Learning a subclass of context-free languages

  • J. D. Emerald
  • K. G. Subramanian
  • D. G. Thomas
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1433)


In this paper, Apical growth Pure context-free grammars (AGPCFG) which are a variation of the pure grammars of Maurer et al are introduced. These grammars allow rewriting of active symbols at the ends of a string simultaneously. They also provide a variation of another kind of grammars called filamentous systems with apical growth, which are motivated by biological considerations. The family of languages generated by AGPCFGs is a subclass of context-free languages. An algorithm for learning this language subclass, in the framework of identification in the limit from positive examples, is provided.


Regular Language Positive Data Distinguished Marker Apical Growth Chain Code 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    D. Angluin, Inference of reversible languages, J. ACM 29, 1982, 741–765.zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.D. Emerald, K.G. Subramanian and D.G. Thomas, Learning Code regular and Code linear languages, Proceedings of ICGI-96, Lecture Notes in Artificial In-telligence 1147, 1996, 211–221.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    E.M. Gold, Language identification in the limit, Information and Control, 10, 447–474, 1967.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Koshiba, E. Makinen and Y. Takada, Inferring pure context-free languages from positive data, Technical Report A-1997-14, Department of Computer Science, University of Tampere, 1997.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Makinen, The grammatical inference problem for the Szilard languages of linear grammars, Information Processing Letters, 36, 203–206, 1990.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H.A. Maurer, A. Salomaa and D. Wood, Pure Grammars, Information and Control 44, 47–72, 1980.zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H.A. Maurer, G. Rozenberg and E. Welzl, Using string languages to describe picture languages, Information and Control, 54, 155–185, 1992.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    N. Nirmal, K. Krithivasan, Filamentous Systems with apical growth, Intern. J. Comp. Inf. Sci. 14, 1985, 235–242.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Sakakibara, Learning context-free grammars from structural data in polynomial time, Theoretical Computer Science, 76(2): 223–242, 1990.zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K.G. Subramanian, A note on regular-controlled apical growth filamentous systems,Intern. J.Comp.Inf.Sci.14, 1985, 235–242.zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    N. Tanida and T. Yokomori, Inductive Inference of Monogenic Pure Context-free languages, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 872, Springer-Verlag, 1994, 560–573.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    T. Yokomori, On Polynomial-Time Learnability in the Limit of Strictly Deterministic Automata, Machine Learning, 19, 153–179, 1995.zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. D. Emerald
    • 1
  • K. G. Subramanian
    • 1
  • D. G. Thomas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsMadras Christian CollegeTambaram, MadrasIndia

Personalised recommendations