Semantic query optimisation promises to free users from the need of understanding the intricacies of databases when making an efficient query. The aim of semantic query optimisation is to use knowledge for reformulating a query into one that may require less answering time than the original query. Most approaches have the disadvantage of presuming this knowledge to be given by an expert or stated in the data dictionary as integrity constraints. This drawback can be overcome by using discovered knowledge.

Discovering data about data in databases, i.e. metadata, entails a new point of view, because only states of databases are considered. A consequence of this new view is that data dependencies as metadata and their relationships have to be extended by an expanded axiomatisation in order to minimise the database access in the discovery process. In this paper, the expanded implication problem is discussed in order to decide entailment of functional dependencies. Results are an axiomatisation of functional dependencies, and the corresponding inference relation. The approach also discuss general properties of data mining approaches in relational databases.


Relational Database Functional Dependency Inference Rule Integrity Constraint Inductive Logic Programming 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [Beeri et al., 1984]
    Beeri, C., Dowd, M., Fagin, R., and Statman, R. (1984). On the structure of armstrong relations for functional dependencies. Journal of the ACM, 31(1):30–46.Google Scholar
  2. [Bell, 1995]
    Bell, S. (1995). Discovery and maintenance of functional dependencies by independencies. In Fayyad, U., editor, First International Conference on Knowledge Discovery in Databases. AAAI, AAAI-Press.Google Scholar
  3. [Bell, 1996]
    Bell, S. (1996). Deciding distinctness of query result by discovered constraints. In Practical Application of Constraint Technology. Practical Application Company.Google Scholar
  4. [Bell and Weber, 1993]
    Bell, S. and Weber, S. (1993). A three-valued logic for inductive logic programming. Technical Report 4, Dortmund University, Computer Science VIII, 44221 Dortmund Germany.Google Scholar
  5. [Dehaspe et al., 1994]
    Dehaspe, L., Laer, W. V., and Raedt, L. D. (1994). Applications of a logical discovery engine. In ILP.Google Scholar
  6. [Gottlob and Libkin, 1990]
    Gottlob, G. and Libkin, L. (1990). Investigations on armstrong relations, dependency inference, and excluded functional dependencies. Acta Cybernetica, 9(4).Google Scholar
  7. [Janas, 1988]
    Janas, J. M. (1988). Covers for functional independencies. In Conference of Database Theory. Springer, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 338.Google Scholar
  8. [Kanellakis, 1990]
    Kanellakis, P. (1990). Formal Models and Semantics, Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science, chapter Elements of Relational Database Theory, 12, pages 1074–1156. Elsevier.Google Scholar
  9. [Maier, 1980]
    Maier, D. (1980). Minimum covers in the relational database model. Journal of the ACM, 27(4):664–674.Google Scholar
  10. [Mannila and Räihä, 1986]
    Mannila, H. and Räihä, K.-J. (1986). Design by example: An application of armstrong relations. Journal of Computer and System Science, 33.Google Scholar
  11. [Mannila and Räihä, 1991]
    Mannila, H. and Räihä, K.-J. (1991). The design of relational databases. Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  12. [Paredaens et al., 1989]
    Paredaens, J., de Bra, P., Gyssens, M., and van Gucht, D. (1989). The Structure of the Relational Database Model. Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  13. [Savnik and Flach, 1993]
    Savnik, I. and Flach, P. (1993). Bottum-up indution of functional dependencies from relations. In Piatetsky-Shapiro, G., editor, KDD-93: Workshop on Knowledge Discovery in Databases. AAAI.Google Scholar
  14. [Schlimmer, 1993]
    Schlimmer, J. (1993). Using learned dependencies to automatically construct sufficient and sensible editing views. In Piatetsky-Shapiro, G., editor, KDD-93: Workshop on Knowledge Discovery in Databases. AAAI.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siegfried Bell
    • 1
  1. 1.Research and Technology F3S/EDaimler-Benz AGUlmGermany

Personalised recommendations