Advertisement

From boron trifluoride to antimony pentafluoride in search of stable carbocations

  • George A. Olah
Conference paper
Part of the Topics in Current Chemistry book series (TOPCURRCHEM, volume 80)

Keywords

Electrophilic Reaction Alkyl Cation Acyl Cation Antimony Pentafluoride Isopropyl Cation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    This review is based in part on a review article which appeared in: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 12, 173 (1973)Google Scholar
  2. 2.(a)
    For reviews see: Carbonium ions. Olah, G. A., Schleyer, P.v. R. (eds.), New York-London: Wiley-Interscience, Vol. 1, 1968, Vol. II, 1970, Vol. III, 1972, Vol. IV, 1973 and Vol. V, 1976.Google Scholar
  3. 2.(b)
    Bethell, D., Gold, V.: Carbonium ions, an introduction, London-New York: Academic Press 1967Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    Also see: Olah, G. A.: Chem. Eng. News 45, 76 (March 27, 1967); Science, 168, 1298 (1970).Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    Existence is defined by Webster (Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged ed., Merriam Co., 1961, p. 796) as: The state or fact of having being, especially as considered independently of human consciousnessGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    Gillespie, R. J.: J. Chem. Soc. 1002 (1952); and for rebuttal, Dewar, M. J. S.: J. Chem. Soc. 2885 (1953); Jaffe, H. H.: J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1893 (1963); but also Gillespie, R. J.: J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1893 (1963)Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    Muetterties, E. L., Schunn, R. A.: Quart, Rev. 20, 245 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 7.
    For a review and critical discussion, see Jensen, F. R., Rickborn, B.: Electrophilic substitution of organomercurials. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1968Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    J. D. Roberts seem to have first used the term “nonclassical ion” when he proposed the tricyclobutonium structure for the cyclopropylcarbinyl cation [Roberts, J. D., Mazur, R. H.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 73, 1542 (1951)], and Winstein who referred to the nonclassical structure of norbornyl, cholesteryl, and 3-phenyl-2-butyl cations. [Winstein, S, Trifan, D.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 74, 1154 (1952).] Bartlett's definition is widely used for nonclassical ions stating “an ion is nonclassical if its ground state has delocalized bonding σ-electrons.” Also see Ref.2)Google Scholar
  10. 9.(a)
    For leading references see Bartlett, P. D.: Nonclassical ions; reprints and commentary. New York: Benjamin, W. A., 1965Google Scholar
  11. 9.(b)
    Sargent, G. D.: Quart. Rev. 20, 301 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 9.(c)
    Winstein, S.: Quart. Rev. 23, 141 (1969); and for an opposing viewCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 9.(d)
    Brown, H. C.: Chem. Eng. News, pp. 86–97. (February 13, 1967) and references given therein.Google Scholar
  14. 9.(e)
    Brown, H. C.: Acc. Chem. Rev. 6, 377 (1973)Google Scholar
  15. 9.(f)
    Brown, H. C.: Tetrahedron 32, 179 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 9.(g)
    Olah, G. A.: Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 9 (1976)Google Scholar
  17. 9.(h)
    Brown, H. C.: The nonclassical ion problem. New York: Plenum Press 1977Google Scholar
  18. 10.
    Olah, G. A., White, A. M., DeMember, J. R., Commeyras, A., Lui, C. Y.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 92, 4627 (1970); Olah, G. A., Liang, G., Mateescu, G. D., Riemenschneider, J. L.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95, 8698 (1973)Google Scholar
  19. 11.
    Hogeween, H., Kwant, P. W.: Acc. Chem. Res. 8, 413 (1975)Google Scholar
  20. 12.
    For a review and discussion, see Jennen, J. J.: Chimia 20, 309 (1966); however for a contrasting view on general use of “Carbonium Ions,” Volz, H., Chem. Unserer Zeit. 4, 101 (1970)Google Scholar
  21. 13.
    Meerwein, H., Van Emster, K.: Chem. Ber. 55, 2500 (1922)Google Scholar
  22. 14.
    For a summary see, Ingold, C. K., Structure and Mechanism in organic chemistry. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press 1953Google Scholar
  23. 15.
    Whitmore, F. C.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 54, 3274, 3276 (1932); Ann. Rep. Progr. Chem. (Chem. Soc. London) 1933, 177 (1933)Google Scholar
  24. 16.
    Seel, F.: Anorg. Allg. Chem. 250, 331 (1943); Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 252, 24 (1943)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 17.
    For an extensive review, see McLafferty, F. W., (ed.): Mass spectrometry of organic ions. New York: Academic Press 1963Google Scholar
  26. 18.
    Brown, H. C., Pearsall, H. W., Eddy, L. P.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 42, 5347 (1950)Google Scholar
  27. 19.
    Wertyporoch, E., Firla, T.: Ann. Chim. 500, 287 (1933)Google Scholar
  28. 20.
    Olah, G. A., Kuhn, S. J., Olah, J. A.: J. Chem. Soc. 2174 (1957)Google Scholar
  29. 21.
    Fairbrother, F.: J. Chem. Soc. 1945, 503 (1945)Google Scholar
  30. 22.
    Rosenbaum, J., Symons, M. C. R.: Proc. Chem. Soc. (London) 1959, 92 (1959); Rosenbaum, J., Risenbaum, M., Symons, M. C. R.: Mol. Phys. 3, 205 (1960); Rosenbaum, J., Symons, M. C. R.: J. Chem. Soc., (London) 1961, 1 (1961)Google Scholar
  31. 23.
    Finch, A. C. M., Symons, M. C. R.: J. Chem. Soc. (London) 1965, 378 (1965)Google Scholar
  32. 24.
    For a summary, see Deno, M. C.: Progr. Phys. Org. Chem. 2, 129 (1964)Google Scholar
  33. 25.
    For preliminary communications and lectures, see Olah, G. A.: Conference Lecture at the 9th Reaction Mechanism Conference, Brookhaven, New York, August 1962; Abstr. 142nd Nat. Meet. Amer. Chem. Soc. (Atlantic City, N. J. 1962), p. 45; Tolgyesi, W. S., MacIntyre, J. S., Bastien, I. J., Meyer, M. W.: p. 121; Olah, G. A.: Angew. Chem. 75, 800 (1963); Rev. Chim. Acad. Rep. Populaire Roumaine 7, 1139 (1962); Div. Petrol. Chem. Amer. Chem. Soc. 9, (7), 31 (1964); Organic Reaction Mechanism Conference, Cork, Ireland, June 1964, Special Publications No. 19, Chemical Society, London, 1965; — and Pittman Jr., C. U.: Advan. Phys. Org. Chem. 4, 305 (1966)Google Scholar
  34. 26.
    Olah, G. A., Baker, E. B., Evans, J. C., Tolgyesi, W. S., McIntyre, J. S., Bastien, I. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 1360 (1964)Google Scholar
  35. 27.
    Olah, G. A., Tolgyesi, W. S., Kuhn, S. J., Moffatt, M. E., Bastian, I. J., Baker, E. B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 85, 1378 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 28.(a)
    Bacon, J., Dean, P. A. W., Gillespie, R. J.: Can. J. Chem. 47, 1655 (1969)Google Scholar
  37. 28.(b)
    Commeyras, A., Olah, G. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 2929 (1968)Google Scholar
  38. 29.
    Superacids are, according to R. J. Gillespie [Accounts Chem. Res. 1, 202 (1968)] more acidic than 100 percent sulfuric acid, the most frequently used strong acid solvent. The name superacid was first suggested by Conant in 1927 [Hall, N. F., Conant, J. B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 49, 3047 (1927)] for nonaqueous strong acid solutions (like perchloric acid) or weak bases (like amides) where salt formation is exceptionally completeGoogle Scholar
  39. 30.
    Magic acid R is a registered trade mark of Cationics, Inc., Columbia, S. C., U. S. A.Google Scholar
  40. 31.
    For a comprehensive report, see Olah, G. A., White, A. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 91, 5801 (1969)Google Scholar
  41. 32.
    Olah, G. A., Donovon, D. J.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5026 (1977)Google Scholar
  42. 33.
    Saunders, M., Hagen, E. L.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 2436 (1968)Google Scholar
  43. 34.
    Olah, G. A., Commeyras, A., DeMember, J., Bribes, J. L.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 93, 459 (1971)Google Scholar
  44. 35.
    Olah, G. A., Pittman Jr., C. U., Waack, R., Doran, M.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 88, 1488 (1966)Google Scholar
  45. 36.
    Ref.2: Olah, G. A., Pittman Jr., C. U., Symons, M. C. R., in: Carbonium ions. Vol. I., pp. 153–222. Olah, G. A., Schleyer, P. v. R. (eds.). New York: Wiley-Interscience 1968Google Scholar
  46. 37.(a)
    Siegbahn, K., Nordling, C., Fahlman, A., Nordberg, R., Hamrin, K., Hedman, J., Johansson, G., Bergmark, T., Karlsson, S. E., Lindgren, I., Lindberg, B.: ESCA, atomic, molecular and solid state structure studies by means of electron spectroscopy. Uppsala: Almquist and Wiksells Boktryckeri AB 1967Google Scholar
  47. 37.(b)
    For reviews, see Hollander, J. M., Jolly, W. L.: Accounts Chem. Rev. 3, 193 (1970); Betteridge, D., Baker, A. D.: Anal. Chem. 42, 43A (1970); Hercules, D. M.: Anal. Chem. 42, 20A (1970)Google Scholar
  48. 38.(a)
    Olah, G. A., Mateescu, G. D., Wilson, L. A., Goss, M. H.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 92, 7231 (1970)Google Scholar
  49. 38.(b)
    Mateescu, G. D., Riemenschneider, J. L.: Applications of electron spectroscopy in organic chemistry, in: Electron spectroscopy. Shirley, D. A. (ed.). Amsterdam, London: North Holland Publishing Company 1972Google Scholar
  50. 39.
    Olah, G. A.: Chem. Eng. News 45, 76 (March 27, 1967); Olah, G. A., Halpern, Y.: J. Org. Chem. 36, 2354 (1971)Google Scholar
  51. 40.
    Brouwer, D. M., Mackor, E. L.: Proc. Chem. Soc. (London), 147 (1964); Brouwer, D. M.: Rec. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas. 87, 210 (1968)Google Scholar
  52. 41.
    Olah, G. A., Comisarow, M. B., Cupas, C. A., Pittman Jr., C. U.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 87, 2997 (1965)Google Scholar
  53. 42.
    Olah, G. A., Namanworth, E.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 5327 (1966)Google Scholar
  54. 43.
    Olah, G. A., Sommer, J., Namanworth, E.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 3576 (1967)Google Scholar
  55. 44.
    Olah, G. A., Schilling, P., Bollinger, J. M., Nishimura, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 2221 (1974)Google Scholar
  56. 45.
    Olah, G. A., O'Brien, D. H.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 1725 (1967)Google Scholar
  57. 46.
    Olah, G. A., Pittman Jr., C. U.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 2996 (1967)Google Scholar
  58. 47.
    Olah, G. A., Lukas, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 2227, 4739 (1967)Google Scholar
  59. 48.
    Hogeveen, H., Gaasbeck, C. J.: Rec. Trav. Chim. Pays. Bas. 89, 395 (1970) and references given thereinGoogle Scholar
  60. 49.
    Olah, G. A., O'Brien, D. H., Pittman Jr., C. U.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 2996 (1967)Google Scholar
  61. 50.
    Olah, G. A., Schilling, P.: Liebigs Ann. Chem. 761, 77 (1972)Google Scholar
  62. 51.
    Olah, G. A., Friedman, N., Bollinger, J. M., Lukas, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 5328 (1966)Google Scholar
  63. 52.
    Roberts, J. D., Mazur, R. H.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 73, 2509 (1951)Google Scholar
  64. 53.
    Hart, H., Sandri, J. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 81, 320 (1959)Google Scholar
  65. 54.
    Deno, N. C., Richey Jr., H. G., Liu, S., Hodge, J. D., Houser, J. J., Wisotsky, M. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 84, 2016 (1962)Google Scholar
  66. 55.
    Olah, G. A., Westerman, P. W., Nishimura, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 3548 (1974)Google Scholar
  67. 56.
    Pittman Jr., C. U., Olah, G. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 98, 2998 (1965)Google Scholar
  68. 57.
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G., Babiak, K. A., Ford, T. M., Goff, D. L., Morgan Jr., T. K., Murray Jr., R. K.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 1494 (1978) and references given thereinGoogle Scholar
  69. 58.
    Kabakoff, D. S., Namanworth, E.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 92, 3234 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 59.
    Hehre, W. J., Hiberty, P. C.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 302 (1974)Google Scholar
  71. 60.
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G.: J. Org. Chem. 40, 2108 (1975)Google Scholar
  72. 61.
    Olah, G. A., Prakash, G. K. S., Liang, G.: J. Org. Chem. 42, 2666 (1977)Google Scholar
  73. 62.
    Surya Prakash, G. K.: Ph. D. dissertation, Univ. of Southern California, May 1978Google Scholar
  74. 63.
    Deno, N. C., Richey Jr., H. G., Friedman, N., Hodge, J. D., Houser, J. J., Pittman Jr., C. U.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 85, 2991 (1963); Deno, N. C., Bollinger, J. M., Friedman, N., Hafer, K., Hodge, J. D., Houser, J. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. p. 2998Google Scholar
  75. 64.
    Sorensen, T. S.: Can. J. Chem. 42, 2768 (1969)Google Scholar
  76. 65.
    Olah, G. A., Comisarow, M. B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 5682 (1964)Google Scholar
  77. 66.(a)
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 6434 (1972) and references thereinGoogle Scholar
  78. 66.(b)
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G., Mo, Y. K.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 3544 (1972)Google Scholar
  79. 66.(c)
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G., Jindal, S. P.: J. Org. Chem. 40, 3249 (1975)Google Scholar
  80. 67.
    Olah, G. A., Spear, R. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 97, 1539 (1975)Google Scholar
  81. 68.
    Olah, G. A., Asencio, G., Mayr, H.: J. Org. Chem. 43, 1518 (1978)Google Scholar
  82. 69.
    Olah, G. A., Prakash, G. K. S., Liang, G.: J. Org. Chem. 41, 2820 (1976)Google Scholar
  83. 70.
    Carpenter, B. K.: J. Chem. Soc., Perkin. Trans. 2, 1 (1974)Google Scholar
  84. 71.
    Ref. 2, Vol. IIGoogle Scholar
  85. 72.
    Olah, G. A., Staral, J. S., Spear, R. J., Liang, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 97, 5489 (1975)Google Scholar
  86. 73.
    Olah, G. A., Bollinger, J. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 6082 (1968)Google Scholar
  87. 74.
    Biale, G., Parker, A. J., Smith, S. G., Stevens, I. D. R., Winstein, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 92, 115 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 75.
    Schleyer, P. V. R., Su, T. M., Saunders, M., Rosenfeld, J. C.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 91, 5174 (1969)Google Scholar
  89. 76.
    Bollinger, J. M., Brinich, J. M., Olah, G. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 92, 4025 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 77.
    Olah, G. A., Bollinger, J. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 6083 (1968)Google Scholar
  91. 78.
    Pittman Jr., C. U.: Chem. Comm. 1969, 122 (1969)Google Scholar
  92. 79.
    Sorensen, T. S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 87, 5075 (1965); Can. J. Chem. 43, 2744 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 80.
    Olah, G. A., Pittman Jr., C. U., Sorensen, T. S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 2331 (1966)Google Scholar
  94. 81.
    Olah, G. A., Prakash, G. K. S., Liang, G.: J. Org. Chem. 42, 661 (1977)Google Scholar
  95. 82.
    Verrijn Stuart, A. A., Mackor, E. L.: J. Chem. Phys. 27, 826 (1957); Dallinga, G., Mackor, E. L., Verrijn Stuart, A. A.: Mol. Phys. 1, 123 (1958); Maclean, G., Mackor, E. L.: Discus. Faraday Soc. 34, 165 (1962)Google Scholar
  96. 83.
    Birchall, T., Gillespie, R. J.: Can. J. Chem. 42, 502 (1964)Google Scholar
  97. 84.
    Olah, G. A., Kuhn, S. J.: Nature, 178, 693 (1956); Naturwissenschaften, 43, 59 (1956); J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80, 6535 (1958); Olah, G. A.: Abstr. 138th Nat. Meet. Amer. Chem. Soc. (New York, 1960), p. 3P; J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 87, 1103 (1965)Google Scholar
  98. 85.
    Olah, G. A., Schlosberg, R. H., Porter, R. D., Mo, Y. Y., Kelly, D. P., Mateescu, G. D.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 2034 (1972)Google Scholar
  99. 86.
    Olah, G. A., Staral, J. S., Asencio, G., Liang, G., Forsyth, D. A., Mateescu, G. D.: 100, 6299 (1978)Google Scholar
  100. 87.
    Doering, W. E., Saunders, M., Boyton, H. G., Earhart, H. W., Wadley, E. F., Edwards, W. R., Laber, G.: Tetrahedron 4, 178 (1958)Google Scholar
  101. 88.
    Olah, G. A., Mateescu, G. D., Mo, Y. K.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 95, 1865 (1973)Google Scholar
  102. 89.(a)
    Mateescu, G. D.: Ph. D. Dissertation, Case Western Reserve University, 1971Google Scholar
  103. 89.(b)
    Olah, G. A., Bollinger, J. M., Cupas, C. A., Lukas, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 2692 (1967)Google Scholar
  104. 90.
    Cram, D. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 71, 3863 (1949) and subsequent publications; for a critical review see Cram, D. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 3767 (1964)Google Scholar
  105. 91.(a)
    Olah, G. A., Comisarow, M. B., Namanworth, E., Ramsay, B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 5259 (1967)Google Scholar
  106. 91.(b)
    Olah, G. A., Comisarow, M. B., Kim, C. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 91, 1458 (1969)Google Scholar
  107. 91.(c)
    Olah, G. A., Porter, R. D.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 92, 7267 (1970); 93, 6877 (1971)Google Scholar
  108. 91.(d)
    Olah, G. A., Spear, R. J., Forsyth, D. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 2615 (1977)Google Scholar
  109. 92.
    Olah, G. A., Lukas, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 933 (1968)Google Scholar
  110. 93.
    Kirchen, R. P., Sorensen, T. S., Wagstaff, K. E.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 5134 (1978)Google Scholar
  111. 94.
    Olah, G. A., Jeuell, C. L., Kelly, D. P., Porter, R. D.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 146 (1972)Google Scholar
  112. 95.
    Staral, J. S., Yavari, I., Roberts, J. D., Prakash, G. K. S., Donovon, D. J., Olah, G. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 8016 (1978)Google Scholar
  113. 96.(a)
    Saunders, M., Rosenfield, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 92, 2548 (1970)Google Scholar
  114. 96.(b)
    Olah, G. A., Spear, R. J., Hiberty, P. C., Hehre, W. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 98, 7470 (1976)Google Scholar
  115. 97.
    Kirchen, R. P., Sorensen, T. S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 6687 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 98.
    Olah, G. A., Prakash, G. K. S., Donovon, D. J., Yavari, I.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 7085 (1978)Google Scholar
  117. 99.
    Bredt, J., Houben, J., Levy, P.: Chem. Ber. 35, 1286 (1902); Bredt, J., Thouet, H., Schmitz, J.: Ann. Chem. 437, 1 (1924)Google Scholar
  118. 100.
    Bartlett, P. D., Knox, L. H.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 61, 3184 (1939)Google Scholar
  119. 101.
    Koch, H., Haaf, W.: Angew. Chem. 72, 628 (1960)Google Scholar
  120. 102.
    Schleyer, P. v. R., Watts, W. E., Fort Jr., R. C., Comisarow, M. B., Olah, G. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 4195 (1964)Google Scholar
  121. 103.
    Olah, G. A., Mateescu, G. D., Sipos, G., Liang, G., Schleyer, P. v. R.: manuscript in preparationGoogle Scholar
  122. 104.
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 95, 194 (1973)Google Scholar
  123. 105.
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G., Westerman, P. W.: J. Org. Chem. 39, 367 (1974)Google Scholar
  124. 106.
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G., Schleyer, P. v. R., Parker, W., Watt, C. I. F.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 966 (1977)Google Scholar
  125. 107.
    Schleyer, P. v. R., Watts, W. E., Comisarow, M. B., Olah, G. A.: 86, 5679 (1964)Google Scholar
  126. 108.(a)
    Norris, J. F.: Amer. Chem. J. 25, 117 (1901); Norris, J. F., Sanders, W. W.: Amer. Chem. J. p. 54Google Scholar
  127. 108.(b)
    Kehrmann, F., Wentzel, F.: Chem. Ber. 34, 3815 (1901); Chem. Ber. 35, 622 (1902)Google Scholar
  128. 109.
    Baeyer, A., Villiger, V.: Amer. Chem. J. 35, 1189, 3013 (1902)Google Scholar
  129. 110.
    Olah, G. A., Comisarow, M. B., Namanworth, E., Ramsey, B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 87, 3507 (1965) p. 711; J. Amer. Chem. Soc. p. 5259Google Scholar
  130. 111.
    Gold, V., Tye, F. L.: J. Chem. Soc., (London) 1952, 2172 (1952)Google Scholar
  131. 112.
    Farnum, D. G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 934 (1964)Google Scholar
  132. 113.
    Deno, N. C., Booker, E., Pittman Jr., C. U., Turner, J. O.: Progr. Phys. Org. Chem. 2, 129 (1964), and references therein; (b) Ref. 98Google Scholar
  133. 114.
    Olah, G. A.: J. Amer. Chem. 86, 934 (1964)Google Scholar
  134. 115.
    Olah, G. A., Pittman Jr., C. U.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 87, 3507 (1965); Olah, G. A., Pittman Jr., C. U., Namanworth, E., Comisarow, M. B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 87, 5571 (1965)Google Scholar
  135. 116.
    Cupas, C. A., Comisarow, M. B., Olah, G. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 87, 361 (1963)Google Scholar
  136. 117.
    Bollinger, J. M., Comisarow, M. B., Cupas, C. A., Olah, G. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 5687 (1967)Google Scholar
  137. 118.
    Olah, G. A., Porter, R. D., Kelly, D. P.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 93, 464 (1971)Google Scholar
  138. 119.
    Hart, H., Fish, R. W.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80, 5894 (1958); J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 82, 5419 (1960); J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 83, 4460 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 120.
    Gillespie, R. J., Robinson, E. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 5676 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 121.
    Deno, N. C., Friedman, N., Mockus, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 5676 (1964)Google Scholar
  141. 122.
    Robinson, E. A., Ciruna, J. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 5677 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 123.
    Hart, H., Sulzberg, T., Rafos, R. R.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 85, 1800 (1963)Google Scholar
  143. 124.
    Volz, H., Volz de Lecea, M. J.: Tetrahedron Lett. 1964, 1871 (1964); J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 1966, 4863 (1966)Google Scholar
  144. 125.
    Bollinger, J. M., Cupas, C. A., Friday, K. J., Woolfe, M. L., Olah, G. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 156 (1967)Google Scholar
  145. 126.
    Olah, G. A., Grant, J. L., Spear, R. J., Bollinger, J. M., Serianz, A., Sipos, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 98, 2501 (1976)Google Scholar
  146. 127.
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G., Schleyer, P. v. R., Engler, E. M., Dewar, M. J. S., Bingham, R. C.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 95, 6829 (1973)Google Scholar
  147. 128.
    Merling, G.: Chem. Ber. 24, 3108 (1891); Doering, D. V. E., Knox, L. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76, 3203 (1954); Dauben Jr., H. J., Godecki, F. A., Harmon, K. H., Person, D. L.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 79, 4557 (1957)Google Scholar
  148. 129.
    Breslow, R., Yuan, C.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80, 5591 (1958); Breslow, R., Groves, J. T., Ryan, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 5048 (1967)Google Scholar
  149. 130.
    Olah, G. A., Staral, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 98, 6290 (1976)Google Scholar
  150. 131.
    Olah, G. A., Staral, J. S., Paquette, L. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 98, 1267 (1976); Olah, G. A., Staral, J. S., Liang, G., Paquette, L. A., Melega, W. P., Carmody, J. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 3349 (1977)Google Scholar
  151. 132.
    Oth, J. F. M., Smith, D. H., Prange, V., Schroder, G.: Angew. Chem. 85, 352 (1973)Google Scholar
  152. 133.
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 98, 3033 (1976)Google Scholar
  153. 134.
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 6045 (1977)Google Scholar
  154. 135.(a)
    Warner, P., Winstein, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 93, 1284 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 135.(b)
    Paquette, L. A., Broadhurst, M. J., Warner, P., Olah, G. A., Liang, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 95, 3386 (1973); Paquette, L. A., Detty, H. R.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 5856 (1978)Google Scholar
  156. 136.
    Olah, G. A., Comisarow, M. B., Cupas, C. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 362 (1966)Google Scholar
  157. 137.(a)
    For a summary see Olah, G. A., Mo, Y. K., in: Advances in fluorine chemistry. Vol. 7, 69 (1972)Google Scholar
  158. 137.(b)
    Olah, G. A., Mo, Y. K., in: Carbonium ions, Vol. IV. Olah, G. A., Schleyer, P. v. R. (eds.). New York: Wiley-Interscience 1973Google Scholar
  159. 138.
    Olah, G. A., Chambers, R. D., Comisarow, M. B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 1268 (1967)Google Scholar
  160. 139.
    Olah, G. A., Pittman Jr., C. U.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 3310 (1966)Google Scholar
  161. 140.
    Olah, G. A., Comisarow, M. B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 1027 (1967)Google Scholar
  162. 141.
    Filler, R., Wang, C. S., McKinney, M. A., Miller, F. N.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 1026 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 142.
    Sargent, P. B., Krespan, C. G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 91, 415 (1969)Google Scholar
  164. 143.
    Volz, H.: Tetrahedron Lett. 1963, 3413 (1963); Tetrahedron Lett. 1966, 5229 (1966)Google Scholar
  165. 144.
    Ballester, M., Riera-Figueras J., Rodriguez-Siurana, A.: Tetrahedron Lett. 3615 (1970)Google Scholar
  166. 145.
    West, R., Kwitowski, P. T.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 5280 (1966)Google Scholar
  167. 146.
    Olah, G. A., Comisarow, M. B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 91, 2955 (1969)Google Scholar
  168. 147.
    Olah, G. A., Halpern, Y., Mo, Y. K.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 3551 (1972); Olah, G. A., Liang, G., Mo, Y. K.: J. Org. Chem. 39, 2394 (1974)Google Scholar
  169. 148.
    Olah, G. A., Bollinger, J. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 4744 (1167); 90, 947 (1968); Olah, G. A., Bollinger, J. M., Brinich, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 2587 (1968)Google Scholar
  170. 149.
    Olah, G. A., Peterson, P. E.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 4675 (1968)Google Scholar
  171. 150.
    Olah, G. A., DeMember, J. R.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 91, 2113 (1969); 92, 718, 2562 (1970)Google Scholar
  172. 151.
    For a very comprehensive review see, Olah, G. A.: Halonium ions. New York: Wiley Interscience 1975Google Scholar
  173. 152.
    For a review of the early literature, see Pfeiffer, P.: Organische Molekulverbindungen Stuttgart: F. Enke 1927Google Scholar
  174. 153.
    Collie, J. N., Tickle, T.: J. Chem. Soc. (London) 75, 710 (1899)Google Scholar
  175. 154.
    Hantzsch, A.: Chem. Ber. 55, 953 (1922); Chem. Ber. 58, 612, 941 (1925)Google Scholar
  176. 155.
    Meerwein, H., Bodenbeneer, K., Borner, P., Kunert, F., Wunderlich, K.: Ann. Chem. 632, 38 (1960); Meerwein, H., Hederick, V., Morschel, H., Wunderlich, K.: Ann. Chem. 635, 1 (1960)Google Scholar
  177. 156.
    Ramsey, B. C., Taft Jr., R. W.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 3058 (1966)Google Scholar
  178. 157.
    Olah, G. A., Bollinger, J. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 2993 (1967)Google Scholar
  179. 158.
    MacLean, C., Mackor, E. L.: J. Chem. Phys. 34, 2207 (1961)Google Scholar
  180. 159.
    Birchall, T., Gillespie, R. J.: Can. J. Chem. 43, 1045 (1965)Google Scholar
  181. 160.
    Hogeveen, H.: Rec. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas. 86, 696 (1967); Brouwer, D. M.: Rec. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas, p. 879Google Scholar
  182. 161.
    Brookhart, M., Levy, G. C., Winstein, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 1735 (1967)Google Scholar
  183. 162.
    Olah, G. A., O'Brien, D. H., Calin, M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. p. 3582; Olah, G. A., Calin, M., O'Brien, C. H.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. p. 3586; Olah, G. A., Calin, M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc.; Liang, G.: Ph. D. Thesis, Case Western Reserve University, 1973Google Scholar
  184. 163.(a)
    Olah, G. A., White, A. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 91, 5801 (1969)Google Scholar
  185. 163.(b)
    Olah, G. A., Grant, J. L.: J. Org. Chem. 42, 2237 (1977)Google Scholar
  186. 164.
    Yoneda, N., Olah, G. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 3113 (1977);Olah, G. A., Yoneda, N., Parker, D. G. in: Oxyfunctionalization of hydrocarbons. Angew. Chem., in pressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 165.
    Lubinskaya, O. V., Shashkov, A. S., Chertkov, V. A., Smit, W. A.: Synthesis, 742 (1976). Also see Smit, V. A., Semenovskii, A. V., Lubinskaya, O. V., Kucherov, V. F.: Doklady Akad. Nauk. SSSR, 203, 604 (1972); C. A. 77, 87955 (1972)Google Scholar
  188. 166.
    Olah, G. A., White, A. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 3591, 4752 (1967); Hogeveen, H.: Rec. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas. 86, 289, 809 (1967); Hogeveen, H.: Adv. Phys. Org. Chem. 10, 29 (1973)Google Scholar
  189. 167.
    Olah, G. A., O'Brien, D. H., White, A. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 5694 (1967); Hogeveen, H.: Rec. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas. 86, 816 (1967); Hogeveen, H., Bickel, A. F., Hilbers, C. W., Mackor, E. L., MacLean, C.: Chem. Comm. 1966, 898 (1966); Rec. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas. 86, 687 (1967)Google Scholar
  190. 168.
    Olah, G. A., White, A. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 1884 (1968)Google Scholar
  191. 169.
    Cook, D.: Can. J. Chem. 37, 48 (1959); for a review see also Cook, D., in: Friedel-crafts and related reactions, Olah, G. A. (ed.). Vol. 1, pp. 767–820. New York: Interscience 1963Google Scholar
  192. 170.
    Susz, B. P., Wuhrman, J. J.: Helv. Chim. Acta 40, 971 (1957) and subsequent publicationsGoogle Scholar
  193. 171.
    Olah, G. A., Kuhn, S., Beke, S.: Chem. Ber. 89, 862 (1956); Olah, G. A., Kuhn, S., Beke, S.: Chem. Ber. 89, 862 (1956); Olah, G. A., Kuhn, S. J., Tolgyesi, W. S., Baker, E. B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 84, 2733 (1962); Olah, G. A.: Rev. Chim. Acad. Rep. Populaire Roumaine 7, 1139 (1962); Tolgyesi, W. S., Kuhn, S. J., Moffatt, M. E., Bastien, I. J., Baker, E. B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 85, 1328 (1963)Google Scholar
  194. 172.
    Deno, N. C., Pittman Jr., C. U., Wisotsky, M. J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 4370 (1964)Google Scholar
  195. 173.
    Olah, G. A., White, A. M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 7072 (1967)Google Scholar
  196. 174.
    Pittman Jr., C. U., Olah, G. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 87, 5632 (1965); Olah, G. A., Spear, R. J., Westerman, P. W., Denis, J. H.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 5855 (1974); see also ref. 2, Vol. VGoogle Scholar
  197. 175.
    Boer, F. P.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 1572 (1966)Google Scholar
  198. 176.
    Olah, G. A., Comisarow, M. B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 4442 (1966)Google Scholar
  199. 177.
    Olah, G. A., Comisarow, M. B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 3313 (1966)Google Scholar
  200. 178.
    Olah, G. A., Comisarow, M. B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 2694 (1967)Google Scholar
  201. 179.(a)
    Olah, G. A., White, A. M., O'Brien, D. H.: Chem. Revs. 70, 561 (1970) and references given thereinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 179.(b)
    Oxonium ions, carbonium ions, Vol. 5, of Ref. (2)Google Scholar
  203. 180.
    Olah, G. A., Donovon, D. J., Lin, H. C., May, H. C., Andreozzi, P., Klopman, G.: J. Org. Chem. 43, 2268 (1978) and relevant references given thereinGoogle Scholar
  204. 181.
    Gillespie, R. J., Birchall, T.: Can. J. Chem. 41, 148 (1963)Google Scholar
  205. 182.
    Armstrong, V. C., Farlow, D. W., Moodie, R. B.: Chem. Commun 1362 (1968)Google Scholar
  206. 183.
    Olah, G. A., White, A. M., Ku, A. T.: J. Org. Chem. 36, 3585 (1971)Google Scholar
  207. 184.
    Olah, G. A., Brydon, D. L., Porter, R. D.: J. Org. Chem. 35, 317 (1970)Google Scholar
  208. 185.
    Sudmeier, J. L., Schwartz, K. E.: Chem. Comm. 1968, 1646 (1968)Google Scholar
  209. 186.
    Olah, G. A., White, A. M.: Chem. Comm 89, 6087 (1967)Google Scholar
  210. 187.
    Olah, G. A., Kiovsky, T. E.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 4666 (1968)Google Scholar
  211. 188.
    Meerwein, H., Laasch, P., Mersch, R., Spille, J.: Chem. Ber. 89, 209 (1967)Google Scholar
  212. 189.
    Olah, G. A., Donovon, D. J., Keefer, L. K.: J. Nat. Cancer Res. Int. 54, 465 (1975)Google Scholar
  213. 190.
    Olah, G. A., Donovon, D. J.: J. Org. Chem. 43, 860 (1978)Google Scholar
  214. 191.
    Olah, G. A., Cupas, C. A., Pearson, R. L., Narang, S. C.: J. Org. Chem., sumittedGoogle Scholar
  215. 192.
    Olah, G. A., Donovon, D. J.: J. Org. Chem. 43, 1743 (1978)Google Scholar
  216. 193.
    Muller, U., Dehnicke, K.: Angew. Chem. 78, 825 (1966)Google Scholar
  217. 194.
    Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy, Stothers, J. B.: New York: Academic Press 1972, pp. 230–237Google Scholar
  218. 195.
    Saunders, M., Hagen, E. L., Rosenfeld, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 6882 (1968)Google Scholar
  219. 196.
    Saunders, M., Jaffe, M., Vogel, P.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 93, 2558 (1971); Saunders, M., Vogel, P.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 93, 2561 (1971)Google Scholar
  220. 197.
    Saunders, M., Vogel, P.: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93, 2559 (1971)Google Scholar
  221. 198.
    Saunders, M., Telkowski, L., Kates, M. R.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 8070 (1977)Google Scholar
  222. 199.
    Olah, G. A., Schilling, P., Westerman, P. W., Lin, H. C.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 3581 (1974)Google Scholar
  223. 200.
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 189 (1974); J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 195 (1974); also see Ref. 198Google Scholar
  224. 201.(a)
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G., Jindal, S. P.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 98, 2508 (1976)Google Scholar
  225. 201.(b)
    Saunders, M., Kates, M. R., Wiberg, K. B., Pratte, W.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 8072 (1977)Google Scholar
  226. 202.
    Saunders, M., Schleyer, P. v. R., Olah, G. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 86, 5680 (1964)Google Scholar
  227. 203.
    Jensen, F. R., Beck, B. H.: Tetrahedron Lett. 4287 (1966)Google Scholar
  228. 204.
    See lectures by Winstein, S., Olah, G. A.: 21st National Organic Chemistry Society, Salt Lake City, Utah, June, 1969Google Scholar
  229. 205.(a)
    Lustgarten, R. K., Brookhart, M., Winstein, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 89, 6350 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 205.(b)
    Brookhart, M., Diaz, A., Winstein, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 3135 (1966)Google Scholar
  231. 206.
    Richey Jr., H. G., Lustgarten, R. K.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 3136 (1966)Google Scholar
  232. 207.(a)
    Story, P. R., Saunders, M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 84, 4876 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 207.(b)
    Snyder, L. C., Douglass, D. C., Anderson, E. W., Kornegar, R. L.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 85, 3630 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 208.
    Winstein, S., et al.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 71, 2953 (1949); J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 74, 1154 (1962); 87, 381 (1965), and intervening papers. Also for a summary, Winstein, S.: Quart. Rev., 23, 141 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 209.
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 97, 6803 (1975)Google Scholar
  236. 210.
    Farnum, D. G., Mehta, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 91, 3266 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 211.(a)
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 195 (1974)Google Scholar
  238. 211.(b)
    Farnum, D. G., Wolf, A. D.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 5166 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 212.
    Olah, G. A., Prakash, G. K. S., Liang, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 99, 5683 (1977)Google Scholar
  240. 213.
    Farnum, D. G., Botto, R. E., Chambers, L. T., Lam, B.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 3847 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 214.
    Ref. 52; Mazur, R. H., White, W. N., Semenow, D. A., Lee, C. C., Silver, M. S., Roberts, J. D.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 81, 4390 (1959)Google Scholar
  242. 215.
    Wiberg, K. B.: Tetrahedron 24, 1083 (1968); Wiberg, K. B., Szemies, G.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 4195 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 216.(a)
    Stohrer, W. D., Hoffmann, R.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 1661 (1972)Google Scholar
  244. 216.(b)
    Yoneda, S., Yoshida, Z.: Chem. Lett. 607 (1972)Google Scholar
  245. 216.(c)
    Kollmar, H., Smith, H. O., Schleyer, P. v. R.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 95, 5834 (1973)Google Scholar
  246. 216.(d)
    Dewar, M. J. S., Haddon, R. C.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 95, 5836 (1973)Google Scholar
  247. 216.(e)
    Hehre, W. J., Schleyer, P. v. R.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 95, 5837 (1973)Google Scholar
  248. 217.(a)
    Masamune, S., Sakai, M., Ona, H.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 8955 (1972)Google Scholar
  249. 217.(b)
    Masamune, S., Sakai, M., Ona, H., Jones, A. L.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 8956 (1972)Google Scholar
  250. 218.
    Hogeveen, H., Kwant, P. W.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 95, 7315 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 219.(a)
    Hart, H., Kuzuya, M.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 8958 (1972)Google Scholar
  252. 219.(b)
    Masamune, S., Sakai, M., Kemp-Jones, A. V., Ona, H., Venot, A., Nakushima, T.: Angew. Chem. 85, 829 (1973)Google Scholar
  253. 219.(c)
    Hart, H., Kuzuya, M.: Tetrahedron Lett. 4123 (1973)Google Scholar
  254. 219.(d)
    Kemp-Jones, A. V., Nakamura, N., Masamune, S.: J. C. S. Chem. Comm. 109 (1974)Google Scholar
  255. 220.
    Hogeveen, H., Kwant, P. W.: Tetrahedron Lett. 1665 (1973)Google Scholar
  256. 221.
    Hogeveen, H., Kwant, P. W.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 96, 2208 (1974)Google Scholar
  257. 222.
    Jonkman, H. T., Nieuwpoort, W. C.: Tetrahedron Lett. 1671 (1973)Google Scholar
  258. 223.
    Wade, K.: New Scientist 615 (1974)Google Scholar
  259. 224.(a)
    Kirchen, R. P., Sorensen, T. S.: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Comm. 769 (1978)Google Scholar
  260. 224.(b)
    Kirchen, R. P., Sorensen, T. S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc., submittedGoogle Scholar
  261. 225.
    Winstein, S.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 81, 6524 (1959); Winstein, S., Sonnerberg, S., DeVries, L.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 81, 6523 (1959); Winstein, S., Sonnerberg, J.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 83, 3235 and 3244 (1961); Winstein, S., Frederick, E. C., Baker, R., Liu, Y. I.: Tetrahedron Lett. 22, 5621 (1966)Google Scholar
  262. 226.(a)
    Olah, G. A., Liang, G., Mo, Y. K.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 3544 (1972)Google Scholar
  263. 226.(b)
    Olah, G. A.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 83, 5031 (1961)Google Scholar
  264. 227.
    Masamune, S., Sakai, H., Jones, A. V. K.: Can. J. Chem. 855 (1974); Can. J. Chem. 858 (1974)Google Scholar
  265. 228.
    Olah, G. A., Prakash, G. K. S., Rawdah, T., Rees, J., Whittaker, D.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. in press (1979)Google Scholar
  266. 229.
    Coates, R. H., Fretz, E. R.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 97, 2538 (1974)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • George A. Olah
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations