Advertisement

Transferrin as a muscle trophic factor

  • Eijiro Ozawa
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology book series (volume 113)

Keywords

Motor Neuron Satellite Cell Transferrin Receptor Myogenic Cell Tissue Fluid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adamson ED (1982) The location and synthesis of transferrin in mouse embryos and teratocarcinoma cells. Dev Biol 91:227–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aisen P (1980) Iron transport and storage proteins. Annu Rev Biochem 49:357–393CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aisenberg AC, Wilkes BM (1980) Unusual human lymphoma phenotype defined by monoclonal antibody. J Exp Med 152:1126–1131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson BF, Baker HM, Dodson EJ, Norris GE, Rumball SV, Waters JM, Baker EN (1987) Structure of human lactoferrin at 3.2-Å resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:1769–1773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bajusz E (1964) “Red” skeletal muscle fibers: relative independence of neutral control. Science 145:938–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker EN, Rumball SV, Anderson BF (1987) Transferrins: insights into structure and function from studies on lactoferrin. TIBS 12:350–353Google Scholar
  7. Barnes D, Sato G (1980a) Methods for growth of cultured cells in serum-free medium. Anal Biochem 102:255–270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnes D, Sato G (1980b) Serum-free cell culture: a unifying approach. Cell 22:649–655CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrett JN, Crill WE (1974) Specific membrane properties of cat motoneurones. J Physiol 239:301–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beach RL, Popiela H, Festoff BW (1983) The identification of neurotrophic factor as a transferrin. FEBS Lett 156:151–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Beach RL, Popiela H, Festoff BW (1985) Specificity of chicken and mammalian transferrins in myogenesis. Cell Differ 16:93–100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bennett MR (1983) Development of neuromuscular synapses. Physiol Rev 63:915–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bennett MR, Davey DF, Uebel KE (1980) The growth of segmental nerves from the brachial myotomes into the proximal muscles of the chick forelimb during development. J Comp Neurol 189:335–357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Besancon F, Bourgeade M-F, Testa U (1985) Inhibition of transferrin receptor expression by interferon-α in human lymphoblastoid cells and mitogen-induced lymphocytes. J Biol Chem 260:13074–13080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bezkorovainy A (1980) Biochemistry of nonheme iron. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Bezkorovainy A, Zschocke RH (1974) Structure and function of transferrins. I. Physical, chemical, and iron-binding properties. Arzneimittelforschung 24:476–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bischoff B (1986a) Proliferation of muscle satellite cells on intact myofibers in culture. Dev Biol 115:129–139CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bischoff R (1986b) A satellite cell mitogen from crushed adult muscle. Dev Biol 115:140–147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bleijenberg BG, van Eijk HG, Leijnse B (1971) The determination of non-heme iron and transferrin in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chim Acta 31:277–281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bloch B, Popovici T, Levin MJ, Tuil D, Kahn A (1985) Transferrin gene expression visualized in oligodendrocytes of the rat brain by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:6706–6710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bloch B, Popovici T, Chouham S, Levin MJ, Tuil D, Kahn A (1987) Transferrin gene expression in choroid plexus of the adult rat brain. Brain Res Bull 18:573–576CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bonner PH, Hauschka SD (1974) Clonal analysis of vertebrate myogenesis. I. Early developmental events in the chick limb. Dev Biol 37:317–328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bothwell TH, Charlton RW, Cook JD, Finch CA (1979) Iron metabolism in man. Blackwell Scientific, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  24. Bramwell ME, Harris H (1978a) An abnormal membrane glycoprotein associated with malignancy in a wide range of different tumours. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 201:87–106Google Scholar
  25. Bramwell ME, Harris H (1978b) Some further information about the abnormal membrane glycoprotein associated with malignancy. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 203:93–99Google Scholar
  26. Bridge DT, Allbrock D (1970) Growth of striated muscle in an Australian marsupial. J Anat 106:285–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bridges KR, Cudkowicz A (1984) Effect of iron chelators on the transferrin receptor in K562 cells. J Biol Chem 259:12970–12977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brown MS, Anderson RGW, Goldstein JL (1983) Recycling receptors: the round-trip itinerary of migrant membrane proteins. Cell 32:663–667CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bruns RR, Palade GE (1968) Studies on blood capillaries. II. Transport of ferritin molecules across the wall of muscle capillaries. J Cell Biol 37:277–299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Buckley PA, Konigsberg IR (1974) The avoidance of stimulatory artifacts in cell cycle determinations. Dev Biol 37:186–192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Burke RE (1981) Motor units: anatomy, physiology, and functional organization. In: Brookhart JM, Mountcastle VB (eds) Handbook of physiology. The nervous system, vol II. Part I. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, pp 345–422Google Scholar
  32. Butler J, Cosmos E (1981) Differentiation of the avian latissimus dorsi primordium: analysis of fiber type expression using the myosin ATPase histochemical reaction. J Exp Zool 218:219–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Butler J, Cosmos E, Brierley J (1982) Differentiation of muscle fiber types in aneurogenic brachial muscles of the chick embryo. J Exp Zool 224:65–80CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Butler J, Cauwenbergs P, Cosmos E (1986) Fate of brachial muscles of the chick embryo innervated by inappropriate nerves: structural, functional and histochemical analyses. J Embryol Exp Morphol 95:147–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cannon JC, Chasteen ND (1975) Nonequivalence of the metal binding sites in vanadyl-labeled human serum transferrin. Biochemistry 14:4573–4577CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Caravatti M, Perriard J-C, Eppenberger HM (1979) Developmental regulation of creatine kinase isoenzymes in myogenic cell cultures from chicken. J Biol Chem 254:1388–1394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cardasis CA, Cooper GW (1975) An analysis of nuclear numbers in individual muscle fibers during differentiation and growth: a satellite cell-muscle fiber growth unit. J Exp Zool 191:347–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Carrel A (1913) Artificial activation of the growth in vitro of connective tissue. J Exp Med 17:14–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Carrel A (1924) Tissue culture and cell physiology. Physiol Rev 4:1–20Google Scholar
  40. Casey JL, Jeso BD, Rao K, Klausner RD, Harford JB (1988a) Two genetic loci participate in the regulation by iron of the gene for the human transferrin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:1787–1791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Casey JL, Hentze MW, Koeller DM, Caughman SW, Rouault TA, Klausner RD, Harford JB (1988b) Iron-responsive elements: regulatory RNA sequences that control mRNA levels and translation. Science 240:924–928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Castagna M, Takai Y, Kaibuchi K, Sano K, Kikkawa U, Nishizuka Y (1982) Direct activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase by tumor-promoting phorbol esters. J Biol Chem 257:7847–7851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cavanaugh PF, Porter CW, Tukalo D, Frankfurt OS, Pavelic ZP, Bergeron RJ (1985) Characterization of L1210 cell growth inhibition by the bacterial iron chelators parabactin and compound II. Cancer Res 45:4754–4759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cheek DB (1985) The control of cell mass and replication. The DNA unit — a personal 20-year study. Early Hum Dev 12:211–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Cheek DB, Hill DE (1970) Muscle and liver cell growth: role of hormones and nutritional factors. Fed Proc 29:1503–1509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Chevallier A, Kieny M, Mauger A (1977) Limb-somite relationship: origin of the limb musculature. J Embryol Exp Morphol 41:245–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Chi JCH, Rubinstein H, Strahs K, Holtzer H (1975) Synthesis of myosin heavy chain and light chain in muscle cultures. J Cell Biol 67:523–537CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Christ B, Jacob HJ, Jacob M (1974) Über den Ursprung der Flügelmuskulatur. Experimentelle Untersuchungen mit Wachtel-und Hühnerembryonen. Experientia 30:1446–1449CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL, Dautry-Varsat A, Lodish HF (1983a) Kinetics of internalization and recycling of transferrin and the transferrin in a human hepatoma cell line. J Biol Chem 258:9681–9689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Ciechanover A, Schwartz AL, Lodish HF (1983b) The asialoglycoprotein receptor internalizes and recycles independently of the transferrin and insulin receptors. Cell 32:267–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Cochet M, Perrin F, Gannon F, Krust A, Chambon P, McKnight GS, Lee DC, Mayo KE, Palmiter R (1979) Cloning of an almost full-length chicken conalbumin double-stranded cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res 6:2435–2452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Coll J, Ingram VM (1981) Identification of ovotransferrin as a heme-, colony-and burst-stimulating factor in chick erythroid cell cultures. Exp Cell Res 131:173–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Connor JR, Phillips TM, Lakshman MR, Barron KD, Fine RE, Csiza CK (1987) Regional variation in the levels of transferrin in the CNS of normal and myelin-deficient rats. J Neurochem 49:1523–1529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Coon HG (1966) Clonal stability and phenotypic expression of chick cartilage cells in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 55:66–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Cooper WG, Konigsberg IR (1961) Dynamics of myogenesis in vitro. Anat Rec 140:195–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Craw CH (1928) The distribution of the nerve cells in the ventral columns of the spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 45:283–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Crichton RR, Charloteaux-Wauters M (1987) Iron transport and storage. Eur J Biochem 164:485–506CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Dautry-Varsat A, Ciechanover A, Lodish HF (1983) pH and the recycling of transferrin during receptor-mediated endocytosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:2258–2262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Davis HL (1985) Myotrophic effects on denervation atrophy of hindlimb muscles of mice with systemic administration of nerve extract. Brain Res 343:176–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Davis HL (1988) Trophic influences of neurogenic substances on adult skeletal muscles in vivo. In: Fernandez HL, Donoso JA (eds) Nerve-muscle cell trophic communication. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 101–145Google Scholar
  61. Davis HL, Heinicke EA (1984) Prevention of denervation atrophy in muscle: mammalian neurotrophic factor is not transferrin. Brain Res 309:293–298CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Davis HL, Kiernan JA (1980) Neurotrophic effects of sciatic nerve extract on denervated extensor digitorum longus muscle in the rat. Exp Neurol 69:124–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Davis HL, Kiernan JA (1981) Effect of nerve extract on atrophy of denervated or immobilized muscles. Exp Neurol 72:582–591CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Davis HL, Heinicke EA, Cook RA, Kiernan JA (1985) Partial purification from mammalian peripheral nerve of a trophic factor that ameliorates atrophy of denervated muscle. Exp Neurol 89:159–171CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Davis RJ, Meisner H (1987) Regulation of transferrin receptor cycling by protein kinase C is independent of receptor phosphorylation at serine 24 in swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. J Biol Chem 262:16041–16047PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Davis RJ, Johnson GL, Kelleher DJ, Anderson JK, Mole JE, Czech MP (1986) Identification of serine 24 as the unique site on the transferrin receptor phosphorylated by protein kinase C. J Biol Chem 261:9034–9041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Davson H, Welch K, Segal MB (1987) Physiology and pathophysiology of the cerebrospinal fluid. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London Melbourne New YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. de la Haba G, Amundsen R (1972) The contribution of embryo extract to myogenesis of avian striated muscle in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69:1131–1135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Dennis MJ, Ziskind-Conhaim L, Harris AJ (1981) Development of neuromuscular junctions in rat embryos. Dev Biol 81:266–279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Devlin RB, Emerson CP (1979) Coordinate accumulation of contractile protein mRNAs during myoblast differentiation. Dev Biol 69:202–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Dickson PW, Aldred AR, Marley PD, Guo-Fen T, Howlett GJ, Schreiber G (1985) High prealbumin and transferrin mRNA levels in the choroid plexus of rat brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 127:890–895CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Doering JL, Fischman DA (1977) A fusion-promoting macromolecular factor in muscle conditioned medium. Exp Cell Res 105:437–443CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Drachman DB (1974) The role of acetylcholine as a neurotrophic transmitter. Ann NY Acad Sci 228:160–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Drachman DB, Houk J (1969) Effect of botulinum toxin on speed of skeletal muscle contraction. Am J Physiol 216:1453–1455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Drachman DB, Romanul FCA (1970) Effect or neuromuscular blockade on enzymatic activities of muscles. Arch Neurol 23:85–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Dubowitz V, Brooke MH, Neville HE (1973) Muscle biopsy: a modern approach. 2nd edn. Saunders, London, p 101Google Scholar
  77. Duxson MJ, Ross JJ, Harris AJ (1986) Transfer of differentiated synaptic terminals from primary myotubes to new-formed muscle cells during embryonic development in the rat. Neuro Lett 71:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Eccles JC (1941) Disuse atrophy of skeletal muscle. Med J Aust 2:160–164Google Scholar
  79. Eccles JC (1964) The physiology of synapses. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  80. Elce JS, Hasspieler R, Boegman RJ (1983) Ca2+-activated protease in denervated rat skeletal muscle measured by an immunoassay. Exp Neurol 81:320–329CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Enesco M, Puddy D (1964) Increase in the number of nuclei and weight in skeletal muscle of rats of various ages. Am J Anat 114:235–244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Engel AG, Stonnington HH (1974) Morphological effects of denervation of muscle. A quantitative ultrastructural study. Ann NY Acad Sci 228:68–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Engel WK, Karpati G (1968) Impaired skeletal muscle maturation following neonatal neurectomy. Dev Biol 17:713–723CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Engstrom Y, Eriksson S, Jilevik I, Skog S, Thelander L, Tribukait B (1985) Cell cycle-dependent expression of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase. J Biol Chem 260:9114–9116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Enns CA, Sussman HH (1981) Physical characterization of the transferrin receptor in human placentae. J Biol Chem 256:9820–9823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Enns CA, Shindelman JE, Tonik SE, Sussman HH (1981) Radioimmunochemical measurement of the transferrin receptor in human trophoblast and reticulocyte membranes with a specific anti-receptor antibody. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:4222–4225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Enns CA, Suomalainen HA, Gebhardt JE, Schroder J, Sussman HH (1982) Human transferrin receptor: expression of the receptor is assigned to chromosome 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:3241–3245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Enns CA, Larrick JW, Suomalainen H, Schroder J, Sussman HH (1983) Co-migration and internalization of transferrin and its receptor on K562 cells. J Cell Biol 97:579–585CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Eppenberger HM, von Fellenberg R, Richterich R, Aebi H (1962/63) Die Ontogenese von zytoplasmatischen Enzymen beim Hühnerembryo. Enzymol Biol Clin 2:139–174Google Scholar
  90. Erb W (1868) cited by Gutmann E (1976) Ann Rev Physiol 38:177–216Google Scholar
  91. Fava RA, Comeau RD, Woodworth RC (1981) Specific membrane receptors for diferrictransferrin in cultured rat skeletal myocytes and chick-embryo cardiac myocytes. Biosci Rep 1:377–385CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Fernandez HL, Donoso JA (1988) Nerve-muscle cell trophic communication: introductory remarks. In: Fernandez HL, Donoso JA (eds) Nerve-muscle cell trophic communication. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  93. Fischmann DA (1972) Development of striated muscle. In: Bourne GH (ed) The structure and function of muscle, vol. I, 2nd edn. Academic, New York, pp 75–148Google Scholar
  94. Florini JR (1987) Hormonal control of muscle growth. Muscle Nerve 10:577–598CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Ford-Hutchinson AW, Perkins DJ (1971) The binding of scandium ions to transferrin in vivo and in vitro. Eur J Biochem 21:55–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Galbraith RM, Werner P, Arnaud P, Galbraith GMP (1980) Transferrin binding to peripehral blood lymphocytes activated by phytohemagglutinin involves a specific receptor. Ligand interaction. J Clin Invest 66:1135–1143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Gauthier GF, Dunn RA (1973) Ultrastructural and cytochemical features of mammalian skeletal muscle fibres following denervation. J Cell Sci 12:525–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Gerstenfeld LC, Crawford DR, Boedtker H, Doty P (1984) Expression of type I and III collagen genes during differentiation of embryonic chicken myoblasts in culture. Mol Cell Biol 4:1483–1492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Giese AC (1979) Cell physiology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  100. Godlewski E (1902) Die Entwicklung des Skelett-und Herzmuskelgewebes der Säugetiere. Arch Mikrosk Anat 60:111–156Google Scholar
  101. Goldberg AL (1969) Protein turnover in skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem 244:3223–3229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Goldspink DF (1976) The effects of denervation on protein turnover of rat skeletal muscle. Biochem J 156:71–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Goldspink DF (1978) The effects of denervation on protein turnover of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles of adult mice. Comp Biochem Physiol 61B:37–41Google Scholar
  104. Goldspink DF, Garlick PJ, McNurlan MA (1983) Protein turnover measured in vivo and in vitro in muscles undergoing compensatory growth and subsequent denervation atrophy. Biochem J 210:89–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Goldspink G (1970) The proliferation of myofibrils during muscle fibre growth. J Cell Sci 6:593–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Goldspink G (1971) Changes in striated muscle fibres during contraction and growth with particular reference to myofibril splitting. J Cell Sci 9:123–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Goldspink G (1980) Growth of muscle. In: Goldspink DF (ed) Development and specialization of skeletal muscle. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 19–35Google Scholar
  108. Goodfellow PN, Banting G, Sutherland R, Greaves M, Solomon E, Povey S (1982) Expression of human transferrin receptor is controlled by a gene on chromosome 3: assignment using species specificity of a monoclonal antibody. Somatic Cell Genet 8:197–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Gould RP, Day A, Wolpert L (1972) Mesenchymal condensation and cell contact in early morphogenesis of the chick limb. Exp Cell Res 72:325–326CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Griffin GE, Williams PE, Goldspink G (1971) Region of longitudinal growth in striated muscle fibres. Nature [New Biol] 232:28–29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Gutmann E (1962) Metabolic reactibility of the denervated muscle. In: Gutmann E, Bass A, Beranek R, Drahota Z, Gutmann E, Hnik P, Hudlicka O, Skorpil V, Vyklicky L, Zelena J, Zak R (eds) The denervated muscle. Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague, pp 377–432Google Scholar
  112. Gutmann E (1964) Neurotrophic relations in the regeneration process. Brain Res 13:72–114Google Scholar
  113. Gutmann E (1976) Neurotrophic relations. Annu Rev Physiol 38:177–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Hagiwara Y, Ozawa E (1982) Class specificity of avian and mammalian sera in regards to myogenic cell growth in vitro. Dev Growth Differ 24:115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hagiwara Y, Kimura I, Ozawa E (1981) Chick embryo extract, muscle trophic factor and chick and horse sera as environments for chick myogenic cell growth. Dev Growth Differ 23:249–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Hagiwara Y, Atsumi S, Ozawa E (1985) Reversible suppression of growth and differentiation of cultured chick myogenic cells with very low concentrations of dibucaine. J Pharmacobiodyn 8:311–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Hagiwara Y, Saito K, Atsumi S, Ozawa E (1987) Iron supports myogenic cell differentiation to the same degree as does iron-bound transferrin. Dev Biol 120:236–244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Hagiwara Y, Shimo-Oka T, Okamura K, Ozawa E (1989a) Basis for the assay of myogenic cell growth in vitro using creatine kinase activity as an index, with special reference to measurement of power ratio of transferrins in growth promotion. Jpn J Pharmacol 49:53–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Hagiwara Y, Yoshida M, Nonaka I, Ozawa E (1989b) Developmental expression of dystrophin on the plasma membrane of rat muscle cells. Protoplasma (in press)Google Scholar
  120. Hamberger V, Hamilton HL (1951) A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. J Morphol 88:49–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Hamilton TA, Wada HG, Sussman HH (1979) Identification of transferrin receptors on the surface of human cultured cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:6406–6410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Hanover JA, Willingham MC, Pastan I (1984) Kinetics of transit of transferrin and epidermal growth factor through clathrin-coated membranes. Cell 39:283–293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Hanover JA, Beguinot L, Willingham MC, Pastan IH (1985) Transit of receptors for epidermal growth factor and transferrin through clathrin-coated pits. J Biol Chem 260:15938–15945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Harding C, Stahl P (1983) Transferrin recycling in reticulocytes: pH and iron are important determinants of ligand binding and processing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 113:650–658CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Harding C, Heuser J, Stahl P (1983) Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin and recycling of the transferrin receptor in rat reticulocytes. J Cell Biol 97:329–339CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Hasegawa T, Ozawa E (1982) Transferrin receptor on chick fibroblast cell surface and the binding affinity in relevance to the growth promoting activity of transferrin. Dev Growth Differ 24:581–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Hasegawa T, Saito K, Kimura I, Ozawa E (1981) Fe3+ promotes in vitro growth of myoblasts and other cells from chick embryos. Proc Jpn Acad 57:206–210Google Scholar
  128. Hauschka SD, Hainey C, Angello JC, Linkhart TA, Bonner PH, White NK (1977) Clonal studies of muscle development. In: Rowland LP (ed) Pathogenesis of human muscular dystrophies. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 835–855Google Scholar
  129. Hayashi A (1984) Transferrin and its abnormalities (in Japanese). Taisha 21:561–569Google Scholar
  130. Hayashi I, Sato GH (1976) Replacement of serum by hormones permits growth of cells in a defined medium. Nature 259:132–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Haynes BF, Hemler M, Cotner T, Mann D, Eisenbarth GS, Strominger JL, Fauci AS (1981) Characterization of a monoclonal antibody (5E9) that defines a human cell surface antigen of cell activation. J Immunol 127:347–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Hebbert D, Morgan EH (1985) Calmodulin antagonists inhibit and phorbol esters enhance transferrin endocytosis and iron uptake by immature erythroid cells. Blood 65:758–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Heck CS, Davis HL (1988) Effect of denervation and nerve extract on ultrastructure of muscle. Exp Neurol 100:139–153CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Hemmaplardh D, Kailis SG, Morgan EH (1974) The effect of inhibitors of microtubule and microfilament function on transferrin and iron uptake by rabbit reticulocytes and bone marrow. Br J Haematol 28:53–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Henneman E (1980) Skeletal muscle: the servant of the nervous system. In: Mountcastle VB (ed) Medical physiology. Mosby, St Louis, pp 674–702Google Scholar
  136. Herrmann H (1952) Studies of muscle development. Ann NY Acad Sci 55:99–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Hess A, Rosner S (1970) The satellite cell bud and myoblast in denervated mammalian muscle fibers. Am J Anat 129:21–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Heywood SM, Havaranis AS, Herrmann H (1973) Myoglobin synthesis in cell cultures of red and white muscle. J Cell Physiol 82:319–322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Heywood SM, Kennedy DS, Bester AJ (1974) Separation of specific initiation factors involved in the translation of myosin and myoglobin messenger RNAs and the isolation of a new RNA involved in translation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:2428–2431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Hilfer SR, Searls RL, Fonte VG (1973) An ultrastructural study of early myogenesis in the chick wing bud. Dev Biol 30:374–391CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Hirose-Kumagai A, Sakai H, Akamatsu N (1984) Increase of transferrin receptors in hepatocytes during rat liver regeneration. Int J Biol Chem 16:601–605Google Scholar
  142. Hofmann WW, Thesleff S (1972) Studies on the trophic influence of nerve on skeletal muscle. Eur J Pharmacol 20:256–260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Holtzer H, Bischoff R (1970) Mitosis and myogenesis, In: Brisky EJ, Cassens RG, Marsh BB (eds) The physiology and biochemistry of muscle as a food, vol 2. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp 29–51Google Scholar
  144. Holtzer H, Croop J, Dienstman S, Ishikawa H, Somlyo AP (1975) Effects of cytochalasin B and colcemide on myogenic cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:513–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Hopkins CR, Trowbridge IS (1983) Internalization and processing of transferrin and the transferrin receptor in human carcinoma A431 cells. J Cell Biol 97:508–521CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Horton MA (1983) Expression of transferrin receptors during erythroid maturation. Exp Cell Res 144:361–366CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Huebers HA, Finch CA (1987) The physiology of transferrin and transferrin receptors. Physiol Rev 67:520–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Huerre C, Uzan G, Grzeschik KH, Weil D, Levin M, Hors-Cayla M-C, Boue J, Kahn A, Junien C (1984) The structural gene for transferrin (TF) maps to 3q21–3qter. Ann Genet 27:5–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Hussain H, Dudley GA, Johnson P (1987) Effects of denervation on calpain and calpastatin in hamster skeletal muscles. Exp Neurol 97:635–643CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Iacopetta BJ, Morgan EH (1983a) The kinetics of transferrin endocytosis and iron uptake from transferrin in rabbit reticulocytes. J Biol Chem 258:9108–9115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Iacopetta BJ, Morgan EH (1983b) An electron-microscope autoradiographic study of transferrin endocytosis by immature erythroid cells. Eur J Cell Biol 32:17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Iacopetta BJ, Morgan EH, Yeoh GCT (1982) Transferrin receptors and iron uptake during erythroid cell development. Biochim Biophys Acta 687:204–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Iacopetta BJ, Morgan EH, Yeoh GCT (1983) Receptor-mediated endocytosis of trasferrin by developing erythroid cells from the fetal rat liver. J Histochem Cytochem 31:336–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Ii I, Ozawa E (1985) Partial purification from chick embryos of a factor which promotes myoblast proliferation and delays fusion. Dev Growth Differ 27:717–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Ii I, Kimura I, Hasegawa T, Ozawa E (1981) Transferrin is an essential component of chick embryo extract for avian myogenic cell growth in vitro. Proc Jpn Acad 57:211–216Google Scholar
  156. Ii I, Kimura I, Ozawa E (1982) A myotrophic protein from chick embryo extract: its purification, identity to transferrin, and indispensability for avian myogenesis. Dev Biol 94:366–377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Ii I, Kimura I, Ozawa E (1985) Promotion of myoblast proliferation by hypoxanthine and RNA in chick embryo extract. Dev Growth Differ 27:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Imbenotte J, Verber C (1980) Nature of the iron requirement for chick embryo cells cultured in the presence of horse serum. Cell Biol Int Rep 4:447–452CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Ishikawa H (1966) Electron microscopic observations of satellite cells with special reference to the development of mammalian skeletal muscles. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch 125:43–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Jabaily JA, Singer M (1978) Neurotrophic stimulation of DNA synthesis in the regenerating forelimb of the newt, Triturus. J Exp Zool 199:251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Jacob M, Christ B, Jacob HJ (1978) On the migration of myogenic stem cells into the prospective wing region of chick embryos. Anat Embryol 153:179–193CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Jandl JH (1987) Blood: textbook of hematology. Little Brown, Boston, p 37Google Scholar
  163. Jandl JH, Katz JH (1963) The plasma-to-cell cycle of transferrin. J Clin Invest 42:314–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Jandl JH, Inman JK, Simmons RL, Allen DW (1959) Transfer of iron from serum iron-binding protein to human reticulocytes. J Clin Invest 38:161–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Jansen JKS, Lomo T, Nicolaysen K, Westgaard RH (1973) Hyperinnervation of skeletal muscle fibers: dependence on muscle activity. Science 181:559–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Jefferies WA, Brandon MR, Williams AF, Hunt SV (1985) Analysis of lymphopoietic stem cells with a monoclonal antibody to the rat transferrin receptor. Immunology 54:333–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Jeltsch JM, Chambon P (1982) The complete nucleotide sequence of the chicken ovotransferrin mRNA. Eur J Biochem 122:291–295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Jeppsson JO (1967) Subunits of human transferrin. Acta Chem Scand 21:1686–1694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Johns TR, Thesleff S (1961) Effects of motor inactivation on the chemical sensitivity of skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol Scand 51:136–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Jones R, Vrbova G (1974) Two factors responsible for the development of denervation hypersensitivity. J Physiol 236:517–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Kagawa T, Chikata E, Tani J (1977) In vitro myogenesis of the mononucleate cells derived from regenerating muscles of adult mice. Dev Biol 55:402–407CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Kagawa T, Chikata E, Tani J, Tsutamune T (1978) In vitro myogenesis of the mononucleate cells derived from regenerating muscles of adult dystrophic mice (dy/dy). Dev Biol 65:526–530CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Kagen L, Freedman A (1973) Embryonic synthesis of myoglobin in vivo estimated by radio-immunoassay. Dev Biol 31:295–300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Kagen LJ, Zyry B, Freedman A, Roberts L (1974) Myoglobin synthesis in embryonic cells: production by both “red” and “white” muscle in cell culture estimated by radioimmunoassay. Dev Biol 36:202–207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Karin M, Mintz B (1981) Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin in developmentally totipotent mouse teratocarcinoma stem cells. J Biol Chem 256:3245–3252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Karpati G, Engel WK (1968a) Correlative histochemical study of skeletal muscle after suprasegmental denervation, peripheral nerve section, and skeletal fixation. Neurology 18:681–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Karpati G, Engel WK (1968b) Histochemical investigation of fiber type ratios with the myofibrillar ATP-ase reaction in normal and denervated skeletal muscles of guinea pig. Am J Anat 122:145–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Keilin D (1966) The history of cell respiration of cytochrome. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  179. Kelly AM, Zacks SI (1969a) The histogenesis of rat intercostal muscle. J Cell Biol 42:135–153CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Kelly AM, Zacks SI (1969b) The fine structure of motor endplate morphogenesis. J Cell Biol 42:154–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Kieny M, Chevallier A (1979) Anatonomy of tendon development in the embryonic chick wing. J Embryol Exp Morphol 49:153–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Kimura I (1983) Developmental change in microheterogeneity of serum transferrin of chickens. Dev Growth Differ 25:531–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Kimura I, Hasegawa T, Miura T, Ozawa E (1981) Muscle trophic factor is identical to transferrin. Proc Jpn Acad 57:200–205Google Scholar
  184. Kimura I, Hasegawa T, Ozawa E (1982) Indispensability of iron-bound chick transferrin for chick myogenesis in vitro. Dev Growth Differ 24:369–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Kimura I, Hasegawa T, Ozawa E (1985) Molecular intactness of transferrin recycled in a myogenic chicken cell culture. Cell Struct Funct 10:17–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Kimura I, Gotoh Y, Ozawa E (1989) Further purification of a fibroblast growth factor-like factor from chick embryo extract by heparin-affinity chromatography. In Vitro 25:236–242Google Scholar
  187. Klausner RD, Ashwell G, van Renswoude J, Harford JB, Bridges KR (1983a) Binding of apotransferrin to K562 cells: explanation of the transferrin cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:2263–2266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Klausner RD, van Renswoude J, Ashwell G, Kempf C, Schechter AN, Dean A, Bridges KR (1983b) Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin in K562 cells. J Biol Chem 258:4715–4724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Klausner RD, Harford J, van Renswoude J (1984a) Rapid internalization of the transferrin receptor in K562 cells is triggered by ligand binding or treatment with a phorbol ester. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:3005–3009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Klausner RD, van Renswoude J, Kempf C, Rao K, Bateman JL, Robbins AR (1984b) Failure to release iron from transferrin in a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant pleiotropically defective in endocytosis. J Cell Biol 98:1098–1101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Klug A, Rhodes D (1987) 'Zinc fingers': a novel protein motif for nucleic acid recognition. TIBS 12:464–469Google Scholar
  192. Kohama K, Ozawa E (1973) Time course during growth of the activity of a factor in serum promoting chicken myoblast multiplication. Proc Jpn Acad 49:857–860Google Scholar
  193. Kohama K, Ozawa E (1977) A statistical method to compare the degree of muscle cell multiplication in different culture dishes. Dev Growth Differ 19:139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Kohama K, Ozawa E (1978) Muscle trophic factor. II. Ontogenic development of activity of a muscle trophic factor in chicken serum. Muscle Nerve 1:236–241CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Kojima T, Saito K, Kakimi S (1972) Electron microscopic quantitative observations on the neuron and the terminal boutons contacted with it in the ventrolateral part of the anterior horn (C67) of the adult cat. Okajimas Folia Anat Jap 49:175–226Google Scholar
  196. Konigsberg IR (1958) Thyroid regulation of protein and nucleic acid accumulation in developing skeletal muscle of the chick embryo. J Cell Comp Physiol 52:13–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Konigsberg IR (1963) Clonal analysis of myogenesis. Science 140:1273–1284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Konigsberg IR, Sollmann PA, Mixter LO (1978) The duration of the terminal G1 of fusing myoblasts. Dev Biol 63:11–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Konigsberg UR, Lipton BH, Konigsberg IR (1975) The regenerative response of single mature muscle fibers isolated in vitro. Dev Biol 45:260–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Kuffler SW (1943) Specific excitability of the endplate region in normal and denervated muscle. J Neurophysiol 6:99–110Google Scholar
  201. Kühn LC, McClelland A, Ruddle FH (1984) Gene transfer, expression, and molecular cloning of the human transferrin receptor gene. Cell 37:95–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Kutsky RJ (1959) Nucleoprotein constituents stimulating growth in tissue culture: active protein fraction. Science 129:1486–1487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Kutsky RJ, Harris M (1957) Effects of nucleoprotein fractions from adult and juvenile tissues on growth of chick fibroblasts in plasma cultures. Growth 21:53–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Lederman HM, Cohen A, Lee JWW, Freedman MH, Gelfand EW (1984) Deferoxamine: a reversible S-phase inhibitor of human lymphocyte proliferation. Blood 64:748–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Lewis MR (1915) Rhythmical contraction of the skeletal muscle tissue observed in tissue cultures. Am J Physiol 1:153–161Google Scholar
  206. Lewis WH (1910) The development of the muscular system. In: Keibel F, Mall FP (eds) Manual of human embryology. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 454–522Google Scholar
  207. Lømo T, Rosenthal J (1972) Control of ACh sensitivity by muscle activity in the rat. J Physiol 221:493–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Louache F, Testa U, Thomopoulos P, Titeux M, Rochant H (1983) Modulation de l'expression des récepteurs de la transferrine par le fer, l'heme et la protoporphyrine. C R Acad Sci [III] 297:291–294Google Scholar
  209. Louache F, Testa U, Pelicci P, Thomopoulos P, Titeux M, Rochant H (1984) Regulation of transferrin receptors in human hematopoietic cell lines. J Biol Chem 259:11576–11582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Low H, Grebing C, Lindgren A, Tally M, Sun IL, Crane FL (1987) Involvement of transferrin in the reduction of iron by the transplasma membrane electron transport system. J Bioenerg Biomembr 19:535–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Low RB, Rich A (1973) Myoglobin biosynthesis in the embryonic chick. Biochemistry 12:4555–4559CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Luk CK (1971) Study of the nature of the metal-binding sites and estimate of the distance between the metal-binding sites in transferrin using trivalent lanthanide ions as fluorescent probes. Biochemistry 10:2838–2843CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. MacGillivray RTA, Mendez E, Sinha SK, Sutton MR, Lineback-Zins J, Brew K (1982) The complete amino acid sequence of human serum transferrin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:2504–2508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. MacGillivray RTA, Mendez E, Shewale JG, Sinha SK, Lineback-Zins J, Brew K (1983) The primary structure of human serum transferrin. J Biol Chem 258:3543–3553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Markelonis GJ, Oh TH (1978) A protein fraction from peripheral nerve having neurotrophic effects on skeletal muscle cells in culture. Exp Neurol 58:285–295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Markelonis GJ, Oh TH (1979) A sciatic nerve protein has a trophic effect on development and maintenance of skeletal muscle cells in culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:2470–2474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Markelonis GJ, Oh TH (1981) Purification of sciatin using affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-agarose. J Neurochem 37:95–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Markelonis GJ, Oh TH (1987) Transferrin: assay of myotrophic effects and method for immunocytochemical localization. Methods Enzymol 147:291–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Markelonis GJ, Oh TH, Derr D (1980) Stimulation of protein synthesis in cultured skeletal muscle by a trophic protein from sciatic nerves. Exp Neurol 70:598–612CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Markelonis GJ, Bradshaw RA, Oh TH, Johnson JL, Bates OJ (1982a) Sciatin is a transferrin-like polypeptide. J Neurochem 39:315–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Markelonis GJ, Oh TH, Eldefrawi ME, Guth L (1982b) Sciatin: a myotrophic protein increases the number of acetylcholine receptors and receptor clusters in cultured skeletal muscle. Dev Biol 89:353–361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Markelonis GJ, Oh TH, Park LP, Cha CY, Sofia CA, Kim JW, Azari P (1985) Synthesis of the transferrin receptor by cultures of embryonic chicken spinal neurons. J Cell Biol 100:8–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Martin RB, Savory J, Brown S, Bertholf RL, Wills MR (1987) Transferrin binding of Al3+ and Fe3+. Clin Chem 33:405–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Matsuda R, Spector D, Strohman RC (1984a) There is selective accumulation of a growth factor in chicken skeletal muscle. I. Transferrin accumulation in adult anterior latissimus dorsi. Dev Biol 103:267–275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Matsuda R, Spector D, Micou-Eastwood J, Strohman RC (1984b) There is selective accmulation of a growth factor in chicken skeletal muscle. II: Transferrin accumulation in dystrophic fast muscle. Dev Biol 103:276–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Mattia E, Rao K, Shapiro DS, Sussman HH, Klausner RD (1984) Biosynthetic regulation of the human transferrin receptor by desferrioxamine in K562 cells. J Biol Chem 259:2689–2692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Mauro A (1961) Satellite cell of skeletal muscle fibers. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 9:493–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. May WS, Cuatrecasas P (1985) Transferrin receptor: its biological significance. J Membrane Biol 88:205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. May WS, Jacobs S, Cuatrecasas P (1984) Association of phorbol ester-induced hyperphosphorylation and reversible regulation of transferrin membrane receptors in HL60 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:2016–2020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. May WS, Sahyoun N, Jacobs S, Wolf M, Cuatrecasas P (1985) Mechanism of phorbol diester-induced regulation of surface transferrin receptor involves the action of activated protein kinase C and intact cytoskeleton. J Biol Chem 260:9419–9426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. May WS, Lapetina EG, Cuatrecases P (1986) Intracellular activation of protein kinase C and regulation of the surface transferrin receptor by diacylglycerol is a spontaneously reversible process that is associated with rapid formation of phosphatidic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:1281–1284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Mazurier J, Metz-Boutique M-H, Jolles J, Spik G, Montreuil J, Jolles P (1983) Human lactotransferrin: molecular, functional and evolutionary comparisons with human serum transferrin and hen ovotransferrin. Experientia 39:135–141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. McClelland A, Kuhn LC, Ruddle FH (1984) The human transferrin receptor gene: genomic organization, and the complete primary structure of the receptor deduced from a cDNA sequence. Cell 39:267–274CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. McGraw TE, Dunn KW, Maxfield FR (1988) Phorbol ester treatment increases the exocytic rate of the transferrin receptor recycling pathway independent of serine-24 phosphorylation. J Cell Biol 106:1061–1066CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. McKnight GS, Palmiter RD (1979) Transcriptional regulation of the ovalbumin and conalbumin genes by steroid hormones in chick oviduct. J Biol Chem 254:9050–9058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. McKnight GS, Lee DC, Hemmaplardh D, Finch CA, Palmiter RD (1980a) Transferrin gene expression. Effects of nutritional iron deficiency. J Biol Chem 255:144–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. McKnight GS, Lee DC, Palmiter RD (1980b) Transferrin gene expression. Regulation of mRNA transcription in chick liver by steroid hormones and iron deficiency. J Biol Chem 255:148–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. McLachlan J, Wolpert L (1980) The spatial pattern of muscle development in chick limb. In: Goldspink DF (ed) Development and specialization of skeletal muscle. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  239. Meek J, Adamson DE (1985) Transferrin in foetal and adult mouse tissues: synthesis, storage and secretion. J Embryol Exp Morphol 86:205–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Mescher AL, Munaim SI (1988) Transferrin and the growth-promoting effect of nerves. Int Rev Cytol 110:1–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Metz-Boutigue MH, Jolles J, Mazurier J, Schoentgen F, Legrand D, Spik G, Montreuil J, Jolles P (1984) Human lactotransferrin: amino acid sequence and structural comparisons with other transferrins. Eur J Biochem 145:659–676CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Miledi R, Slater CR (1968) Some mitochondrial changes in denervated muscle. J Cell Sci 3:49–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Miller JB, Stockdale FE (1987) What muscle cells know that nerves don't tell them. TINS 10:325–329Google Scholar
  244. Miller JB, Crow MT, Stockdale FE (1985) Slow and fast myosin heavy chain content defines three types of myotubes in early muscle cell cultures. J Cell Biol 101:1643–1650CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Miller YE, Jones C, Scoggin C, Morse H, Seligman P (1983) Chromosome 3q (22-ter) encodes the human transferrin receptor. Am J Hum Genet 35:573–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Millward DJ (1980) Protein degradation in muscle and liver. Compr Biochem 19B(1):153–232Google Scholar
  247. Mintz B, Baker WW (1967) Normal mammalian muscle differentiation and gene control of isocitrate dehydrogenase synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 58:592–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Miskimins WK, McClelland A, Roberts MP, Ruddle FH (1986) Cell proliferation and expression of the transferrin receptor gene: promoter sequence homologies and protein interactions. J Cell Biol 103:1781–1788CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Miyata Y, Yoshioka T (1980) Selective elimination of motor nerve terminals in the rat soleus muscle during development. J Physiol (Lond) 309:631–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Morgan EH (1964) The interaction between rabbit, human and rat transferrin and reticulocytes. Br J Haematol 10:442–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Morgan EH (1983) Effect of pH and iron content of transferrin on its binding to reticulocyte receptors. Biochim Biophys Acta 762:498–502CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Morgan EH, Appleton TC (1969) Autoradiographic localization of 125I-labelled transferrin in rabbit reticulocytes. Nature 223:1371–1372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Morgan EH, Baker E (1969) The effect of metabolic inhibitors on transferrin and iron uptake and transferrin release from reticulocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta 184:442–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Mori T, Takai Y, Minakuchi R, Yu B, Nishizuka Y (1980) Inhibitory action of chlorpromazine, dibucaine, and other phospholipid-interacting drugs on calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 255:8378–8380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Morley CGD, Bezkorovainy A (1985) Cellular iron uptake from transferrin: is endocytosis the only mechanism? Int J Biochem 17:553–564CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Moss FP (1968) The relationship between the dimensions of the fibres and the number of nuclei during normal growth of skeletal muscle in the domestic fowl. Am J Anat 122:555–564CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Moss FP, Leblond CP (1970) Nature of dividing nuclei in skeletal muscle of growing rats. J Cell Biol 44:459–466CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Moss FP, Leblond CP (1971) Satellite cells as the source of nuclei in muscles of growing rats. Anat Rec 170:421–436CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Moss FP, Simmonds RA, McNary HW (1964) The growth and composition of skeletal muscle in chicken. Poult Sci 43:1086–1091Google Scholar
  260. Muchmore WB (1957) Differentiation of the trunk mesoderm in Ambystoma maculatum. J Exp Zool 134:293–313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Muchmore WB (1958) The influence of embryonic neural tissues on differentiation of striated muscle in ambystoma. J Exp Zool 139:181–188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Mulford CA, Lodish HF (1988) Endocytosis of the transferrin receptor is altered during differentiation of murine erythroleukemic cells. J Biol Chem 263:5455–5461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Nadal-Ginard B (1978) Commitment, fusion and biochemical differentiation of a myogenic cell line in the absence of DNA synthesis. Cell 15:855–864CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Neckers LM, Nordan RP (1988) Regulation of murine plasmacytoma transferrin receptor expression and G1 traversal by plasmacytoma cell growth factor. J Cell Physiol 135:495–501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Needham DM (1971) Machina carnis: the biochemistry of muscular contraction in its historical development. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  266. Neumann RE, Tytell AA (1961) Iron replacement of lactalysate and embryo extract in growth of cell cultures. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 107:876–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Nguyen HT, Medford RM, Nadal-Ginard B (1983) Reversibility of muscle differentiation in the absence of commitment: analysis of a myogenic cell line temperature-sensitive for commitment. Cell 34:281–293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Niederle B, Mayr R (1978) Course of denervation atrophy in type I and type II fibres of rat extensor digitorum longus muscle. Anat Embryol 153:9–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Nishizuka Y (1984) The role of protein kinase C in cell surface signal transduction and tumour promotion. Nature 308:693–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Nishizuka Y (1986) Studies and perspectives of protein kinase C. Science 233:305–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Obinata T, Maruyama K, Sugita H, Kohama K, Ebashi S (1981) Dynamic aspects of structural proteins in vertebrate skeletal muscle. Muscle Nerve 4:456–488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Ochs S (1988) An historical introduction to the trophic regulation of skeletal muscle. In: Fernandez HL, Donoso JA (eds) Nerve-muscle cell trophic communication, CRC, Boca Raton, pp 7–22Google Scholar
  273. Octave J-N, Schneider Y-J, Hoffmann P, Trouet A, Crichton RR (1979) Transferrin protein and iron uptake by cultured rat fibroblasts. FEBS Lett 108:127–130CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Octave J-N, Schneider Y-J, Crichton RR, Trouet A (1981) Transferrin uptake by cultured rat embryo fibroblasts. The influence of temperature and incubation time, subcellular distribution and short-term kinetic studies. Eur J Biochem 115:611–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Octave J-N, Schneider Y-J, Hoffmann P, Trouet A, Crichton RR (1982) Transferrin uptake by cultured rat embryo fibroblasts. The influence of lysosomotropic agents, iron chelators and colchicine on the uptake of iron and transferrin. Eur J Biochem 123:235–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Oh TH (1975) Neurotrophic effects: characterization of the nerve extract that simulates muscle development in culture. Exp Neurol 46:432–438CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Oh TH (1976) Neurotrophic effects of sciatic nerve extracts on muscle development in culture. Exp Neurol 50:376–386CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Oh TH, Johnson DD (1972) Effects of acetyl-β-methylcholine on development of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in cultured chick embryonic skeletal muscle. Exp Neurol 37:360–370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Oh TH, Markelonis GJ (1978) Neurotrophic protein regulates muscle acetylcholinesterase in culture. Science 200:337–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Oh Th, Markelonis GJ (1980) Dependence of in vitro myogenesis on a trophic protein present in chicken embryo extract. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:6922–6925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Oh TH, Markelonis GJ (1982a) Chicken serum transferrin duplicates the myotrophic effects of sciatin on cultured muscle cells. J Neurosci Res 8:535–545CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Oh TH, Markelonis GJ (1982b) Sciatin: purification, characterization, localization and biological properties of a myotrophic protein from sciatic nerves. In: Yoshida H, Hagihara Y, Ebashi S (eds) Advances in pharmacology and therapeutics. Vol. II. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 293–299Google Scholar
  283. Oh TH, Markelonis GJ (1984) Sciatin (transferrin) and other muscle trophic factors. In: Guroff G (ed) Growth and maturation factors, a Wiley-Interscience publication. Wiley, New York, pp 55–85Google Scholar
  284. Oh TH, Markelonis GJ, Reier PJ, Zalewski AA (1980) Persistence in degenerating sciatic nerve of substances having a trophic influence upon cultured muscle. Exp Neurol 67:646–654CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Oh TH, Sofia CA, Kim YC, Carroll C, Kim HH, Markelonic GJ, Reier PJ (1981) Immunocytochemical localization of a myotrophic protein in chicken neural tissues. J Histochem Cytochem 29:1205–1212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Oh TH, Markelonis GJ, Shim SH (1988) Trophic influences of neurogenic substances on skeletal muscle differentiation and growth in vitro. In: Fernandez HL, Donoso JA (eds) Nerve-muscle cell trophic communication. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 55–85Google Scholar
  287. Ohshima Y, Maruyama K, Noda H (1965) Developmental changes in chick muscle contractile proteins. In: Ebashi S, Oosawa F, Sekine T, Tonomura Y (eds) Molecular biology of muscular contraction. Igaku Shoin, Tokyo, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 132–144Google Scholar
  288. Ohtsuki I, Ozawa E (1977) Difference in saponin sensitivity between myotubes and mononucleated cells from chick breast muscle. Cell Struct Funct 2:367–370Google Scholar
  289. Okazaki K, Holtzer H (1965) An analysis of myogenesis in vitro using fluorescein-labeled antimyosin. J Histochem Cytochem 13:726–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Okazaki K, Holtzer H (1966) Myogenesis: fusion, myosin synthesis, and the mitotic cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 56:1484–1490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Omary MB, Trowbridge IS, Minowada J (1980) Human cell-surface glycoprotein with unusual properties. Nature 286:888–891CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Ontell M, Kozeka K (1984) The organogenesis of murine striated muscle: a cytoarchitectural study. Am J Anat 171:133–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Owen D, Kühn LC (1987) Noncoding 3′ sequences of the transferrin receptor gene are required for mRNA regulation by iron. EMBO J 6:1287–1293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Ozawa E (1977) Trophic effects on chick muscle cells of a factor promoting chick myoblast multiplication. Proc Jpn Acad 53(B):130–132Google Scholar
  295. Ozawa E (1978) Differences in sensitivity to Ca ion lack between myoblasts and large myotubes from chicken breast muscle. Dev Growth Differ 20:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Ozawa E (1981) Discussion against Oh's presentation at the workshop in 8th international congress of pharmacology. In: Obata K (1982) Chairman's note (in Japanese). Seitaino Kagaku 33:74–75Google Scholar
  297. Ozawa E (1985) Trophic and myogenic effects with special reference to transferrin. In: Strohman RC, Wolf S (eds) Gene expression in muscle. Plenum, New York, pp 123–127 (Advances in experimental medicine and biology, vol 182)Google Scholar
  298. Ozawa E, Hagiwara Y (1981) Avian and Mammalian transferrins are required for chick and rat myogenic cell growth in vitro, respectively, Proc Jpn Acad 57(B):406–409Google Scholar
  299. Ozawa E, Hagiwara Y (1982) Degeneration of large myotubes following removal of transferrin from culture medium. Biomed Res 3:16–23Google Scholar
  300. Ozawa E, Kohama K (1973) Partial purification of a factor promoting chicken myoblast multiplication in vitro. Proc Jpn Acad 49:852–856Google Scholar
  301. Ozawa E, Kohama K (1978a) Muscle trophic factor. I. Assay of a muscle trophic factor by measurement of muscle cell nuclei. Muscle Nerve 1:230–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Ozawa E, Kohama K (1978b) Muscle trophic factor. III. Effect of hormones and tissue extracts on muscle trophic-factor activity. Muscle Nerve 1:314–319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Ozawa E, Kimura I, Hasegawa T, Ii I, Saito K, Hagiwara Y, Shimo-Oka T (1983) Iron-bound transferrin as a myotrophic factor. In: Ebashi S, Ozawa E (eds) Muscular dystrophy: biochemical aspects. Japan Scientific Societies, Tokyo, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 53–60Google Scholar
  304. Pan B-T, Johnstone RM (1983) Fate of the transferrin receptor during maturation of sheep reticulocytes in vitro: selective externalization of the receptor. Cell 33:967–977CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Pater JL, Kohn RR (1967) Turnover of structural protein fractions in denervated muscle. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 125:476–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Paterson B, Strohman RC (1972) Myosin synthesis in cultures of differentiating chicken embryo skeletal muscle. Dev Biol 29:113–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Pearse BMF (1982) Coated vesicles from human placenta carry ferritin, transferrin, and immunoglobulin G. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:451–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Penhallow RC, Brown-Mason A, Woodworth RC (1986) Comparative studies of the binding and growth-supportive ability of mammalian transferrins in human cells. J Cell Physiol 128:251–260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Perriard JC, Perriard ER, Eppenberger HM (1978) Detection and relative quantitation of mRNA for creatine kinase isoenzymes in RNA from myogenic cell cultures and embryonic chicken tissues. J Biol Chem 253:6529–6535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Peters A, Palay SL, Webster HDF (1970) The fine structure of the nervous system. Hoeber Medical Division, Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  311. Phillips JL, Azari P (1974) Zinc transferrin. Enhancement of nucleic acid synthesis in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes. Cell Immunol 10:31–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Phillips WD, Bennett MR (1984) Differentiation of fiber types in wing muscles during embryonic development: effect of neural tube removal. Dev Biol 106:457–468CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Plowman GD, Brown JP, Enns CA, Schroder J, Nikinmaa B, Sussman HH, Hellstrom KE, Hellstrom I (1983) Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3. Nature 303:70–72CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. Popiela H (1976) In vivo limb tissue development in the absence of nerves: A quantitative study. Exp Neurol 53:214–226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Popiela H (1977) In vivo limb muscle differentiation in the absence of nerves: a quantitative study. Exp Neurol 55:160–172CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Popiela H (1978) Trophic effects of adult peripheral nerve extract on muscle cell growth and differentiation in vitro. Exp Neurol 62:405–416CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Popiela H, Ellis S (1981) Neurotrophic factor: characterization and partial purification. Dev Biol 83:266–277CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Popiela H, Ellis S, Festoff BW (1982) Dose-dependent initiation of myogenesis by neurotrophic factor. J Neurosci Res 8:547–567CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Popiela H, Taylor D, Ellis S, Beach R, Festoff B (1984) Regulation of mitotic activity and the cell cycle in primary chick muscle cells by neurotransferrin. J Cell Physiol 119:234–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Poritsky R (1969) Two and three dimensional ultrastructure of boutons and glial cells on the motoneuronal surface in the cat spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 135:423–452CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Purves D, Sakmann B (1974) The effect of contractile activity on fibrillation and extrajunctional acetylcholine-sensitivity in rat muscle maintained in organ culture. J Physiol 237:157–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Rao K, van Renswoude J, Kempf C, Klausner RD (1983) Separation of Fe3+ from transferrin endocytosis. Role of the acidic endosome. FEBS Lett 160:213–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Rao K, Shapiro D, Mattia E, Bridges K, Klausner R (1985) Effects of alterations in cellular iron on biosynthesis of the transferrin receptor in K562 cells. Mol Cell Biol 5:595–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Rao K, Harford JB, Rouault T, McClelland A, Ruddle FH, Klausner RD (1986) Transcriptional regulation by iron of the gene for the transferrin receptor. Mol Cell Biol 6:236–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Redfern P, Lundh H, Thesleff S (1970) Tetrodotoxin resistant action potentials in denervated rat skeletal muscle. Eur J Pharmacol 11:263–265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Reichard P (1978) From deoxynucleotides to DNA synthesis. Fed Proc 37:9–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Reporter MC, Konigsberg IR, Strehler BL (1963) Kinetics of accumulation of creatine phosphokinase activity in developing embryonic skeletal muscle in vivo and in monolayer culture. Exp Cell Res 30:410–417CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Ross JJ, Duxson MJ, Harris AJ (1987a) Formation of primary and secondary myotubes in rat lumbrical muscles. Dev Biol 100:383–394Google Scholar
  329. Ross JJ, Duxson MJ, Harris AJ (1987b) Neural determination of muscle fibre numbers in embryonic rat lumbrical muscles. Dev Biol 100:395–409Google Scholar
  330. Rothenberger S, Iacopetta BJ, Kuhn LC (1987) Endocytosis of the transferrin receptor requires the cytoplasmic domain but not its phosphorylation site. Cell 49:423–431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Rouault T, Rao K, Harford J, Mattia E, Klausner RD (1985) Hemin, chelatable iron, and the regulation of transferrin receptor biosynthesis. J Biol Chem 260:14862–14866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Rovera G, Ferrero D, Pagliardi GL, Vartikar J, Pessano S, Bottero L, Abraham S, Lebman D (1982) Induction of differentiation of human myeloid leukemias by phorbol diesters: phenotypic changes and mode of action. Ann NY Acad Sci 397:211–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Rowe RWD, Goldspink G (1969) Muscle fibre growth in five different muscles in both sexes of mice. I. Normal mice. J Anat 104:519–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Rubinstein NR, Kelly AM (1981) Development of muscle fiber spcialization in the rat hindlimb. J Cell Biol 90:128–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Rudolph JR, Regoeczi E, Chindemi PA, Debanne MT (1986) Preferential hepatic uptake of iron from rat asialo-transferrin: possible engagement of two receptors. Am J Physiol 251(31):G398–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Rudolph NS, Ohlsson-Wilhelm BM, Leary JF, Rowley PT (1985) Regulation of K562 cell transferrin receptors by exogenous iron. J Cell Physiol 122:441–450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Sager PR, Brown PA, Berlin RD (1984) Analysis of transferrin recycling in mitotic and interphase HeLa cells by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Cell 39:275–282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Saito K, Hagiwara Y, Hasegawa T, Ozawa E (1982) Indispensability of iron for the growth of cultured chick cells. Dev Growth Differ 24:571–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Sanders EJ (1986) Changes in the transferrin requirement of cultured chick embryo mesoderm cells during early differentiation. J Embryol Exp Morphol 95:81–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Sanders EJ, Cheung E (1988) Transferrin and iron requirements of embryonic mesoderm cells cultured in hydrated collagen matrices. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 24:581–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Sauvage CA, Mendelsohn JC, Lesley JF, Trowbridge IS (1987) Effects of monoclonal antibodies that block transferrin receptor function on the in vivo growth of a syngeneic murine leukemia. Cancer Res 47:747–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Sawyer ST, Krantz SB (1986) Transferrin receptor number, synthesis, and endocytosis during erythropoietin-induced maturation of friend virus-infected erythroid cells. J Biol Chem 261:9187–9195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Schneider C, Sutherland R, Newman R, Greaves M (1982) Structural features of the cell surface receptor for transferrin that is recognized by the monoclonal antibody OKT9. J Biol Chem 257:8516–8522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Schneider C, Kurkinen M, Greaves M (1983) Isolation of cDNA clones for the human transferrin receptor. EMBO J 2:2259–2263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Schneider C, Owen MJ, Banville D, Williams JG (1984) Primary structure of human transferrin receptor deduced from the mRNA sequence. Nature 311:675–678CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Schultz E (1974) A quantitative study of the satellite cell population in postnatal mouse lumbrical muscle. Anat Rec 180:589–596CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Schultz E (1976) Fine structure of satellite cells in growing skeletal muscle. Am J Anat 147:49–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Seligman PA, Schleicher RB, Allen RH (1979) Isolation and characterization of the transferrin receptor from human placenta. J Biol Chem 254:9943–9946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Seligman PA, Butler CD, Massay EJ, Kaur JA, Brown JP, Plowman GD, Miller Y, Jones C (1986) The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same region as the transferrin receptor. Am J Hum Genet 38:540–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Sephton RG, Kraft N (1978) 67Ga and 59Fe uptakes by cultured human lymphoblasts and lymphocytes. Cancer Res 38:1213–1216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Shainberg A, Yagil G, Yaffe D (1970) Control of myogenesis in vitro by Ca2+ concentration in nutritional medium. Exp Cell Res 58:163–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Shellswell GB (1977) The formation of discrete muscles from the chick wing dorsal and ventral muscle masses in the absence of nerves. J Embryol Exp Morphol 41:269–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Shimo-Oka T, Hagiwara Y, Ozawa E (1986) Class specificity of transferrin as a muscle trophic factor. J Cell Physiol 126:341–351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Shoji A, Ozawa E (1985a) Suppression of RNA synthesis following transferrin removal in chick myotubes. Proc Jpn Acad 61(B):233–236Google Scholar
  355. Shoji A, Ozawa E (1985b) Requirement of Fe ion for activation of RNA polymerase. Proc Jpn Acad 61(B):494–496Google Scholar
  356. Shoji A, Ozawa E (1986) Necessity of transferrin for RNA synthesis in chick myotubes. J Cell Physiol 127:349–356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Simionescu N, Simionescu M, Palade GE (1973) Permeability of muscle capillaries to exogenous myoglobin. J Cell Biol 57:424–452CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Sirkin CR, Kuhlenbeck H (1966) Preliminary computations of the number of motor neurons in the human spinal cord. Anat Rec 154:489Google Scholar
  359. Skinner MK, Griswold MD (1980) Sertoli cells synthesize and secrete transferrin-like protein. J Biol Chem 255:9523–9525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Slater CR (1976) Control of myogenesis in vitro by chick embryo extract. Dev Biol 50:264–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. Sohal GS, Holt RK (1980) Role of innervation on the embryonic development of skeletal muscle. Cell Tissue Res 210:383–393CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Sorokin LM, Morgan EH (1988) Species specificity of transferrin binding, endocytosis and iron internalization by cultured chick myogenic cells. J Comp Physiol [B] 158:559–566Google Scholar
  363. Sorokin LM, Morgan EH, Yeoh GCT (1987) Transferrin receptor numbers and transferrin and iron uptake in cultured chick muscle cells at different stages of development. J Cell Physiol 131:342–353CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Sorokin LM, Morgan EH, Yeoh GCT (1988) Differences in transferrin receptor function between normal developing and transformed myogenic cells as revealed by differential effects of phorbol ester on receptor distribution and rates of iron uptake. J Biol Chem 263:14128–14133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Spik G, Coddeville B, Legrand D, Mazurier J, Leger D, Goavec M, Montreuil J (1985) A comparative study of the primary structure of glycans from various sero-, lacto-and ovotransferrins. Role of human lactotransferrin glycans. In: Spik G, Montreuil J, Crichton RR, Magurier J (eds) Proteins of iron storage and transport. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp 47–51Google Scholar
  366. Stamatos C, Fine RE (1986) Chick embryo myotubes contain transferrin receptors and internalize and recycle transferrin. J Neurosci Res 15:529–542CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. Stamatos C, Squicciarini J, Fine RE (1983) Chick embryo spinal cord neurons synthesize a transferrin-like myotrophic protein. FEBS Lett 153:387–390CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. Stein BS, Sussman HH (1986) Demonstration of two distinct transferrin receptor recycling pathways and transferrin-independent receptor internalization in K562 cells. J Biol Chem 261:10319–10331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. Stickland NC (1982) Scanning electron microscopy of prenatal muscle development in the mouse. Anat Embryol 164:379–385CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. Stjernholm R, Warner FW, Robinson JW, Ezekiel E, Katayama N (1978) Binding of platinum to human transferrin. Bioorg Chem 9:277–280Google Scholar
  371. Stockdale FE, Holtzer H (1961) DNA synthesis and myogenesis. Exp Cell Res 24:508–520CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. Straus WL, Rawles ME (1953) An experimental study of the origin of the trunk musculature and ribs in the chick. Am J Anat 92:471–510CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. Sun IL, Garcia-Canero R, Liu W, Toole-Simms W, Crane FL, Morre DJ, Low H (1987a) Diferric transferrin reduction stimulates the Na+/H+ antiport of HeLa cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 145:467–473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Sun IL, Navas P, Crane FL, Morre DJ, Low H (1987b) NADH diferric transferrin reductase in liver plasma membrane. J Biol Chem 262:15915–15921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. Sunderland S, Ray LJ (1950) Denervation changes in mammalian striated muscle. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 13:159–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Suzuki K, Ohno S, Emori Y, Imajoh S, Kawasaki H (1987) Calcium-activated neutral protease (CANP) and its biological and medical implications. Prog Clin Biochem Med 5:44–65Google Scholar
  377. Tan AT, Woodworth RC (1969) Ultraviolet difference spectral studies of conalbumin complexes with transition metal ions. Biochemistry 8:3711–3716CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. Tei I, Makino Y, Sakagami H, Kanamaru I, Konno K (1982) Decrease of transferrin receptor during mouse myeloid leukemia (M1) cell differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 107:1419–1424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. Testa EP, Testa U, Samoggia P, Salvo G, Camagna A, Peschle C (1986) Expression of transferrin receptors in human erythroleukemic lines: regulation in the plateau and exponential phase of growth. Cancer Res 46:5330–5334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. Testa U, Thomopoulos P, Vinci G, Titeux M; Bettaieb A, Vainchenker W, Rochant H (1982) Transferrin binding to K562 cell line. Exp Cell Res 140:251–260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Thelander L, Reichard P (1979) Reduction of ribonucleotides. Annu Rev Biochem 48:133–158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. Thelander M, Graslund A, Thelander L (1985) Subunit M2 of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase. Characterization of a homogeneous protein isolated from M2-overproducing mouse cells. J Biol Chem 260:2737–2741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Thesleff S (1960) Supersensitivity of skeletal muscle produced by botulinum toxin. J Physiol 151:598–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. Thomson JD (1952) Effect of electrotherapy on twitch time and acetylcholine sensitivity in denervated skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 171:773Google Scholar
  385. Tomanek RJ, Lund DD (1973) Degeneration of different types of skeletal muscle fibres. I. Denervation. J Anat 116:395–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Tomlinson BE, Irving D (1977) The numbers of limb motor neurons in the human lumbosacral cord throughout life. J Neurol Sci 34:213–219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. Tomlinson BE, Irving D, Rebeiz JJ (1973) Total numbers of limb motor neurones in the human lumbosacral cord and an analysis of the accuracy of various sampling procedures. J Neurol Sci 20:313–327CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Tormey DC, Mueller GC (1972) Biological effects of transferrin on human lymphocytes in vitro. Exp Cell Res 74:220–226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. Tower SS (1937a) Function and structure in the chronically isolated lumbo-sacral spinal cord of the dog. J Comp Neurol 67:109–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Tower SS (1937b) Trophic control of non-nervous tissues by the nervous system: a study of muscle and bone innervated from an isolated and quiescent region of spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 67:241–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Tower SS (1939) The reaction of muscle to denervation. Physiol Rev 19:1–48Google Scholar
  392. Toyota N, Shimada Y (1983) Isoform variants of troponin in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells cultured with and without nerves. Cell 33:297–304CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. Trowbridge IS, Domingo DL (1981) Anti-transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody and toxinantibody conjugates affect growth of human tumour cells. Nature 294:171–173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Trowbridge IS, Lopez F (1982) Monoclonal antibody to transferrin receptor blocks transferrin binding and inhibits human tumor cell growth in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:1175–1179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. Trowbridge IS, Omary MB (1981) Human cell surface glycoprotein related to cell proliferation is the receptor for transferrin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:3039–3043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. Trowbridge IS, Lesley J, Schulte R (1982) Murine cell surface transferrin receptor: studies with an anti-receptor monoclonal antibody. J Cell Physiol 112:403–410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. Trowbridge IS, Newman RA, Domingo DL, Sauvage C (1984) Transferrin receptors: structure and function. Biochem Pharmacol 33:925–932CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. Tsavaler L, Stein BS, Sussman HH (1986) Demonstration of the specific binding of bovine transferrin to the human transferrin receptor in K562 cells: evidence for interspecies transferrin internalization. J Cell Physiol 128:1–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. Tsukagoshi H, Yanagisawa N, Oguchi K, Nagashima K, Murakami T (1979) Morphometric quantification of the cervical limb motor cells in controls and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 41:287–297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. Turner DC, Maier V, Eppenberger HM (1974) Creatine kinase and aldolase isoenzyme transitions in cultures of chick skeletal muscle cells. Dev Biol 37:63–89Google Scholar
  401. Turner DC, Gmur R, Siegrist M, Burckhardt E, Eppenberger HM (1976) Differentiation in cultures derived from embryonic chicken muscle. I. Muscle-specific enzyme changes before fusion in EGTA-synchronized cultures. Dev Biol 48:258–283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. Uzan G, Frain M, Park I, Besmond C, Maessen G, Trepat JS, Zakin MM, Kahn A (1984) Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for human transferrin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 119:273–281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. van Bockxmeer FM, Yates GK, Morgan EH (1978) Interaction of transferrin with solubilized receptors from reticulocytes. Eur J Biochem 92:147–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  404. van Renswoude J, Bridges KR, Harford JB, Klausner RD (1982) Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin and the uptake of Fe in K562 cells: identification of a nonlysosomal acidic compartment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:6186–6190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. Verger C, Sassa S, Kappas A (1983) Growth-promoting effects of iron-and cobalt-protoporphyrins on cultured embryonic cells. J Cell Physiol 116:135–141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. Verhoef NJ, Kremers JH, Leijnse B (1973) The effect of heterologous transferrin on the uptake of iron and heme synthesis by bone marrow cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 304:114–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. Vogt A, Mishell RI, Dutton RW (1969) Stimulation of DNA synthesis in cultures of mouse spleen cell suspensions by bovine transferrin. Exp Cell Res 54:195–200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. Wada HG, Hass PE, Sussman HH (1979) Transferrin receptor in human placental brush border membranes. J Biol Chem 254:12629–12635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. Ward JH (1987) The structure, function, and regulation of transferrin receptors. Invest Radiol 22:74–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. Ward JH, Kushner JP, Kaplan J (1982) Regulation of HeLa cell transferrin receptors. J Biol Chem 257:10317–10323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. Ward JH, Jordan I, Kushner JP, Kaplan J (1984) Heme regulation of HeLa cell transferrin receptor number. J Biol Chem 259:13235–13240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. Warren G, Davoust J, Cockcroft A (1984) Recycling of transferrin receptors in A431 cells is inhibited during mitosis. EMBO J 3:2217–2225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Watts C (1985) Rapid endocytosis of the transferrin receptor in the absence of bound transferrin. J Cell Biol 100:633–637CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. Weber EH (1851) Über die Abhängigkeit der Entstehung der animalischen Muskeln von den animalischen Nerven, erläutert durch eine von ihm und Eduard Weber untersuchte Missbildung. Müllers Arch Anat Physiol Wiss Med 548–566Google Scholar
  415. Weippl G, Pantlitschko M, Bauer P et al. (1973) Normal values and distribution of single values of serum iron in cord blood. Clin Chim Acta 44:147–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. Williams J, Elleman TC, Kingston IB, Wilkins AG, Kuhn KA (1982a) The primary structure of hen ovotransferrin. Eur J Biochem 122:297–303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. Williams J, Grace SA, Williams JM (1982b) Evolutionary significance of the renal excretion of transferrin half-molecule fragments. Biochem J 201:417–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. Willingham MC, Hanover JA, Dickson RB, Pastan I (1984) Morphologic characterization of the pathway of transferrin endocytosis and recycling in human KB cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:175–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. Witt CP, Woodworth RC (1978) Identification of the transferrin receptor of the rabbit reticulocyte. Biochemistry 17:3913–3917CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. Woodworth RC, Morallee KG, Williams RJP (1970) Perturbations of the proton magnetic resonance spectra of conalbumin and siderophilin as a result of binding Ga3+ or Fe3+. Biochemistry 9:839–842CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. Wu R, Sato GH (1978) Replacement of serum in cell culture by hormones: a study of hormonal regulation of cell growth and specific gene expression. J Toxicol Environ Health 4:427–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. Yaffe D, Feldman M (1965) The formation of hybrid multinucleated muscle fibers from myoblasts of different genetic origin. Dev Biol 11:300–317CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  423. Yang F, Lum JB, McGill JR, Moore CM, Naylor SL, van Bragt PH, Baldwin WD, Bowman BH (1984) Human transferrin: cDNA characterization and chromosomal localization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:2752–2756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. Yeh C-JG, Papamichael M, Faulk WP (1982) Loss of transferrin receptors following induced differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. Exp Cell Res 138:429–433CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. Zak R, Martin AF, Blough R (1979) Assessment of protein turnover by use of radioisotrophic tracers. Physiol Rev 59:407–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. Zelena J (1962) The effect of denervation on muscle development. In: Gutmann E (ed) The denervated muscle. Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague, pp 103–126Google Scholar
  427. Zerial M, Melancon P, Schneider C, Garoff H (1986) The transmembrane segment of the human transferrin receptor functions as a signal peptide. EMBO J 5:1543–1550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. Zerial M, Suomalainen M, Zanetti-Schneider M, Schneider C, Garoff H (1987) Phosphorylation of the human transferrin receptor by protein kinase C is not required for endocytosis and recycling in mouse 3T3 cells. EMBO J 6:2661–2667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. Zschocke RH, Bezkorovainy A (1974) Structure and function of transferrins. II. Transferrin and iron metabolism. Arzneimittel-Forschung 24:726–773PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eijiro Ozawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cell BiologyNational Institute of Neuroscience, NCNPKodaira, TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations