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Cellulose and cellulose derivatives: Recent advances in physical chemistry

  • Kenji Kamide
  • Masatoshi Saito
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 83)

Abstract

This article reviews a recent progress on the physical chemistry of cellulose and cellulose derivatives (CD) and their applications to some industrial fields. Average degree of substitution for each hydroxyl groups attached to carbon 2, 3, and 6 in a pyranose ring «f k » (k=2, 3, 6) could be estimated by 1H-and 13C-NMR methods and distribution of total degree of substitution of some CD was evaluated by thin-layer chromatography. «f k » correlated closely with the anticoagulant activity of sodium cellulose sulfate and also with the absorbency against aqueous liquid of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. Successive solution fractionation method afforded us to prepare CD samples with relatively narrow molecular weight distribution. Light scattering measurements on the gel-free CD solutions were carried out and the number-average molecular weight of cellulose acetate (CA) was determined by membrane and vapor pressure osmometry and gel-permiation chromatography. Lower and upper critical solution temperatures were determined for CA-solvent systems. The pore forming mechanism in the CA-solvent casting process was discribed relating to critical phenomena. The solvation was verified by the chemical shift in NMR spectra and by the adiabatic compressibility. The significant contribution of the draining effect on the hydrodynamic properties was experimentally confirmed. The excluded volume effect in CA solutions was very small. The rigidity of CD molecules in the unperturbed state was estimated by various methods based on the pearl necklace and wormlike chain models. The unperturbed chain dimension of CA molecules in the solutions was decided by the polarity of the solvent and the total degree of substitution. Cellulose dissolved in a hypotherical non-polar solvent behaves as almost a freely rotating chain and the low degree of flexibility of the cellulose chain deduced from the physical properties of cellulose solution and solid, is caused by the solvation or intra-or inter-molecular hydrogen bond. The solubility of cellulose in the aqueous alkali solution was discussed.

Keywords

Cellulose Acetate Cellulose Derivative Cellulose Nitrate Narrow Molecular Weight Distribution Cellulose Diacetate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Symbols and Abbreviations

A

unperturbed chain dimension

A′

absorbency

Ac,w

weight-average combined acetic acid content

Af

unperturbed chain dimension of a hypothetical chain with free internal rotation

A2

second virial coefficient

A

unperturbed chain dimension of a chain with infinite molecular weight

B

long range interaction parameter

C

characteristic ratio

D0

diffusion constant

«F»

average total degree of substitution per glucopyranose ring

L

contour length

LD50

acute toxicity

Mb

mean molecular weight per skeletal bond

Mn

number-average molecular weight

Mv

viscosity-average molecular weight

Mw

weight-average molecular weight

M0

a parameter depending on the molecular weight range in which Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation is valid

N

total number of molecules in a sample

Nc

nitrogen content of a sample

N′

number of segments in a molecular chain

NA

Avogadro number

P

a parameter related to the frictional coefficient ξ, and analogous to Flory's viscosity parameter Φ

〈R21/2

mean square end-to-end distance

Rf

rate of flow

Sa

solubility of cellulose in aqueous alkali solution

〈S21/2

mean square radius of gyration

T

temperature

Tc

critical solution temperature

ΔTs

temperature difference between solution and solvent in the cell of vapor pressure osmometer

X

draining parameter

Xw

weight-average molar volume ratio of polymer to solvent

Xz

z-average molar volume ratio of polymer to solvent

a′

length of a link in pearl neck-lace model

c

polymer concentration, g/cm3

d

hydrodynamic radius of a segment

«fk»

average degree of substitution per hydroxyl group in a pyranose ring

mp(s)

molecular weight of the repeating unit of a polymer (solvent)

m0

molecular weight of a segment

n

number of grams of the solvating solvent molecules per 1 g of polymer

pj

degree of polymerization of j-th polymer

p1

concentration dependence coefficient of polymer volume fraction vp, in polymer-solvent interaction parameter χ

p2

concentration dependence coefficient of v p 2 in χ

qBD

persistence length determined by Benoit-Doty method

qYF

persistence length determined by Yamakawa-Fujii method

qBD0

qBD in unperturbed state

qCL0

unperturbed persistence length at coil limit

s0

sedimentation constant

s′0

number of the solvating solvent molecules per repeating unit at infinite dilution

vp

polymer volume fraction, v/v

\(\bar v_p\)

molar volume of polymer

vpc

critical polymer concentration, v/v

vp0

initial polymer concentration before phase separation

w2

weight fraction of polymer, w/w

a

exponent in Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation

ad

exponent in the equation representing the dependence of diffusion coefficient on molecular weight

as

exponent in the equation representing the dependence of sedimentation coefficient on molecular weight

aФ

exponent in the equation representing the dependence of Flory's viscosity parameter Φ on molecular weight

aξ

exponent in the equation representing the dependence of the frictional coefficient on molecular weight

a1

exponent in the equation representing the dependence of the linear expansion coefficient as on molecular weight

a2

exponent in the equation representing the dependence of the ratio square of radius of gyration in unperturbed state to molecular weight 〈S20/M on molecular weight

Φ

Flory's viscosity parameter

ψ

penetration function

αs

linear expansion coefficient

β

adiabatic compressibility

β′

binary cluster integral

γ

correlation coefficient

δ

chemical shift

δ

electronegativity

ε

dielectric constant

[η]

limiting viscosity number (intrinsic viscosity)

η0

viscosity of solvent

ϑ

Flory's theta solvent

λ

exponent in the equation representing the dependence of radius of gyration on molecular weight

ξ

frictional coefficient

ϱ

density of the solution

σ

conformation parameter

χ

polymer-solvent interaction parameter

χ′

anti-coagulant activity

χ0

concentration independent part of χ

χ0c

critical χ0

χam(X)

amorphous content determined as 1−χcc = cristallinity determined by X-ray diffraction method)

χac(IR)

fraction of accessible part at equilibium determined by the deuteration IR method

χh(NMR)

relative amount of higher field peaks of the C4 carbon peaks in NMR spectrum

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenji Kamide
    • 1
  • Masatoshi Saito
    • 1
  1. 1.Fundamental Research Laboratory of Fibers and Fiberforming PolymersAsahi Chemical Industry, Co. Ltd.Takatsuki, OsakaJapan

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