Diversity of sodium channels in adult and cultured cells, in oocytes and in lipid bilayers

  • Berthold Neumcke
Part of the Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology book series (volume 115)


Sodium Channel Sodium Current Giant Axon Frog Skeletal Muscle Squid Giant Axon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams DJ, Gage PW (1979) Characteristics of sodium and calcium conductance changes produced by membrane depolarization in an Aplysia neurone. J Physiol (Lond) 289:143–161Google Scholar
  2. Adelman Jr WJ, Palti Y (1969) The effects of external potassium and long duration voltage conditioning on the amplitude of sodium currents in the giant axon of the squid, Loligo pealei. J Gen Physiol 54:589–606Google Scholar
  3. Aldrich RW (1986) Voltage-dependent gating of sodium channels: towards an integrated approach. Trends Neurosci 9:82–86Google Scholar
  4. Aldrich RW, Stevens CF (1983) Inactivation of open and closed sodium channels determined separately. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 48:147–154Google Scholar
  5. Aldrich RW, Stevens CF (1987) Voltage-dependent gating of single sodium channels from mammalian neuroblastoma cells. J Neurosci 7:418–431Google Scholar
  6. Aldrich RW, Corey DP, Stevens CF (1983) A reinterpretation of mammalian sodium channel gating based on single channel recording. Nature 306:436–441Google Scholar
  7. Almers W (1978) Gating currents and charge movements in excitable membranes. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 82:96–190Google Scholar
  8. Almers W, Stanfield PR, Stühmer W (1983) Slow changes in currents through sodium channels in frog muscle membrane. J Physiol (Lond) 339:253–271Google Scholar
  9. Almers W, Roberts WM, Ruff RL (1984) Voltage clamp of rat and human skeletal muscle: measurements with an improved loose-patch technique. J Physiol (Lond) 347:751–768Google Scholar
  10. Antoni H, Böcker D, Eickhorn R (1988) Sodium current kinetics in intact rat papillary muscle: measurements with the loose-patch-clamp technique. J Physiol (Lond) 406:199–213Google Scholar
  11. Arispe N, Jaimovich E, Liberona JL, Rojas E (1988) Use of selective toxins to separate surface and tubular sodium currents in frog skeletal muscle fibers. Pflügers Arch 411:1–7Google Scholar
  12. Armstrong CM (1978) Models of gating current and sodium conductance inactivation. In: Morad M, Smith S (eds) Biophysical aspects of cardiac muscle. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Armstrong CM, Bezanilla F (1974) Charge movement associated with the opening and closing of the activation gates of the Na channels. J Gen Physiol 63:533–552Google Scholar
  14. Armstrong CM, Bezanilla F (1977) Inactivation of the sodium channel. II. Gating current experiments. J Gen Physiol 70:567–590Google Scholar
  15. Armstrong CM, Bezanilla F, Rojas E (1973) Destruction of sodium conductance inactivation in squid axons perfused with pronase. J Gen Physiol 62:375–391Google Scholar
  16. Armstrong CM, Croop RS (1982) Simulation of Na channel inactivation by thiazin dyes. J Gen Physiol 80:641–662Google Scholar
  17. Avenet P, Lindemann B (1987) Patch-clamp study of isolated taste receptor cells of the frog. J Membr Biol 97:223–240Google Scholar
  18. Barchi RL (1983) Protein components of the purified sodium channel from rat skeletal muscle sarcolemma. J Neurochem 40:1377–1385Google Scholar
  19. Barchi RL (1987) Sodium channel diversity: subtle variations on a complex theme. Trends Neurosci 10:221–223Google Scholar
  20. Barnes S, Hille B (1988) Veratridine modifies open sodium channels. J Gen Physiol 91:421–443Google Scholar
  21. Bean BP (1981) Sodium channel inactivation in the crayfish giant axon. Must channels open before inactivating? Biophys J 35:595–614Google Scholar
  22. Bekkers JM, Greeff NG, Keynes RD (1986) The conductance and density of sodium channels in the cut-open squid giant axon. J Physiol (Lond) 377:463–486Google Scholar
  23. Benndorf K, Nilius B (1987) Inactivation of sodium channels in isolated myocardial mouse cells. Eur Biophys J 15:117–127Google Scholar
  24. Benndorf K, Boldt W, Nilius B (1985) Sodium current in single myocardial mouse cells. Pflügers Arch 404:190–196Google Scholar
  25. Benoit E, Dubois JM (1985) Cooperativity of tetrodotoxin action in the frog node of Ranvier. Pflügers Arch 405:237–243Google Scholar
  26. Benoit E, Dubois JM (1987) Interactions of guanidinium ions with sodium channels in frog myelinated nerve fibre. J Physiol (Lond) 391:85–97Google Scholar
  27. Benoit E, Corbier A, Dubois JM (1985) Evidence for two transient sodium currents in the frog node of Ranvier. J Physiol (Lond) 361:339–360Google Scholar
  28. Bergman C, Dubois JM, Rojas E, Rathmayer W (1976) Decreased rate of sodium conductance inactivation in the node of Ranvier induced by a polypeptide toxin from sea anemone. Biochim Biophys Acta 455:173–184Google Scholar
  29. Bezanilla F (1985) Gating of sodium and potassium channels. J Membr Biol 88:97–111Google Scholar
  30. Bezanilla F (1987) Single sodium channels from the squid giant axon. Biophys J 52:1087–1090Google Scholar
  31. Bezanilla F, Armstrong CM (1977) Inactivation of the sodium channel. I. Sodium current experiments. J Gen Physiol 70:549–566Google Scholar
  32. Brismar T (1977) Slow mechanism for sodium permeability inactivation in myelinated nerve fibre of Xenopus laevis. J Physiol (Lond) 270:283–297Google Scholar
  33. Brown AM, Lee KS, Powell T (1981) Voltage clamp and internal perfusion of single rat heart muscle cells. J Physiol (Lond) 318:455–477Google Scholar
  34. Bullock JO, Schauf CL (1978) Combined voltage-clamp and dialysis of Myxicola axons: behaviour of membrane asymmetry currents. J Physiol (Lond) 278:309–324Google Scholar
  35. Bullock JO, Schauf CL (1979) Immobilization of intramembrane charge in Myxicola giant axons. J Physiol (Lond) 286:157–171Google Scholar
  36. Cachelin AB, De Peyer JE, Kokubun S, Reuter H (1983) Sodium channels in cultured cardiac cells. J Physiol (Lond) 340:389–401Google Scholar
  37. Campbell DT (1983) Sodium channel gating currents in frog skeletal muscle. J Gen Physiol 82:679–701Google Scholar
  38. Campbell DT, Hille B (1976) Kinetic and pharmacological properties of the sodium channel of frog skeletal muscle. J Gen Physiol 67:309–323Google Scholar
  39. Carbone E, Lux HD (1986) Na channels in cultured chick dorsal root ganglion neurons. Eur Biophys J 13:259–271Google Scholar
  40. Carmeliet E (1987) Slow inactivation of the sodium current in rabbit cardiac Purkinje fibres. Pflügers Arch 408:18–26Google Scholar
  41. Chandler WK, Meves H (1970a) Evidence for two types of sodium conductance in axons perfused with sodium fluoride solution. J Physiol (Lond) 211:653–678Google Scholar
  42. Chandler WK, Meves H (1970b) Slow changes in membrane permeability and long-lasting action potentials in axons perfused with fluoride solutions. J Physiol (Lond) 211:707–728Google Scholar
  43. Chinn K, Narahashi T (1986) Stabilization of sodium channel states by deltamethrin in mouse neuroblastoma cells. J Physiol (Lond) 380:191–207Google Scholar
  44. Chiu SY (1977) Inactivation of sodium channels: second order kinetics in myelinated nerve. J Physiol (Lond) 273:573–596Google Scholar
  45. Chiu SY (1980) Asymmetry currents in the mammalian myelinated nerve. J Physiol (Lond) 309:499–519Google Scholar
  46. Clark RB, Giles W (1987) Sodium current in single cells from bullfrog atrium: voltage dependence and ion transfer properties. J Physiol (Lond) 391:235–265Google Scholar
  47. Cohen CJ, Bean BP, Colatsky TJ, Tsien RW (1981) Tetrodotoxin block of sodium channels in rabbit Purkinje fibers: interactions between toxin binding and channel gating. J Gen Physiol 78:383–411Google Scholar
  48. Collins CA, Rojas E (1982) Temperature dependence of the sodium channel gating kinetics in the node of Ranvier. Q J Exp Physiol 67:41–55Google Scholar
  49. Collins CA, Rojas E, Suarez-Isla BA (1982a) Activation and inactivation characteristics of the sodium permeability in muscle fibres from Rana temporaria. J Physiol (Lond) 324:297–318Google Scholar
  50. Collins CA, Rojas E, Suarez-Isla BA (1982b) Fast charge movements in skeletal muscle fibres from Rana temporaria. J Physiol (Lond) 324:319–345Google Scholar
  51. Conti F, Stühmer W (1989) Quantal charge redistributions accompanying the structural transitions of sodium channels. Eur Biophys J 17:53–59Google Scholar
  52. Conti F, DeFelice LJ, Wanke E (1975) Potassium and sodium ion current noise in the membrane of the squid giant axon. J Physiol (Lond) 248:45–82Google Scholar
  53. Conti F, Hille B, Neumcke B, Nonner W, Stämpfli R (1976) Measurement of the conductance of the sodium channel from current fluctuations at the node of Ranvier. J Physiol (Lond) 262:699–727Google Scholar
  54. Conti F, Neumcke B, Nonner W, Stämpfli R (1980) Conductance fluctuations from the inactivation process of sodium channels in myelinated nerve fibres. J Physiol (Lond) 308:217–239Google Scholar
  55. Dodge FA, Frankenhaeuser B (1959) Sodium currents in the myelinated nerve fibre of Xenopus laevis investigated with the voltage clamp technique. J Physiol (Lond) 148:188–200Google Scholar
  56. Dubois JM, Schneider MF (1982) Kinetics of intramembrane charge movement and sodium current in frog node of Ranvier. J Gen Physiol 79:571–602Google Scholar
  57. Duch DS, Levinson SR (1987) Spontaneous opening at zero membrane potential of sodium channels from eel electroplax reconstituted into lipid vesicles. J Membr Biol 98:57–68Google Scholar
  58. Duch DS, Recio-Pinto E, Frenkel C, Urban BW (1988) Human brain sodium channels in bilayers. Mol Brain Res 4:171–177Google Scholar
  59. Fenwick EM, Marty A, Neher E (1982) Sodium and calcium channels in bovine chromaffin cells. J Physiol (Lond) 331:599–635Google Scholar
  60. Fishman HM (1985) Relaxations, fluctuations and ion transfer across membranes. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 46:127–162Google Scholar
  61. Fox JM (1976) Ultra-slow inactivation of the ionic currents through the membrane of myelinated nerve. Biochim Biophys Acta 426:232–244Google Scholar
  62. Frankenhaeuser B (1960) Quantitative description of sodium currents in myelinated nerve fibres of Xenopus laevis. J Physiol (Lond) 151:491–501Google Scholar
  63. Frelin C, Vijverberg HPM, Romey G, Vigne P, Lazdunski M (1984) Different functional states of tetrodotoxin sensitive and tetrodotoxin resistant Na+ channels occur during the in vitro development of rat skeletal muscle. Pflügers Arch 402:121–128Google Scholar
  64. French RJ, Horn R (1983) Sodium channel gating: models, mimics, and modifiers. Ann Rev Biophys Bioeng 12:319–356Google Scholar
  65. Fuchs W, Hviid Larsen E, Lindemann B (1977) Current-voltage curve of sodium channels and concentration dependence of sodium permeability in frog skin. J Physiol (Lond) 267:137–166Google Scholar
  66. Fujii S, Ayer RK Jr, DeHaan RL (1988) Development of the fast sodium current in early embryonic chick heart cells. J Membr Biol 101:209–223Google Scholar
  67. Fukushima Y (1981) Identification and kinetic properties of the current through a single Na+ channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:1274–1277Google Scholar
  68. Garber SS, Miller C (1987) Single Na+ channels activated by veratridine and batrachotoxin. J Gen Physiol 89:459–480Google Scholar
  69. Gillespie JI, Meves H (1980) The time course of sodium inactivation in squid giant axons. J Physiol (Lond) 299:289–307Google Scholar
  70. Goldman L (1975) Quantitative description of the sodium conductance of the giant axon of Myxicola in terms of a generalized second-order variable. Biophys J 15:119–136Google Scholar
  71. Goldman L, Kenyon JL (1982) Delays in inactivation development and activation kinetics in Myxicola giant axons. J Gen Physiol 80:83–102Google Scholar
  72. Goldman L, Schauf CL (1972) Inactivation of the sodium current in Myxicola giant axons. Evidence for coupling to the activation process. J Gen Physiol 59:659–675Google Scholar
  73. Goldman L, Schauf CL (1973) Quantitative description of sodium and potassium currents and computed action potentials in Myxicola giant axons. J Gen Physiol 61:361–384Google Scholar
  74. Gonoi T, Hille B (1987) Gating of Na channels: inactivation modifiers discriminate among models. J Gen Physiol 89:253–274Google Scholar
  75. Gonoi T, Ohizumi Y, Nakamura H, Kobayashi J, Catterall WA (1987) The conus toxin geographutoxin II distinguishes two functional sodium channel subtypes in rat muscle cells developing in vitro. J Neurosci 7:1728–1731Google Scholar
  76. Gordon D, Merrick D, Auld V, Dunn R, Goldin AL, Davidson N, Catterall WA (1987) Tissuespecific expression of the RI and RII sodium channel subtypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:8682–8686Google Scholar
  77. Grant AO, Starmer CF (1987) Mechanisms of closure of cardiac sodium channels in rabbit ventricular myocytes: single channel analysis. Circ Res 60:897–913Google Scholar
  78. Green WN, Weiss LB, Andersen OS (1984) Batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in lipid bilayers. Ann NY Acad Sci 435:548–550Google Scholar
  79. Green WN, Weiss LB, Andersen OS (1987) Batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in planar lipid bilayers. Ion permeation and block. J Gen Physiol 89:841–872Google Scholar
  80. Haimovich B, Schotland DL, Fieles WE, Barchi RL (1987) Localization of sodium channel subtypes in adult rat skeletal muscle using channel-specific monoclonal antibodies. J Neurosci 7:2957–2966Google Scholar
  81. Hanke W, Boheim G, Barhanin J, Pauron D, Lazdunski M (1984) Reconstitution of highly purified saxitoxin-sensitive Na+-channels into planar lipid bilayers. EMBO J 3:509–515Google Scholar
  82. Harris JB, Marshall MW (1973) Tetrodotoxin-resistant action potentials in newborn rat muscle. Nature New Biol 243:191–192Google Scholar
  83. Harris JB, Thesleff S (1971) Studies on tetrodotoxin resistant action potentials in denervated skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol Scand 83:382–388Google Scholar
  84. Hartshorne RP, Catterall WA (1984) The sodium channel from rat brain: purification and subunit composition. J Biol Chem 259:1667–1675Google Scholar
  85. Hille B (1976) Gating in sodium channels of nerve. Ann Rev Physiol 38:139–152Google Scholar
  86. Hille B (1984) Ionic channels of excitable membranes. Sinauer Inc, Sunderland Massachusetts USAGoogle Scholar
  87. Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF (1952) A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve. J Physiol (Lond) 117:500–544Google Scholar
  88. Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF, Katz B (1952) Measurement of current-voltage relations in the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo. J Physiol (Lond) 116:424–448Google Scholar
  89. Hodgkin AL, McNaughton PA, Nunn BJ (1985) The ionic selectivity and calcium dependence of the light-sensitive pathway in toad rods. J Physiol (Lond) 358:447–468Google Scholar
  90. Horn R, Vandenberg CA (1984) Statistical properties of single sodium channels. J Gen Physiol 84:505–534Google Scholar
  91. Horn R, Vandenberg CA (1986) Inactivation of single sodium channels. In: Ritchie JM, Keynes RD, Bolis L (eds) Ion channels in neural membranes. Alan R Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  92. Horn R, Patlak J, Stevens CF (1981 a) Sodium channels need not open before they inactivate. Nature 291:426–427Google Scholar
  93. Horn R, Patlak J, Stevens CF (1981 b) The effect of tetramethylammonium on single sodium channel currents. Biophys J 36:321–327Google Scholar
  94. Hoyt RC (1963) The squid giant axon: mathematical models. Biophys J 3:399–431Google Scholar
  95. Hoyt RC (1968) Sodium inactivation in nerve fibers. Biophys J 8:1074–1097Google Scholar
  96. Huang LYM, Moran N, Ehrenstein G (1984) Gating kinetics of batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in neuroblastoma cells determined from single-channel measurements. Biophys J 45:313–322Google Scholar
  97. Isenberg G, Ravens U (1984) The effects of the Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATX II) on membrane currents of isolated mammalian myocytes. J Physiol (Lond) 357:127–149Google Scholar
  98. Jaimovich E, Chicheportiche R, Lombet A, Lazdunski M, Ildefonse M, Rougier O (1983) Differences in the properties of Na+ channels in muscle surface and T-tubular membranes revealed by tetrodotoxin derivatives. Pflügers Arch 397:1–5Google Scholar
  99. Jaimovich E, Ildefonse M, Barhanin J, Rougier O, Lazdunski M (1982) Centruroides toxin, a selective blocker of surface Na+ channels in skeletal muscle: voltage-clamp analysis and biochemical characterization of the receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:3896–3900Google Scholar
  100. Jakobsson E (1976) An assessment of a coupled three-state kinetic model for sodium conductance changes. Biophys J 16:291–301Google Scholar
  101. Jonas P, Vogel W (1988) Temperature dependence of asymmetry currents in peripheral nerve. Pflügers Arch 411 [Suppl No 1]: R162 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  102. Kayano T, Noda M, Flockerzi V, Takahashi H, Numa S (1988) Primary structure of rat brain sodium channel III deduced from the cDNA sequence. FEBS Lett 228:187–194Google Scholar
  103. Keynes RD (1983) Voltage-gated ion channels in the nerve membrane. The Croonian lecture 1983. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 220:1–30Google Scholar
  104. Keynes RD, Kimura JE (1983) Kinetics of activation of the sodium conductance in the squid giant axon. J Physiol (Lond) 336:621–634Google Scholar
  105. Keynes RD, Rojas E (1974) Kinetics and steady-state properties of the charged system controlling sodium conductance in the squid giant axon. J Physiol (Lond) 239:393–434Google Scholar
  106. Keynes RD, Rojas E (1976) The temporal and steady-state relationships between activation of the sodium conductance and movement of the gating particles in the squid giant axon. J Physiol (Lond) 255:157–189Google Scholar
  107. Keynes RD, Greeff NG, vanHelden DF (1982) The relationship between the inactivating fraction of the asymmetry current and gating of the sodium channel in the squid giant axon. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 215:391–404Google Scholar
  108. Khodorov BI (1981) Sodium inactivation and drug-induced immobilization of the gating charge in nerve membrane. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 37:49–89Google Scholar
  109. Khodorov BI (1985) Batrachotoxin as a tool to study voltage-sensitive sodium channels of excitable membranes. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 45:57–148Google Scholar
  110. Khodorov BI, Neumcke B, Schwarz W, Stämpfli R (1981) Fluctuation analysis of Na+ channels modified by batrachotoxin in myelinated nerve. Biochim Biophys Acta 648:93–99Google Scholar
  111. Kimura JE, Meves H (1979) The effect of temperature on the asymmetrical charge movement in squid giant axons. J Physiol (Lond) 289:479–500Google Scholar
  112. Kniffki K-D, Siemen D, Vogel W (1981) Development of sodium permeability inactivation in nodal membranes. J Physiol (Lond) 313:37–48Google Scholar
  113. Kobayashi M, Wu CH, Yoshii M, Narahashi T, Nakamura H, Kobayashi J, Ohizumi Y (1986) Preferential block of skeletal muscle sodium channels by geographutoxin II, a new peptide toxin from Conus geographus. Pflügers Arch 407:241–243Google Scholar
  114. Kohlhardt M, Fröbe U, Herzig JW (1987) Properties of normal and non-inactivating single cardiac Na+ channels. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 232:71–93Google Scholar
  115. Kohlhardt M, Fichtner H, Fröbe U (1988) Predominance of poorly reopening single Na+ channels and lack of slow Na+ inactivation in neonatal cardiocytes. J Membr Biol 103:283–291Google Scholar
  116. Koppenhöfer E, Schmidt H (1968) Die Wirkung von Skorpiongift auf die Ionenströme des Ranvierschen Schnürrings. I. Die Permeabilitäten PNa and PK. Pflügers Arch 303:133–149Google Scholar
  117. Krafte DS, Snutch TP, Leonard JP, Davidson N, Lester HA (1988) Evidence for the involvement of more than one mRNA species in controlling the inactivation process of rat and rabbit brain Na channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J Neurosci 8:2859–2868Google Scholar
  118. Krueger BK, Worley JF III, French RJ (1983) Single sodium channels from rat brain incorporated into planar lipid bilayer membranes. Nature 303:172–175Google Scholar
  119. Krutetskaya ZI, Lonsky AV, Mozhayeva GN, Naumov AP (1978) Two-component nature of the asymmetrical displacement currents in the nerve membrane: the kinetic and pharmacological analysis. Tsitologiya 20:1269–1277 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  120. Kunze DL, Lacerda AE, Wilson DL, Brown AM (1985) Cardiac Na currents and the inactivating, reopening, and waiting properties of single cardiac Na channels. J Gen Physiol 86:691–719Google Scholar
  121. Llano I, Bezanilla F (1984) Analysis of sodium current fluctuations in the cut-open squid giant axon. J Gen Physiol 83:133–142Google Scholar
  122. Meiri H, Spira G, Sammar M, Namir M, Schwartz A, Komoriya A, Kosower EM, Palti Y (1987) Mapping a region associated with Na channel inactivation using antibodies to a synthetic peptide corresponding to a part of the channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:5058–5062Google Scholar
  123. Meves H (1974) The effect of holding potential on the asymmetry currents in squid giant axons. J Physiol (Lond) 243:847–867Google Scholar
  124. Meves H (1989) The gating current of the node of Ranvier. In: Narahashi T (ed) Ionic channels II. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  125. Meves H, Nagy K (1989) Multiple conductance states of the sodium channel and of other ion channels. Biochim Biophys Acta 988:99–105Google Scholar
  126. Meves H, Vogel W (1977) Inactivation of the asymmetrical displacement current in giant axons of Loligo forbesi. J Physiol (Lond) 267:377–393Google Scholar
  127. Moczydlowski E, Garber SS, Miller C (1984) Batrachotoxin-activated Na+ channels in planar lipid bilayers. Competition of the tetrodotoxin block by Na+. J. Gen Physiol 84:665–686Google Scholar
  128. Moczydlowski E, Olivera BM, Gray WR, Strichartz GR (1986) Discrimination of muscle and neuronal Na-channel subtypes by binding competition between [3H]saxitoxin and μ-conotoxins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:5321–5325Google Scholar
  129. Moolenaar WH, Spector I (1978) Ionic currents in cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells under voltage-clamp conditions. J Physiol (Lond) 278:265–286Google Scholar
  130. Nagy K (1987a) Evidence for multiple open states of sodium channels in neuroblastoma cells. J Membr Biol 96:251–262Google Scholar
  131. Nagy K (1987b) Subconductance states of single sodium channels modified by chloramine-T and sea anemone toxin in neuroblastoma cells. Eur Biophys J 15:129–132Google Scholar
  132. Nagy K (1988) Mechanism of inactivation of single sodium channels after modification by chloramine-T, sea anaemone toxin and scorpion toxin. J Membr Biol 106:29–40Google Scholar
  133. Nagy K, Kiss T, Hof D (1983) Single Na channels in mouse neuroblastoma cell membrane. Indications for two open states. Pflügers Arch 399:302–308Google Scholar
  134. Nakamura Y, Nakajima S, Grundfest H (1965) The action of tetrodotoxin on electrogenic components of squid giant axons. J Gen Physiol 48:985–996Google Scholar
  135. Narahashi T (1964) Restoration of action potential by anodal polarization in lobster giant axons. J Cell Comp Physiol 64:73–96Google Scholar
  136. Narahashi T, Moore JW, Scott WR (1964) Tetrodotoxin blockage of sodium conductance increase in lobster giant axons. J Gen Physiol 47:965–974Google Scholar
  137. Neumcke B (1982) Fluctuation of Na and K currents in excitable membranes. Int Rev Neurobiol 23:35–67Google Scholar
  138. Neumcke B, Stämpfli R (1982) Sodium currents and sodium-current fluctuations in rat myelinated nerve fibres. J Physiol (Lond) 329:163–184Google Scholar
  139. Neumcke B, Stämpfli R (1983) Alteration of the conductance of Na+ channels in the nodal membrane of frog nerve by holding potential and tetrodotoxin. Biochim Biophys Acta 727:177–184Google Scholar
  140. Neumcke B, Fox JM, Drouin H, Schwarz W (1976a) Kinetics of the slow variation of peak sodium current in the membrane of myelinated nerve following changes of holding potential or extracellular pH. Biochim Biophys Acta 426:245–257Google Scholar
  141. Neumcke B, Nonner W, Stämpfli R (1976b) Asymmetrical displacement current and its relation with the activation of sodium current in the membrane of frog myelinated nerve. Pflügers Arch 363:193–203Google Scholar
  142. Neumcke B, Nonner W, Stämpfli R (1978) Gating currents in excitable membranes. In: Metcalfe JC (ed) International Review of Biochemistry, Volume 19. University Park Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  143. Neumcke B, Schwarz W, Stämpfli R (1985) Comparison of the effects of Anemonia toxin II on sodium and gating currents in frog myelinated nerve. Biochim Biophys Acta 814:111–119Google Scholar
  144. Neumcke B, Schwarz JR, Stämpfli R (1987) A comparison of sodium currents in rat and frog myelinated nerve: normal and modified sodium inactivation. J Physiol (Lond) 382:175–191Google Scholar
  145. Nilius B (1988) Modal gating behavior of cardiac sodium channels in cell-free membrane patches. Biophys J 53:857–862Google Scholar
  146. Nilius B, Vereecke J, Carmeliet E (1989) Different conductance states of the bursting Na channel in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. Pflügers Arch 413:242–248Google Scholar
  147. Noda M, Shimizu S, Tanabe T, Takai T, Kayano T, Ikeda T, Takahashi H, Nakayama H, Kanaoka Y, Minamino N, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Raftery MA, Hirose T, Inayama S, Hayashida H, Miyata T, Numa S (1984) Primary structure of Electrophorus electricus sodium channel deduced from cDNA sequence. Nature 312:121–127Google Scholar
  148. Noda M, Ikeda T, Kayano T, Suzuki H, Takeshima H, Kurasaki M, Takahashi H, Numa S (1986a) Existence of distinct sodium channel messenger RNAs in rat brain. Nature 320:188–192Google Scholar
  149. Noda M, Ikeda T, Suzuki H, Takeshima H, Takahashi T, Kuno M, Numa S (1986b) Expression of functional sodium channels from cloned cDNA. Nature 322:826–828Google Scholar
  150. Nonner W (1979) Effects of Leiurus scorpion venom on the “gating” current in myelinated nerve. Adv Cytopharmacol 3:345–352Google Scholar
  151. Nonner W (1980) Relations between the inactivation of sodium channels and the immobilization of gating charge in frog myelinated nerve. J Physiol (Lond) 299:573–603Google Scholar
  152. Nonner W, Rojas E, Stämpfli R (1975) Displacement currents in the node of Ranvier. Voltage and time dependence. Pflügers Arch 354:1–18Google Scholar
  153. Nonner W, Rojas E, Stämpfli R (1978) Asymmetrical displacement currents in the membrane of frog myelinated nerve: early time course and effects of membrane potential. Pflügers Arch 375:75–85Google Scholar
  154. Nonner W, Spalding BC, Hille B (1980) Low intracellular pH and chemical agents slow inactivation gating in sodium channels of muscle. Nature 284:360–363Google Scholar
  155. Ochs G, Bromm B, Schwarz JR (1981) A three-state model for inactivation of sodium permeability. Biochim Biophys Acta 645:243–252Google Scholar
  156. Offner FF (1972) The excitable membrane. A physicochemical model. Biophys J 12:1583–1629Google Scholar
  157. Oiki S, Danho W, Montal M (1988) Channel protein engineering: synthetic 22-mer peptide from the primary structure of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel forms ionic channels in lipid bilayers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:2393–2397Google Scholar
  158. Oxford GS, Pooler JP (1975) Selective modification of sodium channel gating in lobster axon by 2,4,6-trinitrophenol. Evidence for two inactivation mechanisms. J Gen Physiol 66:765–779Google Scholar
  159. Palmer LG (1987) Ion selectivity of epithelial Na channels. J Membr Biol 96:97–106Google Scholar
  160. Pappone PA (1980) Voltage-clamp experiments in normal and denervated mammalian skeletal muscle fibres. J Physiol (Lond) 306:377–410Google Scholar
  161. Parker I, Sumikawa K, Gundersen CB, Miledi R (1988) Expression of Ach-activated channels and sodium channels by messenger RNAs from innervated and denervated muscle. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 233:235–246Google Scholar
  162. Patlak JB (1988) Sodium channel subconductance levels measured with a new variance-mean analysis. J Gen Physiol 92:413–430Google Scholar
  163. Patlak JB, Horn R (1982) Effect of N-bromoacetamide on single sodium channel currents in excised membrane patches. J Gen Physiol 79:333–351Google Scholar
  164. Patlak JB, Ortiz M (1985) Slow currents through single sodium channels of the adult rat heart. J Gen Physiol 86:89–104Google Scholar
  165. Patlak JB, Ortiz M (1986) Two modes of gating during late Na+ channel currents in frog sartorius muscle. J Gen Physiol 87:305–326Google Scholar
  166. Patlak JB, Ortiz M, Horn R (1986) Opentime heterogeneity during bursting of sodium channels in frog skeletal muscle. Biophys J 49:773–777Google Scholar
  167. Peganov EM, Khodorov BI, Shiskova LD (1973) Slow sodium inactivation related to external potassium in the membrane of Ranvier's node. The role of external K. Bull Exp Biol med USSR 25:15–19 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  168. Plant TD (1988) Na+ currents in cultured mouse pancreatic B-cells. Pflügers Arch 411:429–435Google Scholar
  169. Pröbstle T, Rüdel R, Ruppersberg JP (1988) Hodgkin-Huxley parameters of the sodium channels in human myoballs. Pflügers Arch 412:264–269Google Scholar
  170. Quandt FN (1987) Burst kinetics of sodium channels which lack fast inactivation in mouse neuroblastoma cells. J Physiol (Lond) 392:563–585Google Scholar
  171. Quandt FN, Narahashi T (1982) Modification of single Na+ channels by batrachotoxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:6732–6736Google Scholar
  172. Ravens U (1976) Electromechanical studies of an Anemonia sulcata toxin in mammalian cardiac muscle. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 296:73–78Google Scholar
  173. Recio-Pinto E, Duch DS, Levinson SR, Urban BW (1987) Purified and unpurified sodium channels from eel electroplax in planar lipid bilayers. J Gen Physiol 90:375–395Google Scholar
  174. Rosenberg RL, Tomiko SA, Agnew WS (1984) Single-channel properties of the reconstituted voltage-regulated Na channel isolated from the electroplax of Electrophorus electricus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:5594–5598Google Scholar
  175. Rudy B (1976) Sodium gating currents in Myxicola giant axons. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 193:469–475Google Scholar
  176. Ruff RL, Simoncini L, Stühmer W (1987) Comparison between slow sodium channel inactivation in rat slow-and fast-twitch muscle. J Physiol (Lond) 383:339–348Google Scholar
  177. Ruppersberg JP, Rüdel R (1988) Differential effects of halothane on adult and juvenile sodium channels in human muscle. Pflügers Arch 412:17–21Google Scholar
  178. Ruppersberg JP, Schure A, Rüdel R (1987) Inactivation of TTX-sensitive and TTX-insensitive sodium channels of rat myoballs. Neurosci Lett 78:166–170Google Scholar
  179. Sah P, Gibb AJ, Gage PW (1988) The sodium current underlying action potentials in guinea pig hippocampal CA1 neurons. J Gen Physiol 91:373–398Google Scholar
  180. Sakai H, Matsumoto G, Murofushi H (1985) Role of microtubules and axolinin in membrane excitation of the squid giant axon. Adv Biophys 19:43–89Google Scholar
  181. Salkoff L, Butler A, Wei A, Scavarda N, Giffen K, Ifune C, Goodman R, Mandel G (1987) Genomic organization and deduced amino acid sequence of a putative sodium channel gene in Drosophila. Science 237:744–749Google Scholar
  182. Scanley BE, Fozzard HA (1987) Low conductance sodium channels in canine cardiac Purkinje cells. Biophys J 52:489–495Google Scholar
  183. Schauf CL, Bullock JO (1979) Modifications of sodium channel gating in Myxicola giant axons by deuterium oxide, temperature, and internal cations. Biophys J 27:193–208Google Scholar
  184. Schauf CL, Pencek TL, Davis FA (1976) Slow sodium inactivation in Myxicola axons. Evidence for a second inactive state. Biophys J 16:771–778Google Scholar
  185. Schmidt H, Schmitt O (1974) Effect of aconitine on the sodium permeability of the node of Ranvier. Pflügers Arch 349:133–148Google Scholar
  186. Schreibmayer W, Kazerani H, Tritthart HA (1987) A mechanistic interpretation of the action of toxin II from Anemonia sulcata on the cardiac sodium channel. Biochim Biophys Acta 901:273–282Google Scholar
  187. Schwarz JR (1986) The effect of temperature on Na currents in rat myelinated nerve fibres. Pflügers Arch 406:397–404Google Scholar
  188. Schwarz W (1979) Temperature experiments on nerve and muscle membranes of frogs. Indications for a phase transition. Pflügers Arch 382:27–34Google Scholar
  189. Sheets MF, Scanley BE, Hanck DA, Makielski JC, Fozzard HA (1987) Open sodium channel properties of single canine cardiac Purkinje cells. Biophys J 52:13–22Google Scholar
  190. Shrager P, Chiu SY, Ritchie JM (1985) Voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels in mammalian cultured Schwann cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:948–952Google Scholar
  191. Sigel E (1987a) Properties of single sodium channels translated by Xenopus oocytes after injection with messenger ribonucleic acid. J Physiol (Lond) 386:73–90Google Scholar
  192. Sigel E (1987b) Effects of veratridine on single neuronal sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Pflügers Arch 410:112–120Google Scholar
  193. Sigworth FJ (1980) The variance of sodium current fluctuations at the node of Ranvier. J Physiol (Lond) 307:97–129Google Scholar
  194. Sigworth FJ, Neher E (1980) Single Na+ channel currents observed in cultured rat muscle cells. Nature 287:447–449Google Scholar
  195. Simoncini L, Stühmer W (1987) Slow sodium channel inactivation in rat fast-twitch muscle. J Physiol (Lond) 383:327–337Google Scholar
  196. Spitzer NC (1979) Ion channels in development. Annu Rev Neurosci 2:363–397Google Scholar
  197. Starkus JG, Fellmeth BD, Rayner MD (1981) Gating currents in the intact crayfish giant axon. Biophys J 35:521–533Google Scholar
  198. Stevens CF (1986) Analysis of sodium channel function. Prog Zool 33:29–31Google Scholar
  199. Stühmer W, Methfessel C, Sakmann B, Noda M, Numa S (1987) Patch clamp characterization of sodium channels expressed from rat brain cDNA. Eur Biophys J 14:131–138Google Scholar
  200. Stühmer W, Conti F, Suzuki H, Wang X, Noda M, Yahagi N, Kubo H, Numa S (1989) Structural parts involved in activation and inactivation of the sodium channel. Nature 339:597–603Google Scholar
  201. Suzuki H, Beckh S, Kubo H, Yahagi N, Ishida H, Kayano T, Noda M, Numa S (1988) Functional expression of cloned cDNA encoding sodium channel III. FEBS Lett 228:195–200Google Scholar
  202. Swenson Jr RP (1980) Gating charge immobilization and sodium current inactivation in internally perfused crayfish axons. Nature 287:644–645Google Scholar
  203. Swenson Jr RP (1983) A slow component of gating current in crayfish giant axons resembles inactivation charge movement. Biophys J 41:245–249Google Scholar
  204. Taylor RE, Bezanilla F (1983) Sodium and gating current time shifts resulting from changes in initial conditions. J Gen Physiol 81:773–784Google Scholar
  205. Tejedor FJ, Catterall WA (1988) Site of covalent attachment of α-scorpion toxin derivatives in domain I of the sodium channel α subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:8742–8746Google Scholar
  206. Ulbricht W (1977) Ionic channels and gating currents in excitable membranes. Annu Rev Biophys Bioeng 6:7–31Google Scholar
  207. Ulbricht W, Schmidtmayer J (1981) Modification of sodium channels in myelinated nerve by Anemonia sulcata toxin II. J Physiol (Paris) 77:1103–1111Google Scholar
  208. Vandenberg CA, Horn R (1984) Inactivation viewed through single sodium channels. J Gen Physiol 84:535–564Google Scholar
  209. Vassilev PM, Scheuer T, Catterall WA (1988) Identification of an intracellular peptide segment involved in sodium channel inactivation. Science 241:1658–1661Google Scholar
  210. Wang GK (1984) Irreversible modification of sodium channel inactivation in toad myelinated nerve fibres by the oxidant chloramine-T. J Physiol (Lond) 346:127–141Google Scholar
  211. Wang GK, Brodwick MS, Eaton DC (1985) Removal of sodium channel inactivation in squid axon by the oxidant chloramine-T. J Gen Physiol 86:289–302Google Scholar
  212. Weiss RE, Horn R (1986) Functional differences between two classes of sodium channels in developing rat skeletal muscle. Science 233:361–364Google Scholar
  213. Yamamoto D, Yeh JZ, Narahashi T (1984) Voltage-dependent calcium block of normal and tetramethrin-modified single sodium channel. Biophys J 45:337–343Google Scholar
  214. Yau K-W, Nakatani K (1984) Cation selectivity of light-sensitive conductance in retinal rods. Nature 309:352–354Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Berthold Neumcke
    • 1
  1. 1.I. Physiologisches InstitutUniversität des SaarlandesHomburg (Saar)FRG

Personalised recommendations