Advertisement

Fluorine-containing polymers. II. Polytetrafluoroethylene

  • C. A. Sperati
  • H. W. StarkweatherJr.
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 2/4)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Allan, A. J. G.: Wettability and friction of polytetrafluoroethylene film: effect of prebonding treatments. J. Polymer Sci. 24, 461–466 (1957).Google Scholar
  2. Plastics as solid lubricants and bearings. Lubrication Eng. 14, 211–215 (1958).Google Scholar
  3. F. M. Chapman: Frictional properties of TFE-fluorocarbon resins. Materials in Design Eng. 48, 106–108 (1958).Google Scholar
  4. R. Roberts: Wettability of perfluorocarbon polymer films: effect of roughness. J. Polymer Sci. 39, 1–8 (1959).Google Scholar
  5. Beecroft, R. I., and C. A. Swenson: Behavior of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) under high pressures. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1793–1798 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernett, M. K., and W. A. Zisman: Wetting of low-energy solids by aqueous solutions of highly fluorinated acids and salts. J. Phys. Chem. 63, 1911–1916 (1959).Google Scholar
  7. Berry, K. L., and J. H. Peterson: Tracer studies of oxidation-reduction polymerization and molecular weight of Teflon tetrafluoroethylene resin. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 5195–5197 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowden, F. P.: Frictional properties of porous metal impregnated with plastic. Research (London) 3, 147–168 (1950).Google Scholar
  9. Friction on snow and ice. Proc. Roy. Soc. A 217, 462–478 (1953).Google Scholar
  10. Friction on snow and ice and the development of some fast-running skiis. Nature (London) 176, 946–947 (1955).Google Scholar
  11. Brandt, W.: Calculation of compressibilities of high polymers from the energy of interaction between chains. J. Chem. Phys. 26, 262–270 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bridgman, P. W.: Rough compressions of 177 substances to 40,000 kg/cm2. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 76, 71–74 (1948).Google Scholar
  13. Bro, M. I.: The stability of fluorine-containing polymers to amines. J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 1, 310–312 (1959).Google Scholar
  14. C. A. Sperati: End groups in tetrafluoroethylene polymers. J. Polymer Sci. 38, 289–205 (1959).Google Scholar
  15. Brodhun, C. G.: Dielectric breakdown of polymers under prolonged stress. Phys. Rev. 86, 653 (1952).Google Scholar
  16. Brunauer, S., P. H. Emmett and E. Teller: Adsorption of gases in multimole-cular layers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 60, 309–319 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bryant, W. M. D.: Free energies of formation of fluorocarbons and their radicals. Thermodynamics of formation and depolymerization of polytetrafluoroethylene. J. Polymer Sci., in press.Google Scholar
  18. Bunn, C. W., and E. R. Howells: Structures of molecules and crystals of fluorocarbons. Nature (London) 174, 549–551 (1954).Google Scholar
  19. A. J. Cobbold and R. P. Palmer: The fine structure of polytetrafluoroethylene. J. Polymer Sci. 28, 365–376 (1958).Google Scholar
  20. Chapiro, A.: Preparation of graft copolymers of polytetrafluoroethylene by radio-chemistry. J. Polymer Sci. 34, 481–501 (1959).Google Scholar
  21. Charlesby, A.: How radiation affects long-chain polymers. Nucleonics 12, 18–25 (1954).Google Scholar
  22. Some radiation effects in long chain polymers. Plastics Institute Trans. 23, 133–138 (1955).Google Scholar
  23. Chen, W. K. W., R. B. Mesrobian, D. S. Ballantine, D. J. Metz and A. Glines: Studies of graft copolymers derived by ionizing radiation. J. Polymer Sci. 23, 903–913 (1957).Google Scholar
  24. Clark, E. S., and L. T. Muus: Unusual features in the crystal structure of polytetrafluoroethylene. Meeting of the American Chemical Society, New York, September 1957.Google Scholar
  25. --Intensity of bragg reflections and disorder in crystalline polymers. Meeting of the American Crystallographic Association, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, June 23, 1958.Google Scholar
  26. -The helical structure concept and synthetic polymers. Symposium on “Helices in macromolecular systems” at Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, May 16, 1959.Google Scholar
  27. Crescenzi, A. A., P. C. Hofstra, K. C. Sze, B. H. Foster and C. L. Claff: Development of a simplified disposable membrane oxygenator. 45th Annual Clinical Congress of the American College of Surgeons, Atlantic City, September 28, 1959.Google Scholar
  28. Doban, R. C., C. A. Sperati and B. W. Sandt: The physical properties of “Teflon” polytetrafluoroethylene. Soc. Plastics Engrs Journal 11, 17–21, 24, 30 (1955).Google Scholar
  29. -A. C. Knight, J. H. Peterson and C. A. Sperati: The molecular weight of polytetrafluoroethylene. Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Atlantic City, September 1956.Google Scholar
  30. -Method for the preparation of cementable fluorocarbon polymer surfaces. U. S. Patent 2,871,144 (Jan. 27, 1959) assigned to E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.Google Scholar
  31. Downing, F. B., A. F. Benning and R. C. McHarness: Octafluorocyclobutane and pyrolytic process for its production. U. S. Patent 2,384,821 (Sept. 18, 1945) U. S. Patent 2,387,247 (Oct. 23, 1945).Google Scholar
  32. Duus, H. C.: Thermochemical studies on fluorocarbons. Ind. Eng. Chem. 47, 1445–1449 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dyment, J., and H. Ziebland: Tensile properties of plastics at low temperatures. J. Appl. Chem. (London) 8, 203–206 (1958).Google Scholar
  34. Ehrlich, P.: Dielectric properties of “Teflon” from room temperature to 314‡ C and from frequencies of 102 to 105 cps. J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 51, 185–188 (1953).Google Scholar
  35. Elliott, E. M.: Polytetrafluoroethylene dispersions for metal finishing. Trans. Inst. Metal Finishing 33, 355–365 (1956).Google Scholar
  36. Fitzsimmons, V. G., and W. A. Zisman: Thin films of polytetrafluoroethylene resin (“Teflon”) as lubricants and preservative coatings for metals. NRL Report 4753. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C., June 15, 1956. See also Ind. Eng. Chem. 50, 781–784 (1958).Google Scholar
  37. Florin, R. E., L. A. Wall, D. W. Brown, L. A. Hymo and J. D. Michaelsen: Factors affecting the thermal stability of polytetrafluoroethylene. J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 53, 121–130 (1954).Google Scholar
  38. Fowler, J. F., and F. T. Farmer: Conductivity induced in polytetrafluoroethylene by x-rays. Nature (London) 174, 136–137 (1954).Google Scholar
  39. Fox, H. W., and W. A. Zisman: The spreading of liquids on low energy surfaces. I. polytetrafluoroethylene. J. Colloid Sci. 5, 514–531 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Furukawa, G. T., R. E. McCoskey and G. J. King: Calorimetric properties of polytetrafluoroethylene (“Teflon”) from 0‡ to 365‡ K. J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 48, 273–278 (1952).Google Scholar
  41. Hals, L. T., T. S. Reid, and G. H. Smith: The preparation of terminally unsaturated perfluoroolefins by the decomposition of the salts of perfluoro acids. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 4054 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hanford, W. E., and R. M. Joyce: Polytetrafluoroethylene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 68, 2082–2085 (1946).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Haszeldine, R. N.: The addition of free radicals to unsaturated systems. IV. the direction of radical addition to hexafluoropropene. J. Chem. Soc. 3559–3564 (1953).Google Scholar
  44. Hippel, A. R. von: Dielectric materials and applications. New York: Technology Press of MIT and John Wiley 1954.Google Scholar
  45. Hyndman, D., and G. F. Origlio: NMR absorption in “Teflon” fibers. J. Applied Physics 31, 1849–1852 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Illers, K. H., and E. Jenckel: Mechanische Relaxationserscheinungen in Polytetrafluoräthylen. Kolloid-Z. 160, 97–106 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. James, D. D.: Molding and extrusion of “Teflon”. India Rubber World 124, 68–70 (1951).Google Scholar
  48. Kabin, S. P.: On the dynamic mechanical properties of polyethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene. Soviet Physics Technical Physics 1, 2542–2546 (1956).Google Scholar
  49. Kilian, H. G., and E. Jenckel: The melting and crystallization of some high-polymeric substances as observed by x-ray analysis. Z. Elektrochem. 63, 308–321 (1959).Google Scholar
  50. Kiyama, R., J. Osugi and S. Kusuhara: Studies on explosive reactions of tetra-fluoroethylene and acetylene with oxygen or air. Rev. Phys. Chem. Jap. 27, 22–41 (1957).Google Scholar
  51. Krum, F., and F. H. Muller: Vorbehandlung und dielektrisches Verhalten Hochpolymerer. Kolloid-Z. 164, 81–107 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leksina, I. E., and S. I. Novikova: Thermal expansion of fluoroplast between −190 and 325‡ C. Sov. Phys. Solid State 1, 453–459 (1959).Google Scholar
  53. Lewis, E. E., and M. A. Naylor: Pyrolysis of polytetrafluoroethylene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69, 1968–1970 (1947).Google Scholar
  54. and C. M. Winchester: Rheology of lubricated polytetrafluoroethylene compositions — equipment and operating variables. Ind. and Eng. Chem. 45, 1123–1127 (1953).Google Scholar
  55. Liang, C. Y., and S. Krimm: Infrared spectra of high polymers III. polytetrafluoroethylene and polychlorotrifluoroethylene. J. Chem. Physics 25, 563–571 (1956).Google Scholar
  56. Locke, E. G., W. R. Brode and A. L. Henne: Fluorochloroethanes and fluoro-chloroethylenes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 56, 1726–1728 (1934).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lontz, J. F., and W. B. Happoldt jr.: “Teflon” tetrafluoroethylene resin dispersion. A new aqueous colloidal dispersion of polytetrafluoroethylene. Ind. and Eng. Chem. 44, 1800–1805 (1952).Google Scholar
  58. J. A. Jaffe, L. E. Robb and W. B. Happoldt jr.: “Teflon” tetrafluoroethylene resin dispersion-extrusion properties of lubricated resin from coagulated dispersion. Ind. and Eng. Chem. 44, 1805–1810 (1952).Google Scholar
  59. Lupton, J. M.: Effect of pressure on the specific volume of polymer melts. Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Chicago, September 1958.Google Scholar
  60. Madorsky, S. L., V. E. Hart, S. Strauss and V. A. Sedlak: Thermal degradation of tetrafluoroethylene and hydrofluoroethylene polymers. J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 51, 327–333 (1953).Google Scholar
  61. Marx, P., and M. Dole: Specific heat of synthetic high polymers. V. A study of the order-disorder transition in polytetrafluoroethylene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 4771–4774 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Matsumae, K., M. Watanabe, A. Nishioka and T. Ichimiya: Viscosity and elasticity of gamma-irradiated polytetrafluoroethylene resin above the melting point. J. Polymer Sci. 28, 653–655 (1958).Google Scholar
  63. McCrum, N. G.: An internal friction study of polytetrafluoroethylene. J. Polymer Sci. 34, 355–369 (1959a).Google Scholar
  64. A study of internal friction in copolymers of tetrafluoroethylene and hexafluoro-propylene. Die Makromol. Chem. 34, 50–66 (1959b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Torsion pendulum method for determining crystallinity and void content of tetrafluoroethylene resins. ASTM Bull. No. 242, 80–82 (1959c).Google Scholar
  66. McGeer, P. L., and H. C. Duus: Effect of pressure on the melting point of “Teflon” tetrafluoroethylene resin. J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1813–1814 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McGrew, F. C.: Some structural investigations on polytetrafluoroethylene. International Symposium on Fluorine Chemistry, Birmingham, England, July 17, 1959.Google Scholar
  68. Michaelsen, J. D., and L. A. Wall: Further studies on the pyrolysis of polytetrafluoroethylene in the presence of various gases. J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 58, 327–331 (1957).Google Scholar
  69. Mikhailov, G. P., S. P. Kabin and A. L. Smolyanskii: Dielectric losses of polytetrafluoroethylene. J. Techn. Phys. (U.S.S.R.) 25, 2179–2182 (1955).Google Scholar
  70. Miyake, A.: On the rotational transition of linear high polymer crystals. Chem. High Polymers (Tokyo) 15, 153–159 (1958).Google Scholar
  71. Moynihan, R. E.: The molecular structure of perfluorocarbon polymer: IR studies on polytetrafluoroethylene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81, 1045–1050 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nagamatsu, K., T. Yoshitomi and T. Takemoto: On the viscoelastic properties of crystalline polymers I. polytetrafluoroethylene. J. Colloid Sci. 13, 257–265 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nelson, E. R., T. J. Kilduff and A. A. Benderly: Bonding of “Teflon”. Ind. Eng. Chem. 50, 329–330 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Neugebauer, C. A., and J. L. Margrave: The heats of formation of tetrafluoromethane and 1,1-difluoroethylene. J. Phys. Chem. 60, 1318–1321 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nishioka, A., K. Matsumae, M. Watanabe, M. Tajima and M. Owaki: Effects of gamma radiation on some physical properties of polytetrafluoroethylene resin. J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2, 114–119 (1959).Google Scholar
  76. M. Tajima, and M. Owaki: Melt fracture and crystallization of gamma irradiated polytetrafluoroethylene. J. Polymer Sci. 28, 617–619 (1958).Google Scholar
  77. and M. Watanabe: Viscosity and elasticity of polytetrafluoroethylene resin above the melting point. J. Polymer Sci. 24, 298–300 (1957).Google Scholar
  78. Pao, Y. H., and R. F. Bjorklund: Wave functions and energy eigenvalues for the polytetrafluoroethylene chain. J. Applied Physics 31, 1925–1934 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pierce, R. H. H., jr., E. S. Clark, J. F. Whitney and W. M. D. Bryant: Crystal structure of polytetrafluoroethylene. Meeting of the American Chemical Society Atlantic City, September, 1956.Google Scholar
  80. Plunkett, R. J.: Tetrafluoroethylene polymers. U. S. Patent 2,230,654 (Feb. 4, 1941).Google Scholar
  81. Powles, J. G., and J. A. E. Kail: Nuclear magnetic resonance absorption in various polytetrafluoroethylenes. J. Polymer Sci. 31, 183–187 (1958).Google Scholar
  82. Purvis, R. J., and W. R., and W. R. Beck: Method of activating the surface of perfluorocarbon polymers and resultant article. U. S. Patent 2,789,063 (April 16, 1957) — assigned to Minnesota Mining and Mfg. Co.Google Scholar
  83. Quinn, F. A., jr., D. E. Roberts and R. N. Work: Volume-temperature relationships for the room temperature transition in “Teflon”. J. Appl. Physics 22, 1985–1086 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rappaport, G.: Method of bonding a fluorinated synthetic resin to another material. U. S. Patent 2,809,130 (Oct. 8, 1957) — assigned to General Motors Corp.Google Scholar
  85. Renfrew, M. M., and E. E. Lewis: Polytetrafluoroethylene: heat-resistent, chemically inert plastic. Ind. Eng. Chem. 38, 870–877 (1946).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. -Polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene with dibasic acid peroxide catalysts. U. S. Patent 2,534,058 (Dec. 12, 1950).Google Scholar
  87. Restaino, A. J., and W. N. Reed: Kinetics of the gamma-induced graft copoly-merization of vinyl acetate to “Teflon”. J. Polymer Sci. 36, 499–510 (1959).Google Scholar
  88. Rigby, H. A., and C. W. Bunn: A room-temperature transition in polytetrafluoroethylene. Nature (London) 164, 583 (1949).Google Scholar
  89. Riley, M. W.: Selection and design of fluorocarbon plastics. Materials and Methods Manual No. 138, 129–148 (June 1957).Google Scholar
  90. Roedel, M. J.: The molecular structure of polyethylene, I. chain branching in polyethylene during polymerization. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 6110–6113 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ruff, O., and O. Bretschneider: Die Bildung von Hexafluoräthan und Tetrafluoräthylen aus Tetrafluorkohlenstoff. Z. anorg. Chem. 210, 173–183 (1933).Google Scholar
  92. Ryan, J. W.: Radiation of polytetrafluorethylene. Modern Plastics 31, 152 (Oct. 1953).Google Scholar
  93. Ryland, A. L.: X-ray diffraction. J. Chem. Ed. 35, 80–83 (1958).Google Scholar
  94. Scott, R. L.: The anomalous behavior of fluorocarbon solutions. J. Phys. Chem. 62, 136–145 (1958).Google Scholar
  95. Shooter, K. V., and D. Tabor: The frictional properties of plastics. Proc. Phys. Soc. B 65, 661–671 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. and P. H. Thomas: Frictional properties of some plastics. Research (London) 2, 533–535 (1949).Google Scholar
  97. Siegle, J. C., L. T. Muus and T. P. Lin: Pyrolysis of polytetrafluoroethylene. Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Atlantic City, September 1956.Google Scholar
  98. Sinnott, K. M.: Paper in preparation.Google Scholar
  99. Slichter, W. P.: Nuclear magnetic resonance in some fluorine derivatives of polythene. J. Polymer Sci. 24, 173–188 (1957).Google Scholar
  100. Smith, J. A. S.: A nuclear resonance investigation of polytetrafluoroethylene. Discussions Faraday Soc. No. 19, 207–215 (1955).Google Scholar
  101. Snelling, G. R., and J. F. Lontz: Mechanism of lubricant extrusion of “Teflon” TFE-tetrafluoroethylene resins. J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 3, 257–265 (1960).Google Scholar
  102. Sperati, C. A., and J. L. McPherson: The effect of crystallinity and molecular weight on physical properties of polytetrafluoroethylene. Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Atlantiv City, September 1956.Google Scholar
  103. Starkweather, H. W., jr., and R. H. Boyd: The entropy of melting of some linear polymers. J. Phys. Chem. 64, 410–414 (1960).Google Scholar
  104. Heat capacity of chain polymers at low temperatures. J. Polymer Sci. 45, 525–527 (1960).Google Scholar
  105. Sugita, K., S. Nagao and Y. Toriyama: The corona resisting property of polytetrafluoroethylene. Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 7, 38 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Swenson, A. A.: Mechanical properties of “Teflon” at low temperatures. Rev. Sci. Instr. 25, 834 (1954).Google Scholar
  107. Teranishi, H.: Studies on the explosions under high pressures, IV. The explosions of tetrafluoroethylene mixed with oxygen or air. Rev. Phys. Chem. Japan 28, 9–23 (1958).Google Scholar
  108. Thomas, P. E., J. F. Lontz, C. A. Sperati and J. L. McPherson: Effects of fabrication on the properties of “Teflon” resins. Soc. Plastics Engrs. 12, (June 1956).Google Scholar
  109. Torkington, P., and H. W. Thompson: The infrared spectra of fluorination hydrocarbons I. Trans. Faraday Soc. 41, 236–246 (1945).Google Scholar
  110. Wall, L. A., and J. D. Michaelsen: Thermal decomposition of polytetrafluoroethylene in various gaseous atmospheres. J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 56, 27–34 (1956).Google Scholar
  111. and R. E. Florin: Polytetrafluoroethylene — a radiation resistant polymer. J. Appl. Polymer Sci., 2, 251 (1959).Google Scholar
  112. Weir, C. E.: Compressibility of natural and synthetic high polymers at high pressures. J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 46, 207–212 (1051).Google Scholar
  113. Transitions and phases of polytetrafluoroethylene (“Teflon”). J. Research Natl. Bur. Standards 50, 95–97 (1953).Google Scholar
  114. Wilson, C. W., and G. E. Pake: Nuclear magnetic relaxation in polytetrafluoroethylene and polythene. J. Chem. Phys. 27, 115–122 (1957).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1961

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. A. Sperati
    • 1
  • H. W. StarkweatherJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Polychemicals Department E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co.Wilmington

Personalised recommendations