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Determination of hydrogen in materials

Nuclear physics methods
Chapter
Part of the Springer Tracts in Modern Physics book series (STMP, volume 117)

Abstract

The methods of nuclear physics developed in the 1970s as valuable tools in the investigation of hydrogen-material systems soon found applications in the solution of such urgent problems as the behaviour of hydrogen in materials used in nuclear, thermonuclear and hydrogen energetics, the influence of hydrogen on the properties of such materials as amorphous silicon used for the production of cheap solar cells and some microelectronics devices, the role played by hydrogen in superconductive materials, etc.

When suitable radiation sources are used, these methods allow one to determine the total hydrogen content and also to carry out non-destructive studies on the hydrogen concentration distribution in solids, analysing with sensitivities from one tenth to one millionth part of at.H/at.M, depth resolutions from dozens of Angströms to dozens of microns, and probing depths from one to hundreds of microns. Such a variety of methods permits one to solve a great number of problems of a scientific and applied character.

From our point of view, the most potentially useful nuclear physics methods for obtaining qualitatively new information that is beyond the scope of traditional techniques appear to be time-dependent depth-profiling experiments to investigate the diffusion rate of hydrogen-isotope atoms in solids. The results of the direct study of the diffusion process are of great interest, not only from the theoretical point of view; they are very important for economic reasons (reliable and efficient membrane filters for hydrogen, storage and separation of hydrogen isotopes in hydride phases, fusion-related materials, etc.). The range of scientific and technical problems where nuclear physics methods may play a crucial role is not fully exhausted.

Further study of nuclear reactions, the development of accelerators and detection systems and also the wide use of computers will contribute to the improvement of existing analytical techniques and to the creation of new nuclear physics methods for hydrogen determination. This review is intended to serve merely as an introductory guideline to the subject and the authors hope that it will contribute to further implementation of the methods discussed in various fields of science and technology.

Keywords

Depth Profile Nuclear Reaction Hydrogen Concentration Hydrogen Isotope Depth Resolution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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