting control of a telerobotic system. Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Fuzzy Systems, September 1996.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bailey, R. W., Imbembo, A. L., and Zucker, K. A.: Establishment of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy training program. The American Scientist: 57(4), (1991):231–236.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Muntzer, M.: A cheap laparoscopic surgery trainer. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England: 74:256–257. 6. Bailey, R. W., Imbembo, A. L., and Zucker, K. A. (1991). Establishment of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy training program. The American Scientist: 57(4), (1992):231–236.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • James M. Thompson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mark P. Ottensmeyer
    • 1
  • Thomas B. Sheridan
    • 1
  1. 1.Human Machine Systems LaboratoryMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesia and Critical CareMassachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolUSA

Personalised recommendations