Advertisement

Termination of anionic polymerization

  • M. Szwarc
Conference paper
  • 282 Downloads
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 2/2)

Keywords

Proton Transfer Molecular Weight Distribution Methyl Methacrylate Ethylene Oxide Liquid Ammonia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Chien, J. C. W.: Kinetics of ethylene polymerization catalyzed by bis(cyclo-pentadienyl)-titanium dichloride-dimethylaluminium chloride. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 81, 86 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pepper, D. L.: Ionic polymerization. Quart. Rev. 8, 88 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Throssell, J. J., S. P. Sood, M. Szwarc and V. Stannett: The instantaneous polymerization of styrene by trifluoroacetic acid. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 78, 1122 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dainton, F. S., and G. B. B. M. Sutherland: Application of infrared analysis to elucidate the mechanism of the boron triflouride catalyzed vapor phase polymerization of isobutene at room temperature. J. Polymer Sci. 4, 37 (1949).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Evans, A. G., et al.: Ionization of triphenyl methyl chloride with nitroalkanes. Trans. Faraday Soc. 47, 711 (1951).Google Scholar
  6. 5a.
    Evans, A. G., et al.: The effect od solvents on the ionization of organic halides. Part I. Ionization in nitrobenzene and m-nitrotoluene. Trans. Faraday Soc. 50, 568 (1954); and the following papers by A. G. Evans.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    Das, S. K., M. Feld and M. Szwarc: Association of polymers that requires activation energy. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 82, 1506 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 7.
    Szwarc, M.: Some remarks on microstructure of diene polymers. J. Polymer Sci. 40, 583 (1959).Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    Overberger, C. G., and G. F. Enders: Ionic polymerization. VI. The mechanism of molecular termination by aromatic compounds in the cationic polymerization of styrene. J. Polymer Sci. 16, 283 (1955).Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    Rembaum, A., and M. Szwarc: Polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by an electron transfer to monomer. J. Polymer. Sci. 22, 189 (1956).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    Glusker, D. L., E. Stiles and B. Yonkoskie: The mechanism of the anionic polymerization of methyl methacrylate. Abstr. ACS Boston Meeting, 1959.-Graham, R. K., D. L. Dunkelberger and E. S. Cohn: The initiation of polymerization of methyl methacrylate by polymethyl methacrylate ions. J. Polymer Sci. 42, 501 (1960)-Graham, R. K., D. L. Dunkelberger and W. E. Goode: Anionic copolymerization: The Inability of the polymethyl methacrylate anion to initiate the polymerisation of styrene. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 82, 400 (1960).Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    Wenger, F.: Polymerisation of methyl methacrylate with sodium naphthalene and organo lithium compounds in tetrahydrofuran. Chem. and Ind., p. 1094.Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Schreiber, H.: über die Abbruchsreaktionen bei der anionischen Polymerisation von Methylmethycrylat. Makromol. Chem. 36, 86 (1959).Google Scholar
  14. 12a.
    Shashoua, V. E., W. Sweeny and R. F. Tietz: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 82, 867 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 13.
    Breslow, D. S., G. E. Hulse and A. S. Matlock: Synthesis of poly-Β-alanine from acrylomide. A novel synthesis of Β-alanine. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 79, 3760 (1957).Google Scholar
  16. 14.
    Sanderson, J. J., and C. R. Hauser: Base catalyzed polymerization of styrene J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 71, 1595 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 15.
    Higginson, W. C. E., and N. S. Wooding: Anionic polymerization. Part I. The polymerization of styrene in liquid ammonia solution catalysed by potassium amide. J. Chem. Soc. (London), p. 760.Google Scholar
  18. 16.
    Evans, M. G., W. C. E. Higginson and N. S. Wooding: The mechanism of polymerisation reaction in liquid ammonia. Rec. trav. chim. 68, 1069 (1949).Google Scholar
  19. 17.
    Wooster, C. B., and J. F. Ryan: The reduction of phenylated olefins with alkali metals in liquid ammonia. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 56, 1133 (1934).Google Scholar
  20. 18.
    Wooding, N. S., and W. C. E. Higginson: Anionic polymerisation. Part III. The polymerisation of styrene in liquid ammonia catalysed by potassium. J. Chem. Soc. (London), p. 1178.Google Scholar
  21. 19.
    Beaman, R. G.: Anionic chain polymerization. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 70, 3115 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 20.
    Wooding, N. S., and W. C. E. Higginson: Anionic polymerisation. Part II. The acid-base character of anionic polymerisation. J. Chem. Soc. (London), p. 774.Google Scholar
  23. 21.
    Szwarc, M.: Some aspects of anionic polymerization. Makromol. Chem. 35, 132 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 22.
    Overberger, C. G., E. M. Pearce and N. Mayes: Polymerization of methacrylonitrile with lithium in ammonia. J. Polymer Sci. 34, 109 (1959). Polymerization of methacrylonitrile with lithium. J Polymer Sci. 31, 217 (1958).Google Scholar
  25. 23.
    Flory, P. J.: Principles of polymer chemistry. Cornell Press (1953).Google Scholar
  26. 24.
    Szwarc, M., M. Levy and R. Milkovich: Polymerization initiated by electron transfer to monomer. A new method of preparation of block polymers. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 78, 2656 (1956).Google Scholar
  27. 25.
    Szwarc, M.: Living polymers. Nature (London) 178, 1168 (1956).Google Scholar
  28. 26.
    Waack, R., A. Rembaum, J. D. Coombes and M. Szwarc: Molecular weights of “living” polymers. Polystyrene. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 79, 2026 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 27.
    Brody, H., M. Ladacki, R. Milkovich and M. Szwarc: Molecular weight of living polymers. Polybutadiene and polyisoprene. J. Polymer Sci. 25, 221 (1957).Google Scholar
  30. 28.
    Stretch, C., and G. Allen: Anionic polymerisation of styrene. Proc. Chem. Soc. (London), p. 399.Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    McCormick: Molecular weight distribution of polystyrene by sedimentation velocity analysis. J. Polymer Sci. 36, 341 (1959).Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    Meyerhoff, u. H. J. Canton: Molekulargewichte und Molekulargewichtsverteilungen unverzweigter und verzweigter Polystyrole. J. Polymer. Sci. 34, 503 (1959).Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    Siviani, R. F., D. J. Worsfold and S. Bywater: Anionic polymerization of α-methyl styrene. Part 3. Molecular weight determinations of sharp distribution polymers. Trans. Faraday Soc. 55, 2124 (1959).Google Scholar
  34. 31a.
    McCormick, H. W.: Molecular weight distribution of anionically polymerized α-methylstyrene. J. Polymer Sci. 41, 327 (1959).Google Scholar
  35. 31b.
    Wenger, F.: Monodisperse poly-α-methylene. Makromol. Chem. 37, 143 (1960).Google Scholar
  36. 32.
    Dostal, H., and H. Mark: über den Mechanismus von Polamerisations-Reaktionen. Z. physik. Chem. B 29, 299 (1935).Google Scholar
  37. 33.
    Gold, L.: Statistics of polymer molecular size distribution for an invariant number of propagating chains. J. Chem. Phys. 28, 91 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 34.
    Lyssy, T.: Mechanism of formation and molecular weight distribution of “living” polymers. Helv. Chim. Acta. 42, 2245 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 35.
    Levy, M., and M. Szwarc: Electron spin resonance studies of anionic polymerization. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 82, 521 (1960).Google Scholar
  40. 35 a.
    Wenger, F.: On the anionic polymerization of styrene. Biphenyl sodium a new initiator. Makromol. Chem. 36, 200 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 36.
    Szwarc, M., and M. Litt: Molecular weight distribution of “living” polymers. Part II. Effect of impurities. J. Phys. Chem. 62, 568 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 37.
    McCormick, H. W.: Ceiling temperature of α-methylstyrene. J. Polymer Sci. 25, 488 (1957).Google Scholar
  43. 38.
    Worsfold, D. J., and S. Bywater: Anionic polymerization of α-methylstyrene J. Polymer Sci 26, 299 (1957).Google Scholar
  44. 39.
    Brown, W. B., and M. Szwarc: Molecular weight distribution of “living” polymers. Trans. Faraday Soc. 54, 416 (1958).Google Scholar
  45. 40.
    Rempp, P., et M. H. Louchoux: Préparation de polymères vinyliques α-Ω-difunctionnels par polymérisation anionique en phase homogène. Bull. soc. chim. France 1958, p. 1473.Google Scholar
  46. 41.
    Waack, R.: Studies in anionic polymerization of styrene. Thesis (Syracuse) (1958).Google Scholar
  47. 42.
    Remp, P., and Stockmayer: Unpublished results.Google Scholar
  48. 43.
    Brody, H., D. H. Richards and M. Szwarc: Association of polymers with ionized ends. Effect of charge density on the degree of association. Chem. and Ind. 45, 1473 (1958).Google Scholar
  49. 44.
    Levy, M., and S. Schlick: Block-polymers of styrene and isoprene with variable distribution of monomers along the chain. J. Phys. Chem. 64, 883 (1960).Google Scholar
  50. 45.
    Richards, D. H., and M. Szwarc: Block polymers of ethylene oxide and its analogues with styrene. Trans Faraday Soc. 55, 1644 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 46.
    Morton, M., and A. Rembaum: Polamerization of Cyclic oxides initiated by electron transfer. J. Polymer Sci. 32, 530 (1958).Google Scholar
  52. 47.
    Litt, M., and M. Szwarc: Molecular weight distribution in anionic polymerization involving chain transfer to monomer. J. Polymer Sci. 42, 159 (1960).Google Scholar
  53. 48.
    Sela, M., and A. Berger: The terminal groups of poly-α-amino acids. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77, 1893 (1955).Google Scholar
  54. 49.
    Welch, F. J.: Effect of Lewis acids and bases on the rate of butyl lithium initiated polymerization of styrene. Read in St. Francisco ACS Meeting.Google Scholar
  55. 50.
    Welch, F. J.: The polymerization of styrene by n-butyllithium. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 81, 1345 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 51.
    Fox, T. G., B. S. Garrett, W. E. Goode, S. Gratch, J. F. Kincaid, A. Spell and J. D. Stroupe: Crystalline polymers of methyl methacrylate. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80, 1768 (1958).Google Scholar
  57. 52.
    Fox, T. G., et al.: Temperature dependence of the stereospecificity in the free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate. J. Polymer Sci. 31, 173 (1958).Google Scholar
  58. 53.
    Korotkov, A. A.: On the nature of active centers in alkaline catalytic polymerisation. Paper presented in the International Symposium on Macromolecules, Prague (1957); see also G. V. Rakova and A. A. Korotkov; Doklady Akad. Nauk. U.S.S.R. 119, 982 (1958).Google Scholar
  59. 54.
    Idelson, M., and E. R. Blout: Polypeptides. XVIII. A kinetic study of the polymerization of amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides initiated by strong bases. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80, 2387 (1958).Google Scholar
  60. 55.
    Lundenberg, R. D., and P. Doty: Polypeptides. XVII. A study of the kinetics of the primary amine-initiated polymerization of N-carboxy-anhydrides with special reference to configurational and stereochemical effects. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 79, 3961 (1957).Google Scholar
  61. 56.
    Szwarc, M.: A new approach to the problem of stereospecific polymerization. Chem. and Ind. 1958, p. 1589.Google Scholar
  62. 57.
    Williams, J. L. R., T. M. Laakso and W. J. Dulmage: Crystallizable polystyrene. Polymerisation of styrene with triphenyl potassium and related compounds. J. Org. Chem. 23, 638 (1958).Google Scholar
  63. 58.
    Unpublished results from Rohm and Haas Laboratories.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1960

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Szwarc
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry State University College of Forestry at Syracuse UniversitySyracuse 10

Personalised recommendations