An ontological analysis of surgical deeds

  • A. Rossi Mori
  • A. Gangemi
  • G. Steve
  • F. Consorti
  • E. Galeazzi
Natural Language and Terminology
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1211)


We collected a set of words, suffixes, and idioms regarding actions in surgical procedures, ie. “deeds” as defined in a CEN European Prestandard; we then searched for their definitions in different authoritative sources and we performed an ontological analysis of this material according to the ONIONS methodology. The result was a formal model on surgical actions, as an extension of our previous model ON8.5, using Ontolingua with “frame ontology”.

We worked out criteria to assist domain experts in organizing hierarchies on surgical actions, according to structural, technical and functional points of view.


Medical Informatics Telic Event Ontological Model Authoritative Source Healthcare Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Averill RA, Mullin RL, Steinbeck BA, Goldfield NI, Grant T. The development of the ICD-10 Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS), 1995. available from: 3M Health Information Systems, 100 Barnes Road, Wallingford CT 06492.Google Scholar
  2. Bernauer J. Merged list of deeds from GRAIL and German version of ICPM. GALEN-IN-USE, Internal Document, 1996Google Scholar
  3. CEN ENV 1828:1995. Health care informatics — Structure for classification and coding of surgical procedures. Brussels: CEN, 1995Google Scholar
  4. CEN ENV 12264:1996. Medical Informatics — Categorial structure of systems of concepts — Model for representation of semantics. Brussels: CEN, 1996Google Scholar
  5. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary 28th ed, WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia 1994Google Scholar
  6. Falasconi S Stefanelli M. A Library of Medical Ontologies. in N Mars (ed), Workshop on Comparison of Implemented Ontologies, ECAI 94, 1994Google Scholar
  7. GALEN and GALEN-IN-USE documentation 1992–96, available from the main contractor A Rector, Medical Informatics Group, Dept. Comp Sc, Univ. Manchester, Manchester M13 9 PL, UK (e-mail; home page Scholar
  8. Gangemi A, Steve G, Rossi Mori A. Cognitive Design for Sharing Medical Knowledge Models. in Kaihara (ed.), Proceedings of MEDINFO-95, 1995Google Scholar
  9. Gangemi A, Steve G, Giacomelli F. Onions: An Ontological Methodology for Taxonomic Knowledge Integration. In van der Vet (ed.) Proc Workshop on Ontological Engineering, ECAI96, 1996Google Scholar
  10. Gruber T. A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications. Knowledge Acquisition 1993; 5:188–220Google Scholar
  11. Guarino N, Carrara M, and Giaretta P. An Ontology of Meta-Level Categories. In J Doyle, E Sandewall and P Torasso (eds.), Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Proc. of the Fourth International Conference (KR94). Kaufmann, San Mateo, 1994.Google Scholar
  12. Guarino N Ontologies and Knowledge Bases: Towards a Terminological Clarification-in Proc 2nd Int'l Conf on Building and Sharing Very Large-Scale Knowledge Bases, 1995Google Scholar
  13. HCFA: Health Care Financing Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. International Classification of Diseases, 9th rev. Clinical Modifications (ICD-9-CM), vol. 3 — Procedures, DHHS-HCFA, 1988Google Scholar
  14. Kolozig Ch, Thurmayr R, Diekmann F, Raskop AM (eds). Internationale Klassifikation der Prozeduren in der Medizin, Blackwell, Berlin 1994Google Scholar
  15. McCarthy J, Buvac S. Formalizing Context. Stanford Tech Note STAN-CS-TN-94-13, 1994Google Scholar
  16. Musen M., Dimensions of Knowledge Sharing and ReuseComp Biom Res 1992;25:435–67Google Scholar
  17. Oxford. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, Clarendon Press Oxford, 1995Google Scholar
  18. Rossi Mori A, Galeazzi E, Agnello P, Steve G, Terminological modelling in CEN/TC251/ WG2 and GALEN: the example of surgical procedures, in Proc. AMICE 95 “Strategic alliances between patient documentation and medical informatics”, Amsterdam, 1995aGoogle Scholar
  19. Rossi Mori A. Coding systems and controlled vocabularies for hospital information systems. Int J Biom Comp 1995;39:93–8Google Scholar
  20. Rossi Mori A. Towards a new generation of terminologies and coding systems. in J Brender et al. (eds), Medical Informatics Europe '96, IOS Press, Amsterdam 1996, 208–12Google Scholar
  21. Rossi Mori A, Galeazzi E, Consorti F, An Ontological Perspective on Surgical Procedures. JAMIA 1996; symp suppl: 115–9 (1996b)Google Scholar
  22. Rothwell DJ, Coté RA, Brochu L (eds), SNOMED International, Northfield, IL: College of American Pathologists, 1993, 3rd ed.Google Scholar
  23. Schreiber AT, Wielinga B, Breuker JA (eds.). KADS: A Principled Approach to Knowledge-Based Systems Development. Academic press, London 1992Google Scholar
  24. Shadbolt N, Motta E, Rouge A. Constructing Knowledge Based Systems. IEEE Software, 10, 6, 1993Google Scholar
  25. Shapiro SC, Rapaport WJ. The SNePS Family. In F Lehmann (ed.): Semantic Networks in Artificial Intelligence, Pergamon, Oxford, 1992: 243–275.Google Scholar
  26. Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 26th edition, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 1995Google Scholar
  27. Steve G, Gangemi A. Modelling a Sharable Medical Concept System: Ontological Foundation in galen. in Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe, AIME95Google Scholar
  28. Steve G, Gangemi A, Rossi Mori A. Knowledge Integration of Medical terminological Sources: An Ontologic mediation. In S.Ali(ed.): Proc FLAIRS 96 Track on Information Interchange, 1996aGoogle Scholar
  29. Steve G, Gangemi A. Ontological Commitment in the ONIONS Methodology. in B Gaines, G van Heijst (eds), Proc. of KAW (Knowledge Acquisition Workshop) 96, 1996bGoogle Scholar
  30. Uschold M, King M. Towards a Methodology for Building Ontologies. IJCAI95 Workshop on Basic Ontological Issues in Knowledge Sharing, 1995Google Scholar
  31. van Heijst G, Schreiber ATh, Wielinga BG. Using Explicit Ontologies in KBS Development. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, to appear, 1997Google Scholar
  32. Wiley: International Dictionary of Medicine and Biology, 3 voll., Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1986Google Scholar
  33. Wordnet, available from∼wn/Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Rossi Mori
    • 1
  • A. Gangemi
    • 1
  • G. Steve
    • 1
  • F. Consorti
    • 2
  • E. Galeazzi
    • 3
  1. 1.Reparto Informatica Medica, Istituto Tecnologie BiomedicheCNRRomaItaly
  2. 2.IV Clin. ChirurgicaUniv. La SapienzaRomaItaly
  3. 3.Dottorato Informatica MedicaUniv. La SapienzaRomaItaly

Personalised recommendations